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Full text of "Ireland and her people; a library of Irish biography, together with a popular history of ancient and modern Erin, to which is added an appendix of copious notes and useful tables; supplemented with a dictionary of proper names in Irish mythology, geography, genealogy, etc. .."

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Copyright, 1911, by 



After thirty years of unremitting labor snd devotion, the author 
presents to the reading public, and particularly to the descendants 
of that race whose achievements in every department of human 
activity are second to none among the great races of the vcorld, the 
first complete history and biography of Ireland and her people ever 

Three cardinal principles have been followed: first, truth; second, 
absolute impartiality — racial, political and religious; third, complete- 
ness of important facts and elimination from the text of unimportant 
and unnecessary detail. 

"Where reliable authorities differ upon any subject, the author does 
not attempt to obtrude his own views, but gives their opinions in the 
Notes in this volume without comment, leaving the reader to draw 
his own conclusions. 

The Dictionary is carefully compiled with the object of familiar- 
izing the reader with every character and locality mentioned in the 
History, thereby sustaining his interest, and making the work com- 
plete in itself without referring to any other work, as has always 
been necessary with Irish histories heretofore published. 

The chronological tables (including the monarchs and governors 
of Ireland, as well as the chief facts in its history from the earliest 
period to the present time) have been prepared with the utmost care 
and from the most reliable sources. 

Summarized briefly, it is an account of Ireland covering every 
department of her history — biography, annals, and commentaries — as 
well as a full record and description of men and places identified 
with it. 

It is believed that the student, the scholar, and the man of busi- 
ness, will find here, in the most convenient form, a wealth of informa- 
tion hitherto not easily accessible. 

Irish history is a fascinating study, for no people have had a 
more romantic career; none have left a stronger impression on 
civilization, and none in the world 's history have adhered more loyally 
to a principle regardless of consequences. Taking them, all in all, 
with their virtues and failings, there is no heritage which a man can 
claim with nobler pride, than that of being the descendant of such 
a historic race or the child of poetic Erin. 

The author wishes to extend • hiV thanks to Dr. Thomas Addis 
Emmet, William J. Onahan, Edward F. Dunne, William J. Hoynes, 
William Dillon, James Haltigan, Hugh O'Neill, Catherine E. Conway 
and others who assisted in editing many of the articles in the biog- 
raphy; also, to Thomas J. Vesey, who rendered valuable assistance in 
the preparation of the Notes. 



The United Irishmen Reorganise as a Secret Society 431 

The Irish Reign of Terror -------- 439 

The Insurrection of lygS -------- 445 

The Insurrection of lygS — Continued - - - - 451 

The Legislative Union --------- 456 

Robert Emmet's Revolt in 180^ ------ 463 

Catholic Emancipation --------- 470 

Movement for Repeal of the Union ----- 476 

Young Ireland and 1848 -------- 483 

The Fenian Movement --------- 492 


Efforts for Home Rule — The Land League - - 499 

Conclusion ------------- 506 



Robert Emmet ------ Frontispiece 

Thomas Addis Emmet ------ 436 

Thomas Moore --------- 464 

The Shannon ---------- 724 

Map of Ireland before the Anglo-Norman 

Invasion ---------- 814 





The French Revolution was greeted in Ire- 
land with enthusiasm and many signs of ap- 
proval. In Ulster the American Republic had 
found a great number of friends, and now it was 
among the Dissenters of the North that the new 
movement in France was hailed with greatest 
satisfaction. The Society of United Irishmen was 
at first intended as a fraternal order to be com- 
posed of Irishmen, regardless of religious differ- 
ences, joined together for the sole purpose of pro- 
moting parliamentary reform and complete Cath- 
olic emancipation. The members were required to 
pledge themselves by oath to exercise their best 
endeavors to accomplish these ends. The pro- 
gramme at first was very moderate and the so- 
ciety rapidly spread to all parts of the island; but 
as events developed radicals of the type of Nap- 
per Tandy and others began to occupy important 
positions in its councils and soon forced it into 
the ranks of democracy. 

When war broke out between England and 
France in 1793, the event gave rise to the belief 
among the more enthusiastic Irish patriots that 
with the assistance of France, their country 
might be enabled to attain complete independ- 
ence. Now, however, the government began a 
strict surveillance over the United Irishmen. 
Houses were searched for arms, meetings of the 
society were dissolved, while one of the leaders, 


A. H. Rowan, was prosecuted on the charge of 
having published a Hbelous pamphlet, and, al- 
though defended by Curran in a briUiant address, 
he was condemned to two years' imprisonment 
and a fine of £500. The severity of this sentence 
only tended to influence still more the minds 
of his associates, and to increase their antag- 
onism to the government, while the prohibi- 
tion with regard to their open meetings deter- 
mined them to reorganize as a secret society, with 
extensive ramifications through the provinces, 
and henceforth its watchword was pure democ- 
racy, with the avowed aim of separation of Ire- 
land from the British empire. 

At this juncture the government in France 
felt that the most suitable moment had arrived 
for drawing the Irish into alliance with the 
French Republic. The "Committee of Public 
Safety" selected William Jackson (of Irish ex- 
traction), who had formerly been a clergyman of 
the Anglican Church, and had lived a consider- 
able time in France, as their agent. Jackson was 
sent to Ireland with instructions to come to an 
understanding with the Irish and, if possible, in- 
duce them to separate their country from British 
rule. He arrived in Ireland in April, 1794, and 
succeeded in gaining an interview with Rowan 
(then in Newgate prison) and the leading United 
Irishmen in Dublin. But, betrayed by a false 
friend, he fell into the hands of the government. 
At the trial he was convicted of high treason, but 
the moment in which sentence was being passed 
upon him he managed to swallow a quantity of 
poison and died in the presence of the judges. 

The revelations made during his trial also 
compromised Wolfe Tone, who had succeeded 
Richard Burke as secretary to the Catholic Com- 


mittee. In this position Tone had zealously en- 
deavored to bring about a close union between 
the Catholics and the United Irishmen. A docu- 
ment produced during the Jackson trial, which 
had been drawn up by Tone, aroused the suspi- 
cions of the government against him, and he only 
succeeded in saving himself from arrest by fleeing 
to America, where, after some months. Rowan, 
who had contrived to escape from prison, fol- 
lowed him. Early in 1796 Wolfe Tone left 
America for France, and there entered into nego- 
tiations with several prominent men, including 
the celebrated Carnot, a member of the Direc- 
tory, and with Clarke, the minister of war, who 
was himself of Irish descent. Tone invited these 
men to come to the assistance of his country, the 
object of which was to make Ireland an independ- 
ent republic, promising them in the event of an 
invasion, not only help from the Catholics, who 
were embittered by the injustice to which they 
were subjected, but also the support of the Dis- 
senters in the North, whose republican sympa- 
thies were well known. 

In order to strengthen the relations estab- 
lished with the French government, another lead- 
er of the United Irishmen was dispatched to 
France in May, 1796, in the person of Lord Ed- 
ward FitzGerald. This nobleman, sprung from 
one of the most noted families in Ireland, had dis- 
tinguished himself by his bravery in the British 
army. Later, in the course of extensive travels, he 
had been in Paris, shortly after the opening of the 
French Revolution, where he became imbued with 
enthusiasm for the doctrines of liberty. While 
in France he married Pamela, the daughter of 
Madame de Genlis, who was governess in the 
family of the Duke of Orleans. His relations 


with the leaders of the revolution, in addition to 
a republican toast which he proposed at a ban- 
quet in Paris, resulted in his being dismissed from 
the British army. Soon after his return to Ire- 
land he took his seat in the Irish House of Com- 
mons (as member for County Kildare) on the 
benches of the Patriots, and strenuously opposed 
the Gunpowder bill, the Convention act, the In- 
surrection bill, and other coercive measures of the 

After a time he lost all faith in the possibility 
of peaceful reform by constitutional means, and 
being of a generous and chivalrous nature, he 
surrendered himself to the idea of revolution, and 
accordingly joined the Society of United Irish- 
men. The rank, the talent and military skill of 
Lord Edward soon acquired for him a prominent 
position in the deliberations of the organization. 
Thus he was intrusted with a mission to France 
for the purpose of negotiating an alliance in 
which he was accompanied by Arthur O'Connor, 
another radical member of the Irish Parliament. 
In order to avoid exciting the suspicions of the 
English government, they at first directed their 
steps towards Hamburg, where they entered into 
communication with the resident minister, after 
which they called upon the French ambassador; 
but just as they were preparing to enter French 
territory, Lord Edward, whose aristocratic con- 
nections, as well as his relations to the Orleans 
family, had aroused the mistrust of the French 
Directory, was forbidden to cross the frontier, 
and hence O'Connor was compelled to continue 
his journey alone. The latter ultimately suc- 
ceeded in securing an interview with General 
Hoche, who was regarded as the prospective com- 
mander of the French invading army. 


Wolfe Tone had been for months working 
hard to induce the French government to send 
a strong force to Ireland. Tone's representa- 
tions, confirmed by O'Connor's authority, satis- 
fied the French government of the importance of 
the project. The matter v^as at last arranged. 
In December, 1796, a French fleet of forty-three 
sail eluded the British squadron and w^ith a fair 
wind bore down upon the coast of Munster. This 
formidable fleet carried an army of 15,000 picked 
French troops, who were to be employed in ef- 
fecting a landing in Ireland, and in prospect of 
a general rising of the Irish, it was also furnished 
with ample stores of arms and munitions of war. 
Hoche, an able general, was in command, and 
Tone accompanied the expedition with a commis- 
sion in the French army. Before it had proceeded 
far, a terrific storm arose, which destroyed some 
of the vessels and scattered the rest. Only a por- 
tion of the fleet was enabled to anchor in Bantry 
Bay, the point originally fixed upon, while Hoche 
himself was driven, with his frigate, to another 
part of the coast. 

In Ireland all was excitement. Not a single 
ship of war guarded the cost. Cork was the only 
place in the South which had any fortifications 
towards the sea. General Dalrymple, who com- 
manded in the Southern province, had but 4,000 
men under him, and with this force was doing his 
utmost to defend Cork. Troops were rushed 
from Dublin and other garrisons to his support 
and large bodies of militia were preparing to join 
him. The chances of resistance depended on 
time. If the French should land at once, nothing 
seemed likely to stop them, and Cork would fall, 
where there were abundant stores for the British 


The French in Bantry Bay were waiting for 
Hoche to join them. Wolfe Tone desired the 
landing to be made at any cost and endeavored to 
induce General Grouchy, the officer in command 
in Hoche's absence, to carry out his wishes. The 
gale continued, however, accompanied by a heavy 
fall of snow, which made it impossible to land. 
The French ships cast anchor, but the wind in- 
creased in fury and many of the vessels were 
swept out to sea. Day after day they waited, 
hoping for the arrival of Hoche and for the storm 
to abate; but the French general had been driven 
back to Rochelle on the coast of France, and the 
storm rose to still greater fury. At length, after 
several days in Bantry Bay, they cut their cables, 
and giving up all hope, sailed for the harbor of 
Brest. "Had Hoche accomplished a successful 
debarkation, nothing could have prevented his 
marching on the capital." 

Early in 1797 the French government sent 
a communication to the United Irishmen, con- 
taining the assurance that France had not aban- 
doned the cause of Ireland, and requested that 
another agent might be sent to them. The 
United Irishmen had just elected a directory of 
their own, which consisted of five members — 
Lord Edward FitzGerald, Arthor O'Connor, 
Oliver Bond, Dr. William J. MacNevin and 
Thomas Addis Emmet — and this body accord- 
ingly appointed E. J. Lewines agent of the soci- 
ety in its transactions with France. He was in- 
structed to negotiate a loan with Holland, 
France, Spain, or other power at war with Eng- 
land, and above all things to solicit the French 
government to send over a supply of arms, of 
which the Irish were in the greatest need. At the 
same time they also endeavored to obtain an aux- 


n Bantry Bay were waiv. 
ac t ' Wolfe Tone d- - 

iii^o ;,, riny cost and end« .- . . . 

. the officer in command 

ny out jiis wishes. Tiie 

accompanied by a heavy 

iti it impossible to land. 

Thi. -lor, but the wind in- 

--r. u the vessels were 

'lav thev waited, 
lioj'' ^"in 

:\u<] <'d for tht of 

UHl/ ^lAM'eH^su.c.^^ful 

^"•'-vented his 

ioh government sent 
H -^wii i '■" ' irishmen, con- 

fninin^t; ad not aban- 

doned . xjuested that 

<• them. The 

< d a directory of 

their own. ^embers — 

^ ■-' ^-^ .u-., O'Connor, 

j. MacNevin and 

i.mas i his body accord 

'• -^ppoiiJL • ' ^ ' e soci- 

Is tra; .vas in- 

j.tructed to Holland 

France, Spain, .•' -var with Eng- 

* 'T w^ ^T-\d above . vdicit the French 

:nent t supplv ^^( arms, of 

Frlci .,.../ .,1 At the 

.in an aux- 


iliary force of 10,000 men, but in these negotia- 
tions they were careful to lend no countenance to 
the idea of incorporation with the French Repub- 
lic, being determined to maintain their national 

Lewines' mission resulted, however, in noth- 
ing definite; and as the suspicions of the British 
government lent urgency to the matter, a fresh 
mission was intrusted to Dr. MacNevin, one of 
the members of the Directory. He left Dublin in 
June, 1797, and proceeded to Hamburg, where he 
had a conference with the French ambassador, 
and left him with a memorial to be presented to 
the French Directory. He then directed his steps 
towards Paris, and personally delivered a second 
memorial to the ruling powers there. But Mac- 
Nevin, too, failed in obtaining any definite agree- 
ment, and the only result of this mission was a 
repetition of the general promises which had been 
made to Lewines. 

In order to induce the French government to 
come to a definite arrangement, MacNevin had 
pointed out, in one of the memorials, that even in 
those districts where the United Irishmen did not 
predominate, the Catholic population would, nev- 
ertheless, range themselves on the side of the 
French. He represented that the Irish farmers 
and small tenants, who had been driven to des- 
peration by the despotism of the British govern- 
ment and the hardships they endured at the 
hands of their landlords, would make common 
cause with the French. 

The Dutch Republic, in concert with France, 
was at this time planning an invasion of England. 
Hence, in June, Wolfe Tone and Lewines were 
called to The Hague, where they were joined by 
Hoche, the French general. The Dutch govern- 


ment entered enthusiastically into the plans of an 
Irish expedition. A large army was collected in 
Holland, ready to embark on board the squadron 
which was lying at the Texel; but a British fleet 
under Admiral Duncan was on the alert to pre- 
vent its departure. The expedition was ready to 
sail in July had the wind been favorable. The 
fleet was becalmed for some weeks, at the end of 
which time it was found necessary to replenish 
the provisions, and this occasioned still further 
delay, to the great annoyance of Tone, who was 
again on board the invading fleet. At length the 
Dutch ships set sail, but they were attacked by 
the British fleet at Camperdown and totally de- 
feated. This event put an end to all prospect of 
a Dutch invasion, and once more the hopes of the 
United Irishmen were doomed to disappoint- 



The government had for some time accurate 
information of all that the United Irishmen were 
doing. They had their spies even in the French 
foreign office, who, from time to time, forwarded 
to the authorities documentary evidence of the 
most important character. Dr. MacNevin had no 
sooner presented a memorial to the French gov- 
ernment on the practicability of the landing of an 
invading force than a copy of the document found 
its way into the hands of the English Cabinet. 
They had spies everywhere, even among the most 
trusted leaders of the society itself. It was not 
the farmers and peasants, who composed the rank 
and file, whom the authorities held in their em- 
ploy, but "gentlemen," lawyers and militia offi- 
cers, who joined the society solely to betray it. 
Some of these spies were repeatedly arrested and 
imprisoned with other members in order to dis- 
arm suspicion and learn secrets in the role of fel- 
low victims. 

Besides these men and others who had infor- 
mation to give, there was a vast crowd of inform- 
ers, who lived upon the government. It was their 
daily support to keep the authorities well plied 
with stories of conspiracy and insurrection. They 
exaggerated, distorted and invented words and 
actions, often of innocent men, often to earn their 
reward, and sometimes to gratify personal spite. 
These were the men into whose hands the gov- 
ernment committed the lives, liberties and repu- 


tations of Irishmen; of whom Lord Moira in the 
Irish parHament said: "I shudder to think that 
such wretches should find employment or protec- 
tion under any government." The Irish secret 
service expenditure during the four years ending 
September, 1801, amounted to the enormous sum 
of £384,190. 

Early in the spring of 1797, General Gerard 
Lake was sent to take command in Ulster. He 
at once proclaimed martial law in Down, An- 
trim, Donegal, Derry and Tyrone. One of his 
first acts was to seize two committees of the 
United Irishmen in Belfast, with all their papers, 
and to suppress their journal. This was efifectu- 
ally done by the complete destruction of the of- 
fice, printing presses and type. Arthur O'Connor 
was arrested for publishing a fiery address and 
lodged in Dublin Castle. Many persons were 
seized on mere suspicion, flung into jail, and re- 
fused bail. Spies and informers were the only 
witnesses against them. The prisons overflowed, 
guardhouses and barracks were filled with polit- 
ical suspects; and little or no discipline was main- 
tained among the soldiers, who were allowed to 
commit all kinds of excesses, and to abuse and 
maltreat the people. 

The yeomanry, which had been called out, 
was composed almost entirely of Orangemen, and 
these, with militia regiments from England, were 
encouraged to harass the unfortunate inhabitants 
of the counties where martial law had been pro- 
claimed. A Welsh mounted yeomanry corps, 
called the "Ancient Britons," were especially no- 
torious for their brutal violence. Houses were 
plundered and burned, women and children bru- 
tally ill-treated and even murdered. Men were 
arrested and, without trial, flung into jail or 


pressed into the navy; they were flogged, tortured 
and half hanged to extort confessions of the ex- 
istence of concealed arms; they were hunted 
down and sabered. Whole villages and districts 
were devastated and the people turned adrift. 

A large quantity of arms, especially pikes, 
had been seized by General Lake and the smol- 
dering insurrection seemingly checked. But this 
appearance, however, was delusive; the ranks of 
the United Irishmen increased enormously. The 
brutal persecution drove the peaceful into their 
ranks and converted them into zealous members. 
At the same time stifled disajffection assumed a 
more dangerous character. The cruelties of the 
soldiers produced acts of retaliation. Isolated 
homicides became frequent; magistrates were 
fired at and sometimes killed. Plots were laid for 
assassinating the obnoxious members of the gov- 
ernment, especially Henry Luttrell (Lord Car- 
hampton), the commander-in-chief, who was di- 
rectly responsible for the misconduct of the 
troops, and was, therefore, the object of the most 
bitter hatred. 

Agents of the United Irishmen were work- 
ing hard to spread their political principles and to 
enlist members. Fresh communications were 
opened with France and hopes of a new expedi- 
tion were entertained. The more determined of 
the Ulster United Irishmen were eager for an im- 
mediate rising, but the Leinster delegates held 
back and insisted on waiting for foreign aid. 

In October, 1797, Napoleon was commis- 
sioned by the French Directory to organize an 
army for service in England, the news of which 
was naturally received by the Irish patriots in 
France, and especially by Wolfe Tone, with 
boundless satisfaction. With characteristic en- 


ergy Napoleon lost no time in carrying out his 
instructions. But he seems to have speedily ar- 
rived at the conclusion that the maritime suprem- 
acy of Great Britain could not easily be crushed, 
and, accordingly, reported to the Directory, in 
February, 1798, that it w^ould not be practicable 
to attempt a descent upon England until the next 
year. The scheme of an immediate invasion of 
England, or of Ireland, was, therefore, aban- 
doned, and the army destined for that service was 
subsequently despatched to Egypt. 

Meanwhile the United Irishmen were form- 
ing themselves into a military organization, in 
order that when the right moment should arrive 
they might be prepared for action. The members 
of the society were arranged in regiments ; a staff 
was elected, and a plan of insurrection was drawn 
up. Hence, when Napoleon's scheme was aban- 
doned, there existed among the leaders a strong 
determination to take the matter into their own 
hands. In the first place, it was deemed advis- 
able at once to ask the French government what 
possible aid might be expected from that quarter. 
A letter on this subject which had been sent to 
the French Directory having failed to reach its 
destination, Arthur O'Connor (a member of the 
Irish Directory who had been released on bail) 
resolved to undertake personal negotiations with 
the French authorities. Accompanied by three 
other members of the society, he left London in- 
tending to take ship for the continent at Margate. 
After being watched for some time by British 
detectives, he and his companions were arrested, 
in February, 1798, and taken back to London and 
tried, in March. The jury brought in a verdict of 
not guilty for him and two of his companions. 
The third, however, was sentenced to death on 


the charge of high treason, and hanged. The 
government at once preferred a fresh charge 
against O'Connor, after which he was rearrested 
and confined in Newgate. 

Soon after his imprisonment the government 
was enabled to strike another and fatal blow at 
the Society of United Irishmen. Thomas Rey- 
nolds, a member of the league, was tempted by 
the promise of a large reward to turn traitor. 
Having enjoyed the complete confidence of his 
associates in the society, he was not only chosen 
colonel of a regiment, but had also been elected 
a delegate to the Leinster executive committee, 
and was present at a meeting of that body in 
February, 1798. It was there arranged to hold 
the next meeting in the following March, at the 
house of Oliver Bond, a member of the directory, 
and Reynolds gave notice of this arrangement to 
the government. As a result, at the March meet- 
ing the house was surrounded by a body of police, 
who succeeded in arresting Bond and thirteen 
delegates and seized their papers. 

On the same day several other leaders were 
arrested at their homes. Lord Edward FitzGer- 
ald, on his way to Bond's house, was warned in 
time, and concealed himself in the city. A reward 
of £1,000 was now ofifered for the apprehension 
of Lord Edward. This of¥er excited the agents 
of the government to renewed activity, and they 
soon succeeded in discovering his hiding place. 
On the 19th of May the town major, with three 
officers and eight soldiers, surrounded the house 
on Thomas street in which he was concealed, and 
surprised him while lying ill in bed. He never- 
theless oflfered a desperate resistance, and mor- 
tally wounded one of the officers; but at last, 
bleeding from several wounds, he was overpow- 


ered and taken to Newgate. A few weeks after- 
wards he died of his wounds, in prison. 

So demorahzing had become the Hcense of 
the troops that loud complaints were at length 
forwarded to London and found voice in both 
Houses of Parliament, which resulted in Lord 
Carhampton's recall as commander-in-chief and 
the appointment of Sir Ralph Abercromby in his 
place. Abercromby fully endorsed the worst ac- 
counts which had come from Ireland. He wrote: 
"Every crime, every cruelty that could be com- 
mitted by Cossacks or Calmucks has been com- 
mitted here. The way in which the troops have 
been employed would ruin the best in Europe." 
He immediately set himself to bring about a 
much needed reform. He kept the soldiers in the 
principal towns and forbade them acting except 
under the direct orders of a magistrate. The 
Irish authorities, however, were in no mood to 
submit to these prudent regulations. Angry dis- 
putes arose. As a result, Abercromby resigned 
the command in Ireland, and General Lake be- 
came commander-in-chief, and things were left to 
go on as before. 



Although the United Irishmen were in a 
great measure deprived of their arms and leaders, 
nevertheless, on the 23rd of May the insurrection 
broke out, according to previous arrangements. 
The signal agreed upon for the uprising was the 
simultaneous stoppage of the mail coaches, v^hich 
started nightly from Dublin to every quarter of 
the island. Dublin itself did not rise for the very 
good reason that it had been placed under martial 
lav^ early in the spring; the guards at the Castle 
were trebled; all the loyal citizens v^ere put under 
arms; the city w^as full of soldiers and assumed 
the appearance of a vast military camp. It v^as 
so strongly guarded that the plan of taking it by 
assault w^as entirely out of the question, and thus 
the energies of the insurgents w^ere exerted out 
of the city. 

In the open country of Leinster they com- 
menced operations by stopping and burning the 
mail coaches, after which, on the morning of the 
24th, they united and advanced on the small town 
of Naas, in Kildare. Arms (except shotguns and 
pikes) were exceedingly rare among them; their 
almost total lack of organization, their want of 
experienced leaders and military skill, now be- 
came manifest, for, notwithstanding the superior- 
ity of their numbers and physical courage, the 
insurgents were defeated, and the same result at- 
tended two other encounters near Dublin. Hence 


they were forced to renounce all hope of captur- 
ing the capital. 

At Prosperous, Dunboyne, Barretstown, 
Rathangan, and old Kilcullen, the insurgents de- 
feated small parties of the enemy, but the patriots 
in turn were repulsed and many slain in several 
determined and bloody struggles in the counties 
of Kildare, Carlow and Dublin. In these encoun- 
ters all insurgents taken prisoners were, without 
any form of trial, immediately hanged. A large 
body of insurgents, in the latter part of June, at- 
tacked the town of Carlow, shouting as they en- 
tered, and, penetrating into the interior, they 
were met by a murderous fire by the military. A 
great number of them took refuge in the houses, 
which were set on fire by the soldiers, and eighty 
dwellings, with hundreds of insurgents, were con- 
sumed in the flames. Two hundred more were 
made prisoners and executed. 

About 3,000 insurgents encamped on the his- 
toric hill of Tara, and were attacked (May 26) by 
a large force of royal horse and foot. The pa- 
triots were mostly armed with pikes, yet for four 
hours they maintained their ground with great 
gallantry. At last they were compelled to re- 
treat, with the loss of 400 killed and wounded. 
It was the common practice of the royal troops 
to give no quarter, so that all the Irish who were 
left wounded on the field or fell into the hands of 
their enemies were slaughtered without mercy. 

The rising in Ulster did not take place till 
early in June, and was confined to Antrim and 
Down. Both counties rose simultaneously. The 
insurgents, led by Henry J. McCracken, made a 
gallant but ineffectual attempt to hold the town 
of Antrim, after its capture, when McCracken 
retired to the heights of Slemish with a small 


band of followers, who gradually dispersed. He 
was soon after captured, tried by court-martial 
and executed at Belfast. In Down the insurgents 
captured Saintfield and encamped near Ballyna- 
hinch, under Henry Munro, a young officer of 
great ability, but they were attacked and defeated 
after a very stubborn fight, on the 13th of June. 
Munro escaped to the mountains, but was eventu- 
ally captured, tried by court-martial and hanged 
at Lisburn, opposite his own house. While the 
majority of the insurgents were Catholics, the 
greater number of their leaders were Protestants 
— except in County Wexford. 

By far the most determined rising of *98 took 
place towards the end of May in this county, the 
population of which, composed mostly of Cath- 
olics, remained for some time perfectly tranquil. 
They were remarkable for their industry and 
peaceful habits, and the Society of United Irish- 
men scarcely made any progress among them 
till the very eve of the outbreak. They were 
largely Anglo-Norman, Welsh, or Danish by de- 
scent, slow to anger, but desperate when aroused. 
In April the county was declared under martial 
law. The militia paraded in orange ribbons, fired 
at the peasants when at work in the fields, burned 
their houses, and frequently applied the pitch-cap 
torture to the heads of the "croppies," as the 
United Irishmen were called. 

At last, exasperated beyond human endur- 
ance by the atrocities perpetrated by the soldiery, 
they took part in the revolt under the lead- 
ership of Father John Murphy, Father Michael 
Murphy, and some other priests. The insurgents 
(May 27) to the number of 5,000 occupied Oulart 
hill, about ten miles from the town of Wexford, 
after they had surprised and almost annihilated 


a body of cavalry, a success which stimulated 
them to other victories. By this first success they 
obtained greatly needed arms, ammunition, mil- 
itary stores and many horses. In the afternoon 
they were attacked by cavalry and infantry, 
whom they "astonished, stunned and over- 
whelmed." Insult, outrage and murder were 
fearfully avenged; no quarter was given. One 
regiment lost all but five men. 

A kind of warlike frenzy, now that their time 
had come, took possession of the people. "All 
Wexford arose, animated by the passions and 
purposes of civil war." Regarding this phase of 
the insurrection, a royalist eye witness says: 
"The priests lead the rebels to battle; on their 
march they kneel and pray, and show the most 
desperate resolution in the attack. They put such 
Protestants as are reported to be Orangemen to 
death, saving others upon condition of their em- 
bracing the Catholic faith." Captain Adams with 
a strong force was routed at a place called Three 
Rocks, and Colonel Maxwell, attempting to re- 
trieve the disaster, was himself defeated and fled 
in haste. 

Inspired by their continued success, the in- 
surgents advanced on Ferns, set fire to the palace 
of the Protestant bishop, captured the town of 
Enniscorthy, and finally the city of Wexford. 
Here they opened the prison doors and released 
many political prisoners, among others Bagenal 
Harvey, a Protestant landowner, whom they in- 
sisted should become their commander-in-chief. 
Now that their turn had arrived, and for the most 
part under little discipline or control, retaliating 
cruelties were practiced on loyalist prisoners. All 
the efforts of Harvey and others to restrain the 
excesses of the insurgents were, as a rule, unavail- 


ing. Indeed, the great mass of the Irish hardly 
acknowledged any leader at all. Some of them 
were furious, and seemed anxious to slay every 
loyalist in Ireland. 

After the capture of Wexford the insurgents 
formed a committee or council of their own, un- 
der the presidency of the released Harvey. They 
received reinforcements from all sides, and had 
three principal encampments; on an eminence 
near Enniscorthy called Vinegar hill, which com- 
manded the whole country; on Carrickbyrne hill, 
between New Ross and the town of Wexford, and 
on Carrigroe hill, near Ferns. Most of the fight- 
ing was desultory, and accompanied by a great 
deal of burning and pillage. 

The splendid bravery and determination dis- 
played by the insurgents were counterbalanced 
by their lack of order and discipline. In a series 
of small encounters, first one side was successful, 
then another. On the 1st of June a large force 
from the Carrigroe encampment attacked the 
town of Gorey and was repulsed, but three days 
later the insurgents were victorious in a fight 
which left Gorey in their possession. June 
2nd they attacked Newtownbarry, but without 

Early in June, with an army of 10,000 men, 
the insurgents, led by Harvey, made a fierce at- 
tack on New Ross, and, after many hours of des- 
perate fighting, the royal troops were driven from 
tlie town, but, returning later, they won a final 
victory over the insurgents, who had thrown off 
all restraint, and were indulging in "a deep, un- 
measured carouse." The insurgents lost in the 
battle about 2,000 men. On the 9th of June the 
patriots made a determined attack on Arklow; 
the action began early in the afternoon and lasted 


until eight in the evening. The gallant Father 
Michael Murphy, whom his followers believed to 
be invulnerable, fell while leading his men to the 
assault for the third time. Discipline and artil- 
lery at last prevailed over numbers and valor. As 
night fell the assailants retired slowly, carrying 
off their wounded; their loss was variously esti- 
mated at from 700 to 1,500. 

This defeat greatly dispirited the insurgents, 
who, as a last resort, now decided to concentrate 
all their strength on their favorite position at 
Vinegar hill. Against this encampment the en- 
tire royal force of regulars and militia within fifty 
miles were concentrated by order of General 
Lake. About 20,000 men approached in several 
divisions from different directions on the 21st of 
June. One of the divisions, however, failed to 
arrive till the battle was over. The insurgents 
were thus able to retreat through the uncom- 
pleted circle of their assailants, when the com- 
bined attack grew too powerful to be resisted. 
After nearly two hours of desperate fighting the 
insurgents broke and fled by the unguarded side 
of the hill. Their rout was complete; many were 
cut down by the cavalry as they fled through the 
fields and out on the open highways. This battle 
was the last important action of the Wexford 



In June the situation appeared so alarming 
that the government resolved to adopt the most 
strenuous measures for the suppression. of the 
revolt. Additional troops were hurried over from 
England. It was also determined that the office 
of lord lieutenant and commander-in-chief, which 
hitherto had been vested in two individuals, 
should be combined in one person, and this re- 
sponsible and influential post it was decided to 
confer on Lord Cornwallis, who, notwithstanding 
his surrender of Yorktown in the American war, 
was still regarded as one of the ablest officers in 
the British army. He had been urged to under- 
take the difficult task at the time of Abercromby's 
resignation, but it was not until after consider- 
able negotiations that he announced his readiness 
to accept the appointment. Wherr, however, the 
new viceroy landed in Ireland, on the 20th of 
June, there remained but little for him to do. 
On the day of his arrival General Moore gained 
a considerable advantage over one of the insur- 
gent forces, and on the following day General 
Lake achieved the decisive victory over them, in- 
trenched on Vinegar hill, which resulted in the 
recapture of Wexford and the destruction of the 
main insurgent army. 

But the rising was not yet ended; bands cf 
insurgents still held out for some time, especially 
in the hilly districts of Leinster, so that order 
was not generally restored in the province till the 


end of July. Great numbers of the patriots who 
fell into the hands of the soldiers were immedi- 
ately hanged; and the cruelties which had been 
committed by some of the undisciplined Wexford 
insurgents in their frenzy were now hideously 
avenged. Ferocity celebrated its wildest orgies 
at this time, and the conduct of the royal troops 
was such as would have reflected little credit on 
any civilized nation. 

Lord Cornwallis, thoroughly dissatisfied 
with the conduct of his soldiers, openly declared 
that the deeds of robbery, outrage and murder, 
formerly attributed to some of the insurgents, 
were now committed by themselves. Cornwallis 
himself was disposed to exercise clemency 
towards the great mass of the people who had 
been driven by the harsh measures of the govern- 
ment to rise in revolt; and he, therefore, author- 
ized his officers to allow such of the rank and file 
as were willing to lay down their arms and take 
the oath of allegiance to depart to their homes. 
This statesmanlike policy of mercy and forbear- 
ance failed to meet the approval of his colleagues 
in the administration. 

The ruling classes in Ireland, who belonged 
in a great measure to the Orange party, and espe- 
cially the majority in parliament, were against 
all acts of clemency, and recommended the adop- 
tion of the most drastic measures. "The words 
'papist' and 'priest,' " wrote Cornwallis, with ref- 
erence to this fanatical action of the party, "are 
continually in their mouths, and by this unrea- 
sonable policy they would drive four-fifths of the 
state into irretrievable rebellion." Again, he says: 
"Even at my table, where you will suppose I do 
all I can to prevent it, the conversation always 
turns on hanging, shooting, burning, and so 


forth; and if a priest has been put to death, the 
greatest joy is expressed by the whole company." 

The viceroy did not allow himself to be 
shaken in his purpose by the prevailing tone of 
the circle in which he moved. Accordingly, July 
17, in the Irish House of Commons, and two days 
later, in the Irish House of Lords, he introduced 
a bill, which, with many exceptions, proposed a 
general amnesty to the insurgents. In addition 
to thirty-one Irish refugees mentioned by name, 
the exceptions included all the members of the 
executive committee of the United Irishmen, all 
the higher officers in the insurgent army, and all 
persons who had been guilty of any act of mur- 
der. The exceptions were so numerous that few 
who took any active part in the revolt were bene- 
fited by it. Although this drastic amnesty bill 
was not sufficiently cruel to accord with the san- 
guinary sentiments by which the parliamentary 
majority were animated, they were eventually in- 
duced to give their assent to the measure. 

Scarcely had peace in some degree been re- 
stored to the country when Ireland was stirred 
by a new French invasion. While the insurrec- 
tion was in progress the French had been prepar- 
ing to go to the help of the Irish; but, owing to 
the distraction which reigned in every depart- 
ment of the government during the period of the 
French Directory, as well as the terribly ex- 
hausted condition of the treasury, their arrange- 
ments were not completed until it was too late. 
When at last they determined to attempt an inva- 
sion of Ireland the revolt had already been sup- 
pressed, and the forces at their command were 
too inconsiderable to afiford any chance of success 
in case of independent action. Nevertheless Gen- 
eral Humbert set sail from Rochelle with 1,100 


men, three frigates, and a few transport ships, 
and landed at Killala in Mayo, the 22nd of 

On receipt of this news, General Lake was 
sent against him with some regiments of militia; 
but these troops, ill-disciplined at their best, and 
having further degenerated during the insurrec- 
tion, in which they had chiefly signalized them- 
selves by robbery and plunder, were in spite of 
their superior numbers, defeated by the French 
at Castlebar. After the overthrow of his lieuten- 
ant-general, Cornwallis himself advanced against 
the French with an overwhelming force, and after 
a short campaign compelled them to surrender at 
Ballynamuck, the 8th of September. 

It had been the intention of the French gov- 
ernment to land troops in other parts of Ireland, 
as well as at Killala, but want of funds prevented 
the carrying out of this project. One French 
ship, however, the Anacreon, with the Irish re- 
publican, Napper Tandy, on board, did appear on 
the northern coast. But, on learning of the fate 
of General Humbert's army, he withdrew and set 
sail for Norway. 

During the same year the French once more 
undertook an expedition to Ireland, for which on 
this occasion they were better equipped. A fleet 
consisting of the Hoche, a ship of 74 guns, and 
eight frigates, carrying an army of 3,000 men, 
was collected in Brest harbor under the command 
of Admiral Bompart; and after successfully run- 
ning the blockade, arrived in October, 1798, off 
the coast of Donegal. The following day, after a 
terrific engagement of six hours against over- 
whelming odds with the English under Commo- 
dore Sir John B. Warren, the French admiral's 
ship, raked from stem to stern, a dismantled 


wreck, was compelled to surrender, and the 
Hoche and six other vessels were finally taken. 
Wolfe Tone commanded one of the batteries, 
fighting with desperation, courting, but escaping 
death. He had taken part in the battle in French 
uniform and under an assumed name. He was 
nevertheless recognized among the prisoners, 
and, being especially excluded from the amnesty, 
he was taken to Dublin and tried by court-mar- 
tial. Although he pleaded that as a naturalized 
citizen in the service of the French Republic he 
was entitled to be treated merely as a prisoner of 
war, he was, however, condemned to death. Tone 
earnestly requested to be shot, like a soldier, not 
hanged, like a felon; but his petition was rejected. 
He anticipated his public execution by opening a 
vein in prison, from the effects of which he died, 
the 19th of November. 

Dr. R. R. Madden says: "Thus passed away 
one of the master-spirits of his time. 
Had he been a native of any other European 
country, his noble qualities, his brilliant talent, 
would have raised him to the first honors of the 
state and to the highest place in the esteem of his 
fellow-citizens. His name lives, however, and his 
memory is probably destined to survive as long 
as his country has a history. Peace be to his 
ashes 1" 



In September the last sparks of the revolt of 
'98 may be said to have been extinguished. Mar- 
tial law now prevailed everywhere. Lord Corn- 
wallis endeavored to restore quiet, and his first 
step in this direction was an attempt to stop the 
cruelties committed by the soldiers and militia 
throughout the country. But in spite of his ef- 
forts these outrages continued for months. The 
merciless character of the militia and yeomanry 
had been unrestrained before the insurrection, 
and now that the outbreak had been crushed their 
ferocity knew no bounds. The insurgents had in 
their hour of triumph in some instances mas- 
sacred royalists and burned their houses. The 
royalists, when the revolt was over, showed far 
less mercy and exacted a more terrible retribu- 
tion. When the insurgents had fled from Vin- 
egar hill their hospital at Enniscorthy was burned 
and the wounded shot as they lay in bed. The 
same scene was repeated at Wexford. 

The soldiers, especially a regiment of im- 
ported Hessians, scoured the country, shooting 
all with whom they came in contact — outraging 
women, destroying the Catholic chapels, and 
completing the general dissolution by burning 
and plundering the remaining homesteads. Roy- 
alist and insurgent suffered alike, without even 
the benefit of a court-martial. There was no time 
taken to inquire whether the victims were friends 
or foes. It was enough that they were found at 


large in the disaffected country. In the towns 
courts-martial were held, and executions quickly 
followed. The local magistrates who had fled 
before the storm returned to resume the old coer- 
cive system and to wreak their vengeance upon 
the unfortunate people. 

In the opinion of William Pitt, the English 
prime minister, the course of events during the 
previous few years in Ireland had rendered the 
time ripe for his long cherished plan of a legisla- 
tive union between Great Britain and Ireland — 
that the Irish Parliament should be abolished and 
that there should be only one parliament for both 
countries. It was universally admitted that this 
could not be accomplished unless the Irish Par- 
liament willed it. Now that the insurrection was 
over, Pitt began to make carefully planned ar- 
rangements to secure a majority in favor of the 
union; for he well knew that there would be a 
determined opposition in Ireland. In January, 
1799, the project of the union, by Pitt's direction, 
was indirectly referred to in the Irish Parliament, 
in the speech from the throne. 

The patriots at once took the matter up, and 
they were joined by many who had hitherto been 
supporters of the government, among others 
John Foster, the speaker of the House, Sir John 
Parnell, chancellor of the exchequer, James Fitz- 
Gerald, prime sergeant, and Sir Jonah Barring- 
ton — all fearing the loss of the Irish Parliament. 
It was moved "that the undoubted birthright of 
the people of Ireland, a resident and independent 
legislature, should be maintained," and after an 
exciting debate of over twenty hours, the votes 
were equally divided, which was virtually a defeat 
for the government. Subsequently the patriots 
succeeded in having the clause referring to the 


union struck out of the speech altogether, which 
meant that they refused to even consider the 
question. Parnell and FitzGerald were soon aft- 
erwards dismissed from their offices. In these 
divisions nearly all those who voted for the union 
were officeholders or pensioners of the govern- 
ment, while the great majority of those who 
voted against it were persons who had been freely 

In February the scheme was brought for- 
ward in the English Parliament by Pitt and car- 
ried. In Ireland elaborate preparations were 
made to carry the measure in the next session. 
The prospect of speedy emancipation and pos- 
sible endowment was privately held out to the 
Catholics, as the price of their tacit assent to the 
union. No definite pledge was made, but Castle- 
reagh was untiring in his efforts to lull them into 
security, and their neutrality, if not their active 
support, was secured by ofifering them this tempt- 
ing bait. Those holding offices who showed 
themselves adverse to the project were dismissed 
or brought around by threats of dismissal. The 
Irish government had been all along corrupt, but 
now it went far beyond anything ever experi- 
enced before. Those who had the disposal of 
seats were in great alarm, for if the union were 
carried the 300 members would have to be re- 
duced to a third, thereby disqualifying 200 con- 
stituencies. The support of these proprietors was 
purchased by direct money payments, about £15,- 
000 being paid for each seat, and those proprie- 
tors who had each a number of seats at their 
disposal received corresponding amounts. The 
entire sum paid for the whole rotten or pocket 
boroughs (as they were called) was £1,260,000, 


which enormous amount Ireland had to pay, for 
it was added to the Irish national debt. 

To purchase the votes of individual mem- 
bers and the favor of certain influential outsiders, 
twenty-eight persons were created peers, and 
nineteen of those already peers were promoted; 
in addition there were a great number of bribes in 
the shape of pensions, baronetcies, preferments, 
government oflices, and direct cash. All this was 
done with scarcely any attempt at concealment. 
The chief managers of the whole business, under 
the inspiration of Pitt, were Lord Cornwallis, 
Lord Castlereagh, and Lord Clare. Cornwallis, 
though wholly in favor of the union, expressed in 
private the utmost abhorrence at being "forced 
to take part in such corrupt transactions." "He 
longs to kick out of his presence the men with 
whom he traffics; while Castlereagh sets about 
his work in a cool and business-like manner, with- 
out compunctions of any kind." 

So general was the feeling against the union, 
and so deep the indignation against the means 
employed to bring it about, that Cornwallis ex- 
pressed his belief that half the majority who 
voted for it would be delighted if they were de- 
feated. Yet he remained at his post until the 
measure was carried — "in the unavoidable duty 
of bribery and violence imposed upon him." 

Though the majority in favor of the union 
was secured by gross and illegal practices, it must 
not be assumed that all who voted for the act 
were corrupt, for there were doubtless a few who 
honestly believed it was the best course. The 
country was now thoroughly aroused. Thou- 
sands of petitions against the measure came from 
all directions, and such was the indignation every- 


where that dangerous riots threatened to break 
out. The intense feeling against it extended even 
to the yeomanry, the very men v^^ho had taken 
such an active part in suppressing the insurrec- 
tion, and it was feared for a time that they might 
resist the measure by force of arms. But the 
prime movers for the government were deter- 
mined, and in order to keep down the free expres- 
sion of opinion, Ireland was awed by the presence 
of an immense army. Soldiers from England by 
thousands were poured into the country. 

The Irish Parliament opened January 15, 
1800. It was the last session of the Irish legisla- 
ture. Grattan, aware of the impending storm, 
sought for a seat, and was at once returned mem- 
ber for Wicklow, and, though ill, rose from his 
bed and took his place dressed in the uniform of 
the Volunteers. Dublin was in a state of great 
excitement. The streets were filled with dis- 
mayed and sorrow-stricken people; but there 
were abundant soldiers to keep them within 
bounds. Castlereagh brought forward the motion 
in the House of Commons, but the patriots op- 
posed the measure most determinedly. Grattan, 
though weak with illness, pleaded with all his old 
fiery eloquence. Sir John Parnell demanded a 
dissolution, and that a new parliament should be 
called to determine this great question, so that 
the opinion of the country might be obtained, as 
is usually done when measures of first importance 
are proposed. 

This was all to no purpose, as the unionist 
leaders carried everything by a large majority. 
The minority, who could not be brought over by 
bribes, stood firm and struggled vainly to the last. 
Despite all their able efforts, the bill was finally 


carried in the House of Commons. At the division 
only 115 members voted against it. It was next 
passed in the House of Lords, by an overwhelm- 
ing majority, and after the royal assent was given 
the Act of Union came into force January 1, 1801. 

The principal provisions of the act were as 
follows: ''The two kingdoms to be henceforth 
one, known as the United Kingdom of Great Brit- 
ain and Ireland." The Irish representation in the 
united parliament to be 100 members in the 
House of Commons, and twenty-eight lay peers 
and four spiritual peers (i. e., bishops of the Es- 
tablished Church) in the House of Lords. The 
lay peers to be elected for life by ail the Irish 
peers, and the bishops to be selected in rotation. 
Each of the two countries to retain its own na- 
tional debt as then existing, but all future debts 
contracted to be joint debts. 

McGee says: '"'It was impossible that a peo- 
ple like the Irish, disinterested and unselfish to a 
fault, should ever come to respect a compact 
brought about by such means and influences as 
these. Had, however, the union, vile as were the 
means by which it was accomplished, proved to 
the real benefit of the country (had equal civil 
and religious rights been freely and at once ex- 
tended to the people of the lesser kingdom), there 
is no reason to doubt that the measure would 
have become popular in time, and the vices of the 
old system be better remembered than its bene- 
fits, real or imaginary. But the union was never 
utilized for Ireland." 

Leckey says: "The union was emphatically 
one of that class of measures in which the scope 
for statesmanship lies not in the conception but 
in the execution. Had Pitt carried it without of- 


fending the national sentiment — had he enabled 
the majority of the Irish people to look back on it 
with affection or with pride — had he made it the 
means of allaying discontent ... he would 
indeed have achieved a feat of consummate 



Though the union was carried it was not 
accepted by the Irish people without one more 
struggle. "At the time when the plans of the 
United Irishmen were slowly ripening towards 
revolution and when Wolfe Tone and Edward 
FitzGerald still believed in the immediate regen- 
eration of their country, there were two young 
men in Dublin University (close personal 
friends) who were watching with peculiar in- 
terest the progress of events. Both were excep- 
tionally gifted young men, and both were des- 
tined to leave behind them names that will live 
forever in the history of the Irish nation. One 
was Thomas Moore, the other, his junior by a 
year and his senior by one class in the university, 
Robert Emmet." 

It was especially natural that two such 
youths should take the keenest interest in the 
patriotic movement that was going on around 
them — a movement calculated to attract all the 
generous and warm impulses of youth. Both 
Moore and Emmet were profoundly ambitious 
for their country's welfare. They doubtless felt 
conscious of the possession of abilities above the 
average, and both were animated by a desire to 
be of active service to their countrymen. The 
desire, however, which led Moore merely to be- 
come Ireland's national poet spurred Emmet into 
more direct and decided action. Robert Emmet 
was a brother of the eminent lawyer and patriot, 


Thomas Addis Emmet. He was, therefore, close- 
ly connected with the national movement, and 
exerted all his power to advance it by his speeches 
in the Debating Society and in the Historical So- 
ciety of the college. 

Political speeches were forbidden in these 
societies, but Emmet generally managed to intro- 
duce into his utterances some stirring words, 
which those who admired and listened to him 
could readily interpret into justification of the 
United Irishmen. Between the young orator and 
the young poet the closest friendship and affec- 
tion existed. The genius of Moore was naturally 
captivated by the pure and lofty enthusiasm of 
Emmet, and it is perhaps surprising that, under 
the circumstances, Moore did not take a more 
active part in the stirring events of the time. 
Moore had not, it seems, the nature of the revolu- 
tionist or of the very active politician. He was 
called upon to do other work, which he did so 
effectively that he may well be forgiven for hav- 
ing been so passive at a time when revolution 
seemed to be the duty of every Irishman. 

The revolt of '98 had been put down. The 
union was accomplished and the leaders of the 
United Irishmen were dead, exiled, or hiding. 
The Irish Parliament had passed out of existence, 
and the promises of Pitt, which had done so much 
to facilitate the passing of the Act of Union, had 
been shamefully violated. One of the most im- 
portant factors in securing this measure was the 
pledge by Pitt (published throughout Ireland in 
pamphlet form) that legislation upon Catholic 
emancipation and the tithe question would at 
once follow the leeislative union of the two coun- 
tries. Such a promise from so responsible a 
source had the greatest effect in winning support 

THOMAS II' '^ ' 


TTTc;rrM?v nir tt^ft A\'n 

Thomas Adv 
ly connecte". 
exerted all h' 
in the De^ 

cictv -f I 






and ti 

to fac' 


portanl J. 

pledge by i \ 

pamphlet form) 

emancipation and 

once follow the lee- 

tries. Such a pre-: 

source had the greatt: 

rie waj, iiiciciore, cios^'- 

national movement, ano. 

advance it by his speeches 

ciy and in the Historical So- 

les were forbidden in these 

t-nerally managed to intro- 

os some stirring words, 

dmired and listened to him 

■ into jusm"^ I of the 

,veen the y« itor and 

the closest friend d afifec- 

:ic ger.ius v^ "" "v 

.c pure an^ ' f 

ore did not take a more 

ring eveurs of the time. 

, the nature of the revolu- 

ctive politician. He was 

•r work, which he did so 

well be forgiven for hav- 

a time when revolution 

■ ^'very Irishman. 

been put down. The 
-1 and the leaders of the 
dead, exiled, or hiding. 
Hssed out of existence, 
' d done h 

■ ■' •^^. .-. . .d 
(lost im- 


.,-,... m 


A would at 

■ Jie two coun- 
responsible a 

m winning support 


to the Act of Union, and in many cases where it 
did not win energetic support, at least it pre- 
vented active opposition. To the great majority 
of the Irish people Catholic emancipation was so 
vitally important and the burden of tithes pressed 
so heavily that it can hardly be a matter of sur- 
prise if many were ready, or at least willing, to 
welcome almost any measure which offered to 
grant the one and relieve the other. 

But Pitt had pledged himself to more than 
he could carry out. The bigoted George III., who 
had always hated the Irish people because of their 
religious views, obstinately refused to give his 
consent to any measure for the relief of the Cath- 
olics. Pitt resigned his office soon after the legis- 
lative union had become law. The folly of the 
king did not excuse Pitt, who had done his best 
to delude Ireland by raising hopes which he was 
not certain of gratifying, and making pledges 
which he was unable to carry out. The union 
brought nothing with it that bettered the condi- 
tion of Ireland. 

The system of political corruption that had 
brought about the measure continued in full force 
after the union. Every office of profit or impor- 
tance was held by Englishmen. Lord Clare had 
died soon after the union, of disappointment, it 
was said, at finding that his own power and influ- 
ence had gone with the political change, which 
he had been so active in bringing about. Castle- 
reagh had returned to England, to end (some 
years later) his unprincipled life by his own 
hands. But the removal of these enemies to the 
national life left room for the admission of others. 
The places of Castlereagh and Clare were filled 
by politicians no less devoted to class ascendancy, 


no less unfriendly to anything like patriotism or 

Although the prospect of Catholic emanci- 
pation seemed a i far off as ever, there was, how- 
ever, a change in attitude of the Dublin authori- 
ties towards the rich and influential Irish Cath- 
olics. A policy of conciliation became the order 
of the day towards the more eminent members 
of that faith. The vast majority of the Catholic 
population was, however, as badly off as before. 
Ireland was laboring under heavy coercive laws, 
and the policy of coercion which began with the 
union has existed almost uninterruptedly ever 
since. Coercion brought on disturbances and out- 
rages, and there were desperate riots in different 
parts of the country in the year of the union — 
smouldering embers of '98, which were destined 
yet to break out in one final eruption. 

Emmet saw the sufferings of his country 
with indignation, but not without hope. He con- 
ceived the possibility of reviving the spirit of '98. 
In his eyes revolution was not dead, but only 
asleep; and he proudly fancied that he might be 
the means of waking rebellion from its trance 
and leading it to triumph. Perhaps if a large 
French force had landed, as he expected, his opin- 
ion might have been justified. He had some for- 
tune of his own, which he unselfishly devoted to 
the cause he had in view. Gradually he began to 
gather about him a group of the disaffected — sur- 
vivors of '98 who had escaped the grave, rope or 
exile — men like the heroic Miles Byrne, who had 
evaded the clutches of the law and was in hiding 
in Dublin. In Byrne Emmet found a ready and 
gallant associate, and each found others no less 
ready, daring and devoted to their country, to aid 
in the new revolutionary movement. Like the 


United Irishmen, Emmet was willing to avail 
himself of French assistance; he had been in Paris 
and had interviews with Napoleon; but he had 
never entertained the idea of exchanging the rule 
of England for that of France. 

His plans were desperate, but by no means 
hopeless. Large stores of arms and ammunition 
were secreted in Dublin. Thousands of men were 
pledged to the cause, for which they were pre- 
pared to risk their lives. The means of establish- 
ing a national government had been carefully 
considered in an elaborate pamphlet, ready to be 
scattered broadcast throughout the city and 
country as soon as the Irish flag should float over 
Dublin Castle. To surprise this castle, seize the 
authorities and secure the capital, was Emmet's 
chief purpose. Once master of the castle, Dublin 
would be virtually in his power; and the metrop- 
olis once in his hands, the revolution would 
spread through the country like wildfire, and 
Ireland would indeed be free. The discontent 
arising from the recent loss of the Irish Parlia- 
ment might have turned the city scale in Emmet's 
favor had his first stroke been successful. 

The plot was daring, but the brain that con- 
ceived it was keen and bold, the hands and hearts 
that were pledged to it were true and gallant; 
everything seemed to promise, if not a victory, at 
any rate a rising which should come so near suc- 
cess as to shake the power of the government, and 
compel great concessions — perhaps the repeal of 
the union. Among Emmet's chief confidants and 
assistants were Thomas Russell and Mathew 
Dowdall, formerly prisoners in Ft. George, Scot- 
land, but now permitted to return to Ireland; 
William P. McCabe, James Hope, and Mich- 
ael Dwyer, the insurgent patriot who had re- 


mained since '98 uncaptured in the mountains of 

In March, 1803, when the renewal of hostili- 
ties between England and France seemed immi- 
nent, Emmet's preparations were pushed forward 
with redoubled energy. The conspiracy headed 
by Colonel E. M. Despard, in London, the pre- 
vious winter, well known to the Dublin leaders, 
did not intimidate Emmet or his friends. Though 
Despard with nine of his followers suffered death, 
Emmet and his confederates went on with their 
arrangements with more determined resolution. 
The emissaries at work in many of the counties 
gave enthusiastic reports of success, so that, 
judging by the information in his possession, an 
older and a cooler head than Emmet's might well 
have been misled into the expectation of most of 
the counties rising, if the signal could only be 
given from the tower of Dublin Castle. If the 
revolt could be withheld till August, there was 
every reason to expect a French invasion of Eng- 
land, which would draw away all the regular 
troops and leave the people merely the militia to 
contend against. 

But all the Dublin plans miscarried in the 
premature rising of July 23, 1803, in which Chief- 
Justice Lord Kilwarden and his nephew, Richard 
Wolfe, while passing through the disturbed quar- 
ter of the city at the time, were by mistaken iden- 
tity cruelly put to death. Emmet was soon after 
arrested, tried on a charge of high treason, con- 
victed, and executed, September 20, 1803, in Dub- 
lin. He met his fate with manly fortitude and in 
a way which excited the sympathies of the civi- 
lized world. Eighteen of those engaged with him 
were also put to death. For the same cause the 
equally, pure-minded and chivalrous Thomas Rus- 


sell was executed at Downpatrick. Allen and 
Dowdall escaped to France, where the former 
rose to high rank in the army. Michael Dwyer 
surrendered on condition of being allowed to emi- 
grate, and died in Australia in 1826; McCabe died 
in Paris in 1821. 

At his trial, with the shadow of death upon 
him, the doomed patriot and martyr, Emmet, ad- 
dressed his countrymen in immortal words of 
moving pathos, forbidding them to write his epi- 
taph until his country had taken her place among 
the nations of the earth. "Such was the fate of 
Robert Emmet. His dying request has been 
faithfully obeyed by his countrymen; no tomb- 
stone bears his name, no statue typifies his mem- 
ory. His old friend, the companion of his youth, 
the poet, who had loved him, has honored his 
memory in two of his noblest lyrics, and has de- 
voted a third to the lady whom Emmet's love has 
made immortal." "The personal reputation of 
the younger Emmet," says McGee, "the least 
known of his countrymen of all the United Irish 
leaders, except by the crowning act of his death, 
is safe beyond the reach of calumny, or party 
zeal, or time's chang;"es. It is embalmed in the 
verse of Moore and Southey, and the precious 
prose of Washington Irving. Men of genius in 
England and America have done honor to his 
memory." In the annals of his own country his 
name deserves to stand with those other leaders 
equally renowned and equally ready to seal their 
patriotism with their blood — Lord Edward Fitz- 
Gerald and Theobald Wolfe Tone. 



Had the Catholics actively opposed the Leg- 
islative Union, in all probability it could not have 
been passed; for, as Lord Cornwallis afterwards 
declared, "they had it in their power to have frus- 
trated the views of the government and throw the 
country into the utmost confusion." Accord- 
ingly Pitt, it appears, had at first intended to 
include Catholic emancipation in the articles of 
union, an intention which was afterwards aban- 
doned, owing to the bigotry of George 111. But 
in order to lessen the hostility of the Catholics, 
they were led to believe, by the leading members 
of the Irish government, on Pitt's suggestion, 
that emancipation would immediately follow the 
union. Through these representations many of 
the leading Catholics, both lay and clerical, were 
induced to express themselves in favor of the 
measure, while the masses held back from active 
opposition. Thus the Catholics were kept peace- 
ful and the union was accomplished. 

They now naturally looked for the fulfill- 
ment of the promise, but they looked in vain, for 
the government showed not the least intention to 
move in the matter. It is known that on the ap- 
pointment of Cornwallis as lord lieutenant the 
king had written to Pitt, saying he would not con- 
sent to Catholic emancipation, as he claimed it 
would be a breach of his coronation oath ; and this 
is commonly assigned as the principal reason why 
the question was dropped. There is verv little 


doubt, however, that if Pitt had been in earnest 
in the matter, he could have brought the king to 
yield; but he never, it appears, made any earnest 
effort. For nearly thirty years Catholic emanci- 
pation was withheld, and when it finally came the 
concession was brought about, as will be seen, by 
circumstances independent of representations and 

The Catholics, however, never abandoned 
hope, and a few years after the passage of the 
union a small section of them, including one or 
two prelates, agreed, as an inducement for the 
government to grant emancipation, that the 
crown should have a veto in the appointment of 
bishops; that is, when one had been selected, his 
name should be submitted to the king, and if the 
latter objected, another was to be chosen that 
would be acceptable to him. The great mass of 
Catholics, lay and clerical, knew nothing of this, 
but the matter was made public in 1808, when a 
petition for Catholic relief was presented to par- 
liament by Grattan, who, on the authority of two 
leading Irish Catholics, openly offered to accept 
the veto in case emancipation was granted. The 
clergy and people generally at once rejected it, 
and the bishops formally condemned it. Never- 
theless, the veto question continued to be dis- 
cussed in Ireland for some years, and caused con- 
siderable divergence of opinion among Catholics. 
The Irish aristocracy were generally in favor of 
it, but those in opposition, led by Daniel O'Con- 
nell, ultimately prevailed. 

A few years after the union, Grattan, the 
greatest and noblest of all the Protestant advo- 
cates of Catholic rights, entered the English Par- 
liament, and never lost an opportunity of speak- 
ing for emancipation. At the close of 1819, while 


residing in Ireland, his health rapidly declined, 
and he determined to make one last effort for his 
Catholic countrymen. He departed for the House 
of Parliament, but he never reached it, and died 
in London, speaking of Ireland with his last 

During the latter years of Grattan's career, 
another great leader was beginning to come to 
the front, before whose genius all the obstacles 
to emancipation ultimately were swept away. 
Daniel O'Connell, afterwards called the Liber- 
ator, was born in Kerry, August 6, 1775, and was 
educated partly in Ireland and partly in France. 
He was admitted to the bar in 1798, and at once 
came to the front as a successful advocate. About 
1810 he began to take a prominent part in public 
questions, and before long became the acknow- 
ledged leader of his co-religionists in Ireland. 
Henceforth, till the time of his death, he was the 
chief figure in Irish history, and one of the great- 
est popular leaders the world ever saw. O'Con- 
nell was the founder of the system of peaceful, 
popular agitation against political evils, always 
keeping strictly within the law. In all his labors, 
especially during the agitation for emancipation, 
he was ably assisted by Richard Lalor Shell, who 
was also an orator of wonderful power. 

The old Catholic Committee having ceased to 
exist, O'Connell and Sheil organized, in 1823, the 
Catholic Association, the principal agency that 
finally enabled them to achieve emancipation. 
The expenses were met chiefiy by a subscription 
of one penny a month, and the organization soon 
spread throughout Ireland. This movement, of 
which O'Connell and Sheii were the leaders, was 
the means of extending broadcast a free press 
and creating healthful public opinion. The gov- 


ernment viewed the Catholic Association with 
jealousy and alarm; and an act of parliament was 
passed in 1825 to suppress it; but O'Connell, 
who took great care not to break the law, con- 
trived an ingenious plan to evade the act. The 
association was quietly dissolved, but the move- 
ment, under a new name, went on as before. 

In Waterford and several other places, by 
means of the perfect organization of the ''New 
Catholic Association," Protestant members for 
parliament favorable to emancipation were 
elected, the forty-shilling freeholders voting for 
them; for as these tenants had long leases they 
were in a great measure independent of the land- 
lords, and successfully resisted their influence. 
An oath especially framed to exclude Catholics 
from parliament had been for a long time in force 
in England, but there was nothing to prevent a 
Catholic from being elected. 

A vacancy occurred in 1828 in County Clare, 
and O'Connell determined to contest the seat. 
His address to the people of Clare aroused ex- 
traordinary enthusiasm, and notwithstanding the 
utmost efforts of the landlords, he was elected by 
a large majority. The Clare election was a mem- 
orable event in the history of Ireland. When 
O'Connell presented himself at the bar of the 
House of Commons the obnoxious oath was ten- 
dered him, which he positively refused to take. 
The seat was then declared vacant and a new 
election had to follow. O'Connell was again 
elected by a large majority. These events 
aroused sympathy everywhere for the Catholics, 
which alarmed the authorities, and they became 
still more so when they found that O'Connell was 
preparing to elect Catholic members throughout 


Wellington and Peel, who were at the head 
of affairs in England, forced by public opinion, 
had to give way, being at length convinced that 
emancipation could no longer be withheld with 
safety. Peel accordingly introduced into the 
House of Commons a bill for emancipation of 
the Catholics. After several days' stormy de- 
bate the measure was carried. 

The debate in the House of Lords was even 
more violent than in the Commons; but Welling- 
ton finally ended the matter by declaring that 
they must choose between the two alternatives — 
emancipation or civil war. The bill passed after 
a long debate and much bitter opposition, and 
received the royal assent April 13, 1829. After 
the bill had become law, O'Connell presented 
himself at the bar of the House for the second 
time since his election to claim his seat. Ac- 
cording to the terms of the Emancipation act it 
was only those elected after the 13th of April 
that came under the new oath, a clause having 
been inserted in order to put O'Connell to the 
trouble and expense of another election. 

The old oath was tendered him, and looking 
at it for a few seconds, he said: *'I see here one 
assertion as to a matter of fact which I know to 
be untrue; I see a second as to a matter of opinion 
which I believe to be untrue; I therefore refuse 
to take the oath." O'Connell requested and was 
granted the privilege of defending his position, 
and made a long and eloquent speech at the bar 
of the House in his own defense, but his claim was 
rejected by a large vote. Another writ was is- 
sued and he was returned for the third time with 
a triumphant majority. By the Emancipation act 
a new oath was framed, which Catholics might 
conscientiously take. The measure not only ad- 


mitted Catholics to sit in parliament, but admit- 
ted them also, with a few exceptions, to all civil 
and military offices. Emancipation (in order to 
diminish the power of the Irish Catholics) was 
accompanied by another act of parliament, which 
raised the franchise in Ireland to £ 10, though in 
England the qualification to vote remained at the 
limit of forty shillings; this disfranchised in Ire- 
land all the forty-shilling freeholders, who consti- 
tuted the main support of the Catholic party, and 
produced great discontent throughout the whole 

Many influences had been at work for years 
to soften the sentiments of England toward Irish 
Catholics, so as to prepare the way for emanci- 
pation, among the chief of which were the writ- 
ings of Thomas Moore. Though Burke, Sheri- 
dan, Plunket and Grattan's eloquent pleadings 
had brought the claims of their country vividly 
before the House of Commons, Moore's "Irish 
Melodies" were, it may be said, "the first clear, 
gentle voice heard across the sea directly from 
the Irish Catholics themselves." These songs 
were read and sung with delight everywhere in 
England, and "sunk deeply into the hearts of the 
English people." But there still remained, no- 
tably among the ruling classes, much hostility, 
and a general determination prevailed among 
them to resist further concessions to members 
of the ancient faith. To O'Connell, however, ably 
assisted by Sheil, is mainly due the success of the 
herculean task of overcoming the opposition of 
parliament and finally carrying the great meas- 
ure of emancipation. 



After Catholic emancipation, O'Connell took 
his seat in the English House of Commons and 
soon became one of the most prominent and 
commanding debaters there. He was coming 
every day to be more and more recognized as 
Ireland's uncrowned king, the adored of his coun- 
trymen and the dread of the English govern- 
ment. His political views led him into close asso- 
ciation with the leading Whigs, or Liberals, of 
England and Scotland, and many times he ad- 
dressed great public meetings in English and 
Scottish cities. For many years previous to the 
Act of Union the government had been giving 
money to support schools for elementary educa- 
tion all through Ireland. But they were suitable 
for Protestants only; Catholics could not consci- 
entiously attend them, as they would have to be 
present at Protestant instructions, while no pro- 
vision was made to give them religious instruc- 
tions in their own faith. To remedy this state 
of things, the national system of education was 
established, which offered means of instruction 
to all. Catholics and Protestants alike. The 
Catholic peasantry were still called on to pay 
tithes to maintain the Established Church, and 
they continued to be harassed by the exactions 
of the tithe collectors and others, who, if the 
money was not paid, seized the poor man's cattle, 
furniture, beds, blankets, kettles, or anything else 
they could lay hands on. 


At last there arose a general movement 
against the payment of tithes; the people resisted 
all through the South of Ireland, and for many 
years there was what has passed into history as 
the Irish Tithe war. The military and police 
were constantly called out to support the col- 
lectors in making their seizures and there were 
conflicts almost daily, often with great loss of 
life. There was determined resistance every- 
where, and the cost of collection was far greater 
than the amount collected. Many clergymen of 
the Established Church received little or nothing 
and were reduced to poverty. All this time 
O'Connell, aided by Sheil, struggled vainly, both 
in and out of parliament, for the total abolition 
of tithes, or for some arrangement that would 
shift the burden from the shoulders of the ten- 
ants. The people continued to resist, and the 
Tithe war went on, though an attempt was made 
to stop it by a coercion act. Finally, in 1838, the 
tithes, reduced somewhat in amount, were put on 
the landlords. The tenant had practically still to 
pay the tithes in increased rent. 

The agitation now turned against rent, and 
secret societies for protection increased. In 1838 
Father Theobald Mathew, the apostle of temper- 
ance, then a young priest, took the total absti- 
nence pledge, and from that time forth devoted 
himself almost exclusively to the cause of tem- 
perance, going all through Ireland preaching to 
immense audiences and administering the total 
abstinence pledge to vast numbers of people of 
all religious views. A wonderful change soon 
came over the people, for intoxication, with all 
its attendant evils and miseries, almost disap- 
peared. The beneficial effects were long felt, 
and are to a great extent felt yet. Intoxication 


before the noble-hearted Father Mathew's time 
was generally looked upon with some degree of 
indulgence, and even by some considered a thing 
to boast of. O'Connell, although not himself a 
professed total abstainer, did all he could to pro- 
mote the cause of temperance among his people 
and lent every help in his power to the great 

O'Connell and the other national leaders had 
all along hoped to have the Act of Union re- 
pealed, and to restore Grattan's independent par- 
liament. But the struggle for emancipation ab- 
sorbed so much of their energies that for several 
years after the repeal agitation was started it was 
carried on only in a half-hearted manner. In 
1840 it was vigorously renewed, when O'Connell 
founded the Repeal Association, and in 1843 he 
began to hold vast outdoor meetings in all parts 
of Ireland in favor of repeal, to which the people 
flocked, eager to support the movement and to 
hear his eloquent addresses. At one meeting, 
held on the historic hill of Tara, the seat of the 
ancient Irish monarchs, it was estimated that 
from a quarter to half a million people were 

O'Connell always enforced strict order and 
discipline at these immense gatherings, yet many 
of his political opponents maintained that he was 
quietly drilling his forces for some future at- 
tempt at revolution. But he always declared that 
he was the advocate of constitutional reform 
only, and that he was opposed to the employ- 
ment of force under any circumstances; and that 
no political cause was worth the shedding of a 
single drop of human blood. This principle he 
endeavored to establish as the ruling one of his 
party. It is conceded, however, that he could at 


any time have aroused the people of Ireland to 
another armed revolt if he had wished to do so. 

At last the government, alarmed, took action 
and forbade the meeting that was to be held at 
Clontarf, near Dublin, October 8. Shortly after- 
wards O'Connell and several of his associates 
were arrested, tried on the charge of conspiracy 
and sedition, and convicted. After they had 
spent three months in prison, however, they were 
released. An appeal had been forwarded to the 
House of Lords, and the lords decided that the 
trial was not a fair one, as the crown prosecutors 
had selected a "packed" jury. O'Connell came 
out of prison a greatly changed man; his health 
failed and spirit sank. All his young allies were 
falling away; his imprisonment virtually ended 
the agitation for repeal and ended, too, his mar- 
velous power in Ireland. 

In 1845 and the next five years the potato 
crop failed and there was a great famine. Dur- 
ing these awful years the people died of starva- 
tion and malignant fever by hundreds of thou- 
sands. The preventive measures taken by the 
government, in the form of public works and 
other ways, were wholly inadequate to relieve 
the starving millions. "Red tape was allowed to 
interfere with promptitude in official action, and 
the peasantry were dying by thousands while the 
authorities w^ere considering how the distribution 
of relief could best be reconciled with the rules 
of political economy." The entire civilized world, 
however, was aroused to pity and sympathy, and 
from the farthest regions of the earth the help 
of the charitable came pouring in. That help 
was sadly wanted. One pathetic feature of this 
national tragedy, or "artificial famine," was that 
during the whole time of the distress Ireland pro- 


duced sufficient food to more than supply the 
people of the whole country; but, day after day, 
beef, pork, mutton, poultry, grain, butter and 
eggs left the Irish shores in shiploads, while the 
peasantry by myriads were dying of hunger. 
Notwithstanding the great efforts of benevolent 
individuals and associations, it is estimated that 
one-fourth of the people of Ireland died of famine 
and from disease caused by starvation. It was 
undoubtedly the worst national calamity known 
to modern European history. 

After O'Connell's trial and conviction a num- 
ber of the younger men among his followers, los- 
ing faith in his method of peaceful and constitu- 
tional agitation, separated from him and formed 
the Young Ireland party. They were educated 
men of the highest character, and many of them 
of great literary ability. O'Connell's various or- 
ganizations from the opening of his career had 
been almost exclusively Catholic, but the Young 
Ireland party included Catholics and Protestants, 
and one of their aims was to unite the whole peo- 
ple of Ireland into one great organization. 

The Nation newspaper, founded in 1842, the 
Young Irelanders now used to give expression 
to their views. It was ably conducted, its pages 
abounding in brilliant writing, both prose and 
verse, a large part of which has become perma- 
nently embodied in Irish national literature. The 
writers were much less cautious than O'Connell; 
their articles tended towards revolutionary doc- 
trines, and they soon came into collision with the 
law. Other journals, with similar principles and 
objects, were founded, with writers who were 
still more outspoken. Among these, the most 
conspicuous for his ably written and violent ar- 
ticles was John Mitchel, an Ulster Unitarian, who 


eventually advocated revolution and total sepa- 
ration from the British empire. 

During all this time of dissension and trouble 
the w^hole of the Catholic clergy and the great 
majority of the people, constituting the Old Ire- 
land party, stood by O'Connell. The secession 
of the Young Irelanders was a cause of great 
grief to him, and he denounced them v^ith un- 
sparing bitterness, for he believed that they 
would bring trouble on themselves and the coun- 
try. Yet in many ways this brilliant group of 
young men exercised great influence for good, 
which remained after the trouble and trials had 
passed away. They infused new life and energy 
into Irish national literature, spread among the 
people a knowledge of Irish history, Irish music, 
and learning of all kinds, and taught them to 
admire what was good and noble among past 
generations of Irishmen of every creed, party 
and race. 

In 1846 O'Connell, worn out by disease, 
worry and age, began to decline rapidly in health. 
He suffered intense agony at witnessing the 
calamities of the country he loved so well, for 
the famine was at this time making fearful havoc 
in Ireland. His last speech in the House of Com- 
mons-was delivered February 8, 1847. It was an 
appeal to parliament and the government to deal 
promptly and liberally with Ireland's need. He 
spoke in weak, broken, almost inaudible tones, 
contrasting strongly with the well-remembered 
voice which had so often charmed the House of 
Commons. His physicians, hoping the change 
of climate would benefit or restore his health, 
advised him to seek rest in southern Europe. He 
set out on a journey to Rome, but his strength 
failed completely on the way, and he died at 


Genoa, May 15, 1847. In accordance with his 
last wish, his heart was carried to Rome, "where, 
250 years before, Ireland's greatest soldier, Hugh 
O'Neill, had laid his weary heart to rest in hope- 
less exile." O'Connell's heart rests in the Church 
of St. Agatha, and his body was brought back to 
Ireland and interred in Glasnevin cemetery, 
where it lies at the base of a round tower, 165 feet 
in height. 

Even those who are disposed to criticise him 
most severely will hardly deny that O'Connell's 
tomb at Glasnevin is the resting place of a great 
man who truly loved his country with an abso- 
lute disinterestedness. "He was," it has been 
well said, "the incarnation of an entire nation." 
Not only was he Irish of the Irish, but Celt of 
the Celts, every quality, every characteristic, 
which belongs to the race being found in him, 
only on an immense scale. His aims, his hopes 
and enthusiasms were theirs ; he had a great cause 
and to this and to the magnetic and marvelous 
power of his unique personality is due that in- 
extraordinary influence which he wielded so mag- 
ically for nearly half a century. 



Ireland had no literature peculiarly her own 
after the native tongue ceased to be the language 
of the majority of the people. There had been 
Irish literary men at all times, but they wrote 
in English and in the style of that literature to 
which they belonged. Catholic emancipation 
brought for the first time a genuine Irish litera- 
ture, inspired by the feelings, the traditions, and 
the atmosphere of the country, though written 
in English. A new life was growing up in Ire- 
land, a life of literature and patriotic movement. 

Among the leaders of the new movement, or 
Young Ireland party, were Davis, Dufify, Dillon, 
Mitchel and Meagher, all highly educated and 
literary men. These brilliant young Irishmen 
were at first all ardent allies and admirers of 
O'Connell, but they began in private to criticise 
his conservative policy, his declarations of at- 
tachment to the queen and his snubs to leading 
men in America and France. "O'Connell was 
fiercely opposed to negro slavery in the United 
States and elsewhere, and his prejudice against 
the French dated from the time of his flight from 
their country at the period of the Reign of 

The literature of Young Ireland, or the Irish 
Confederation (the name under which it organ- 
ized), made its mark and revived in new form the 
ancient literary characteristics of the Irish peo- 
ple. "Its ballads were sung and its stories were 


told among the young men and women of city 
and country all over Ireland." The Nation, a 
weekly newspaper of undoubted ability, was 
founded in 1842 by Thomas O. Davis, Charles 
G. Duffy and John B. Dillon, to represent 
properly the national feeling of Young Ireland 
and to be the organ and mouthpiece of the new 
ideas, hopes and ambitions that were coming into 
being under the influence of the repeal move- 

Thomas O. Davis, Young Ireland's chosen 
leader, and editor-in-chief of the Nation up to the 
time of his premature death in 1845, was a liberal- 
minded Protestant, the son of a Welsh father and 
Irish mother, a young man of remarkable 
mental power. Davis believed that Irish history, 
language, science, art and literature should go 
hand in hand with the struggle for a restored na- 
tionality, and in this combination he succeeded in 
enlisting nearly all Ireland. Love of country was 
Davis' ruling passion, and he had the rare skill 
Df finally infusing into all with whom he came 
an contact his own enthusiastic spirit. His death, 
almost at the opening of his career, was an irrep- 
arable loss to Ireland. 

The Irish national spirit of the time owed 
much of its rise and spread to the influence of 
the Nation, established "to create and foster pub- 
lic opinion in Ireland and make it racy of the 
soil." "This great paper speedily won an inter- 
national reputation, and its leading articles were 
quoted in nearly every language of Europe, while 
in America it soon had a large and growing con- 
stituency. It attracted to its brilliant pages the 
contributions of the brightest intellects of Ire- 
land, regardless of creed or racial origin. Its aim 
was to unite all Irishmen of every religion and 


race into one grand confederation for the re- 
establishment of Irish independence." 

The success of the Nation was extraordi- 
nary. Its poHtical teachings, its inspiring and 
vigorous songs and ballads, the new lessons of 
courage and hope that it taught, the wide knowl- 
edge of history possessed by its writers — all com- 
bined to make it welcome to thousands. The 
tradesmen in towns, and the country peasants, 
read it and were animated by the story of their 
old historic island into the belief that she had 
a future and that the future was close at hand, 
and that they were to help to make it. The alli- 
ance between Old Ireland (as the O'Connell wing 
of the Repealers came to be called) and Young 
Ireland was not of long duration. Most of the 
Young Irelanders began to entertain little con- 
cealed contempt for the peace policy of O'Con- 
nell. The great majority of the Young Ireland- 
ers talked, read and thought revolution. In pas- 
sionate poems and eloquent speeches they ex- 
pressed their hatred of tyranny and their stern 
resolve to free their countrymen by brave deeds 
rather than by arguments. 

The Young Irelanders seceded from O'Con- 
nell in 1846 — "the most momentous moral event 
that occurred in Ireland during that year." The 
rupture which had been brewing for some time 
came to an issue at one of the regular meetings 
of the Repeal Association in Conciliation Hall, 
Dublin, on the introduction of the "peace-at-any- 
price" resolution brought forward by O'Connell 
himself, probably at the suggestion of his "fac- 
tious and intriguing son," John, who virtually 
ruled there since his father's imprisonment and 
ill health. Mitchel, Meagher and other Young 
Irelanders had vigorously protested against 


O'Connell's intimacy with the Whigs and also 
against the Repealers supporting officeholders, 
which had lately come into practice. 

O'Connell apparently wished to rid himself 
of these radicals and the Nation journal which 
represented them, and doubtless the obnoxious 
resolution was introduced to drive "the rash 
young men," as he called them, out of the Repeal 
Association. The debate lasted two days, and 
speakers on both sides "almost exhausted the re- 
sources of eloquence in their arguments." Finally 
Mitchel, Meagher and their friends left the hall. 
The result was a newer and bolder, and, "we may 
add, brighter Repeal Association, known as the 
Irish Confederation." O'Connell died in 1847 
on his way to Rome. After the death of the great 
Tribune the Repeal Association "slowly but 
surely faded away." The leadership of John 
O'Connell was unpopular with many of his fa- 
ther's followers and gradually they dropped out; 
numbers of them joined the ranks of the Young 
Ireland party. 

William Smith O'Brien, of Limerick, a large 
land owner, member of parliament and a direct 
descendant of Brian Boru, became Young Ire- 
land's leader. O'Brien was "a brave man, a good 
man, honest and utterly devoted to the cause." 
He had previously acted with the Whigs, but 
became disaffected with the whole English sys- 
tem of government in Ireland and "threw himself 
ardently into the popular ranks in the hour of 
doubt and danger." His ablest lieutenants were 
John Mitchel and Thomas Francis Meagher, the 
former as a writer and the latter as an orator 
were "of the first magnitude in their respective 
orbits, with Thomas D. McGee, Charles G. Duffy, 
John B. Dillon, Maurice R. Leyne, Richard 


O'Gorman, Jr., and Michael Doheny little behind 
them in point of merit." 

The Nation became as able as in the time of 
Davis, and, as Mitchel was now its chief editor, 
it gradually assumed a radical national tone that 
greatly increased its circulation and enlarged its 
influence. Many public meetings of the Irish 
Confederation were held in Dublin and other 
cities during 1847, and Meagher delivered ad- 
dresses "unequaled for power and brilliancy since 
the days of Grattan and Shell." The Nation, 
however, was not radical enough to please John 
Mitchel, who gave up his connection with it in 
1848, and started a journal of his own called the 
United Irishman, in which he openly advocated 
the absolute independence of Ireland. This jour- 
nal he filled with his own fiery spirit, and it soon 
surpassed all other Irish papers in circulation and 
popular favor. He was ably assisted by Thomas 
D. Reilly and other brilliant and radical writers. 
He attacked the English government, the viceroy, 
the "Castle Gang," the landlords, the peace advo- 
cates, and some of the clergy. He declared that 
"the life of a peasant was worth the life of a 
peer." He advised the people to feed their fami- 
lies and themselves first and give a reasonable 
part of what remained to the landlords, and, in 
brief, he attacked the government and society in 
Ireland as they had not been attacked since the 
days of Swift. 

Unable to stand the more moderate policy 
of O'Brien, Dillon, Duffy and others, Mitchel 
finally seceded from the Young Ireland party. 
All Europe in '48 became excited with a desire 
to revolt, and Ireland, despite her deplorable con- 
dition, also became disaffected, particularly in 
the chief cities. Revolutionary clubs were 


formed. These Mitchel advised to procure arms, 
guns and pikes. The advice was taken. Gun- 
smiths did a thriving secret business, and thou- 
sands of pikes were quietly made by patriotic 
artisans. The revolution in 1848 broke out in 
France, which became for the second time a re- 
public. 1848 was a year of revolutions in Europe, 
and O'Brien and his followers were aroused to 
the point of definite, decided action. 

Several of the Young Irelanders undertook 
a mission to France for the purpose of obtaining, 
if possible, from the republican government help 
in Ireland's efforts for freedom. Mitchel was ar- 
rested and brought to trial in May, because of 
articles which had appeared in his paper. He 
was charged with treason-felony, a new offense 
created by special legislation. He was found 
guilty by a "packed" jury and sentenced to trans- 
portation for fourteen years. 

In the summer of 1848 the revolt broke out 
in Munster under the leadership of Smith 
O'Brien, and proved a complete failure. Many 
of the Young Irelanders were totally opposed to 
so premature an attempt, but O'Brien was deter- 
mined to go on, and those who associated with 
him were unwilling to hold back. No systematic 
plan had been made for weapons or military 
stores, and even in the county where the rising 
took place the majority of the people did not 
know their leaders had come from Dublin to open 
the civil war. The peasantry knew little of the 
Young Irelanders, except that they had been de- 
nounced by O'Connell and were disliked by the 
clergy, and the people were too disheartened by 
famine and disease to be able to fight. The strug- 
gle began and ended in an encounter with a large 
body of police at Ballingarry, County Tipperary. 


William S. O'Brien, Thomas F. Meagher, 
Patrick O'Donoghue and Terrance B. McManus 
were soon after arrested, charged with high trea- 
son, and tried at Clonmel. They were all found 
guilty and condemned to be hanged, drawn and 
quartered. The sentence, however, was changed 
to transportation for life. 

In 1852 Meagher escaped from the penal col- 
ony and came to the United States, where he 
fought bravely at the head of the Irish brigade 
for the North during the Civil war. He lost his 
life by accident in 1867, when he fell from the 
deck of a steamer and was drowned in the muddy 
water of the Missouri. 

Mitchel also managed to escape from the col- 
ony to America, and eventually settled in the 
South, where he became an ardent advocate of 
slavery. He edited the Richmond Enquirer dur- 
ing the Civil war. Two of his sons fell on the 
Southern side during the struggle — one at Fort 
Sumter and the other at Gettysburg. After the 
war Mitchel lived in New York City and there 
published the Irish Citizen. In 1874 he paid a 
visit to Ireland and was received by the people 
with great enthusiasm. A vacancy soon after- 
wards occurred in parliament, representing 
County Tipperary, and Mitchel was elected with- 
out opposition. Meanwhile he had returned to 
America, but immediately went back to Ireland 
in feeble health. Objection was raised to Mitchel 
taking his seat in parliament, because he was a 
convicted felon who had not carried out his sen- 
tence. A long debate took place, resulting in a 
large majority declaring the election void and 
ordering the issue of a new writ. A second elec- 
tion took place and Mitchel was re-elected by an 
overwhelming majority over a Conservative. 


Mitchel died within a few days after the election, 
at the home of his brother-in-law, John Martin. 
In 1856 O'Brien received a free pardon and was 
permitted to return to his native country. 

After the failure of the revolt of 1848 the Irish 
national cause became a continuous struggle for 
the abolition of the Irish land tenure system. The 
evil effects of the famine were long felt, and emi- 
gration to this country increased rapidly. Those 
who emigrated were for the most part the young, 
strong and enterprising, and those left behind 
were the least capable of effecting the industrial 
and social regeneration of Ireland. The popula- 
tion of the country decreased steadily year after 
year, and has been declining to the present 
day. During fifty years after the famine 4,000,- 
000 emigrants left Ireland, the vast majority of 
them for the United States. A new Ireland arose, 
in America, where the Irish found profitable work 
on the farms and in the towns and great cities. 
Irishmen of ability began to take influential posi- 
tions and to hold high offices in the eastern and 
western states. 

The population of Ireland is now (1910) 
hardly one-half of what it was in the days before 
the famine. T. W. Russell, M. P., says of this 
exodus: "These exiles became American citi- 
zens. They nursed the Fenian rebellion which 
threw England into a panic; they financed the 
Land League and changed the very basis of that 
feudal land system which so long cursed the 
country; they hatched dynamite conspiracies 
and paid England back, at least in part, for the 
sufferings of their fathers and their friends. But 
they have done far more — they prevented in the 
past and they prevent today any understanding 
between England and the United States — such an 


understanding as Mr. Chamberlain thinks would 
dominate and control the world. Yes, beyond 
all doubt, England has paid dearly for the luxury 
of Irish landlordism — for this is what it all means 
— and she will continue to pay until she rids her- 
self of the incubus." 



For many years Ireland was politically 
quiet. A futile attempt was made in 1849, after 
all the Young Ireland leaders had fled, or been 
imprisoned, or sent into exile, to revive the agi- 
tation and recreate the insurrection. A few abor- 
tive local risings took place, and that was all. 
Famine and misery forced the people into steady 
and incessant emigration; eviction was in full 
sway, and consequently it is estimated that nearly 
2,000,000 people left Ireland between 1850 and 
1860. Evictions took place by the thousands; in 
winter and summer, by day and night, in fair 
and foul weather, the tenants were ejected. 
Whether sick or well, bedridden or dying, men, 
women and children were turned out for the 
rents they had not paid, for which in those days 
of famine and pestilence they could not pay. 
"They might go to America if they could; they 
might die on the roadside if it so pleased them. 
They were out of the hut and the hut was un- 
roofed that they might not seek its shelter 

It can hardly be a matter of surprise, under 
these conditions, if the lives of the evicting land- 
lords, or their agents, should often be threatened 
and sometimes be taken. Few outside of Ireland 
can have any adequate idea of the fearful horrors 
of eviction as it prevailed in the years that imme- 
diately followed the famine. Many of the land- 
lords themselves were in no enviable condition. 

^History of Ireland 493 

Mortgages and settlements of all kinds (the re- 
sults of their own or their ancestors' extrava- 
gance and folly) hung on their estates, and made 
many an ample rent-roll the merest shadow of 
material wealth. Even rack-rents could not en- 
able many of the landlords to pay their debts 
and "keep their heads above water." 

In 1850 those who sympathized with the ten- 
ants' cause began to agitate for protective legis- 
lation. A conference of earnest men of every 
class and creed was held in Dublin from all parts 
of the country, and the Irish Tenant League 
started. Everything seemed at first against the 
league; the indifference of England, the prostra- 
tion of the country after the famine and revolt; 
the apathy and even hostility of many of the 
Irish members of parliament. But in 1852, when 
parliament was dissolved, the chance of the Ten- 
ant Leaguers came. Many tenant-right members 
were elected, and now there was a well organized 
Tenant-Right party in the House of Commons. 
This party advocated the poHcy of independent 
action, whereby its members pledged themselves 
to uncompromising opposition to every govern- 
ment that should refuse or delay to settle the 
Irish land system. 

It seemed at last as if a new and brighter 
era had dawned for the Irish people. Ireland 
had for a while a large body of representatives 
pledged to work together for a national purpose 
of a truly practical character. Many of those 
who had been elected, pledged to tenant-right, 
were men of the highest integrity, honor and 
patriotism. Conspicuous among the patriotic 
leaders were Charles Gavan Duffy, Isaac Butt 
and John Francis Maguire. 

Unfortunately for the country and the cause, 


the Tenant-Right party in the House of Com- 
mons contained able members who were neither 
pure, honorable, nor patriotic. Among the most 
prominent of these was the once famous John 
Sadleir. His lieutenants were William Keogh, 
Edmund O'Flaherty, and his brother, James Sad- 
leir. These men were all unscrupulous adven- 
turers. John Sadleir was a man of remarkable 
ability, and still more remarkable audacity, but 
absolutely unprincipled. The Sadleirs owned one 
of the most popular banks in Ireland; they had 
plenty of means and spent it lavishly; they 
started a newspaper, the Telegraph, to keep them 
before the public eye. They were able speakers 
and for a time a great many people believed in 
them. Even when the power of the Sadleirs 
was at its height, they were mistrusted by the 
majority of intelligent men, a mistrust that was 
soon justified. But the independence of the new 
party was of short duration, for, in 1853, when 
Lord Derby went out of office, and Lord Aber- 
deen became Prime Minister, several members 
of the Irish party accepted office under the new 
administration. John Sadleir became Lord of 
the Treasury; Keogh was made Irish Solicitor- 
General; O'Flaherty, Commissioner of Income 

After a time John Sadleir was convicted of 
forgery, when he had ruined half Ireland with his 
fraudulent bank. He had made use of his gov- 
ernment position to embezzle public funds, and 
when discovered he took his own life. His 
brother James, expelled from the House of Com- 
mons, fled from the country and was heard of 
no more. O'Flaherty hurried to Denmark, where 
there was no extradition treaty; Keogh, the 
fourth of this "notorious quadrilateral," contrived 


to keep himself clear of the law. He was at once 
made a judge, and became conspicuous for his 
unfailing and relentless hostility to any Irish 
National party. "After a long career of tyranny, 
he became insane, and ended his dishonored ca- 
reer by cutting his throat in a Belgian mad- 
house." This defection among the leaders proved 
disastrous to the Tenant-Right movement and 
brought on another period of political apathy in 
Ireland as far as constitutional agitation was 
concerned. Charles Gavan Duffy in disgust or 
despair resigned his seat in parliament in 1856 
and left Ireland to find fame and fortune in Aus- 

About this time a political organization 
called the Fenian Brotherhood was started in the 
United States, the name Fenian being taken 
from ancient Irish history, in which it repre- 
sented one of the National militia. The name 
was well chosen for its special purpose, because 
it appealed to national sentiment, and seemed to 
bring the Irish exile back into association with 
the traditons of his race. Two of the chief or- 
ganizers, James Stephens and John O'Mahony, 
had been at Ballingarry with William Smith 
O'Brien in 1848, and "their leadership of the 
movement was a link between the present and 
the past." After the failure of '48 Stephens and 
O'Mahony escaped to the United States, where 
the latter remained to organize the American 
Irish. The Fenians, organized by secret enroll- 
ment, declared that their object was to make 
Ireland an independent republic. Stephens re- 
turned to Ireland in 1858 to start the work there 
and in England. He was arrested, in 1865, in 
Dublin, and sent to prison, but managed to make 
his escape "by a combination of cleverness and 


daring," assisted by two of the keepers, who 
were also Fenians. 

The Irish Fenians in America organized an 
invasion of Canada, in May, 1866. On the 1st 
of June their vanguard crossed the Niagara 
River, near Buffalo, occupied Fort Erie, raised 
the Irish flag over its ramparts, and, led by Col- 
onel John O'Neill, the next morning defeated 
the Canadian volunteers, and captured a stand 
of colors in the famous battle of Ridgeway. But 
O'Neill was compelled to return to New York, 
as the authorities at Washington decided to en- 
force the neutrality laws, arrested most of the 
leaders and stopped the invasion. 

In England the Fenians arranged a plan for 
the capture of Chester Castle (where abundant 
arms were believed to be stored, then to push 
on to Holyhead and take possession of all the 
steamers that might be there, and thus to carry 
out an invasion of Ireland. This daring plan, 
however, came to the knowledge of the authori- 
ties before being put into execution, so it failed. 
In March, 1867, an attempt at a general rising 
was made in Ireland, but it, too, proved a com- 
plete failure, owing to want of thorough organ- 
ization and lack of skillful leadership, as well as 
vigilance of the government, treachery of in- 
formers and dissension among the Fenians them- 
selves. A large number of the Fenians were ar- 
rested in England and Ireland and sentenced 
to long terms in prison. 

In Manchester, England, a daring and suc- 
cessful attempt was made by the Fenians to res- 
cue Colonel Thomas J. Kelly and Captain John 
Deasy (the active heads of the Fenian order in 
Great Britain and Ireland) on their way to jail 
in a prison-van, and, in the attempt to break the 


lock of the van by a pistol-shot, a police officer, 
inside, who had charge of the prisoners, was acci- 
dentally killed. The English were greatly in- 
censed at the escape of Kelly and Deasy, who 
were never retaken and reached this country in 
safety. For the Manchester rescue three of the 
Fenians, William P. Allen, Michael Larkin and 
Michael O'Brien, were tried, convicted and sen- 
tenced to be hanged. Many earnest but unsuc- 
cessful efforts were made to save their lives, on 
the plea that the death of the officer was the re- 
sult merely of accident and not an attempt to 
kill, and that although the rescue was illegal, the 
men engaged in it ought not to be treated as 
common murderers for the one death which it 
caused. John Bright and John Stuart Mill gave 
all the weight of their influence and eloquence to 
obtain pardon for the condemned men and A. C. 
Swinburne addressed a fine poetic appeal for 
mercy to the people of England. But all in vain; 
the three convicted men were executed Novem- 
ber 23, 1867, and have ever since been known 
among Irish Nationalists as the Manchester 

In December, 1867, an unsuccessful attempt 
was made by Fenians to blow up Clerkenwall jail, 
with the hope of rescuing one of their comrades, 
who was confined there. The explosion caused 
the death of twelve and injury to over one hun- 
dred entirely innocent and unconcerned persons, 
and created a feeling of horror throughout Eng- 
land. The principal offender in the Clerkenwall 
explosion was tried, found guilty, and executed; 
and the attempt upon the prison was universally 
condemned by all — Irish as well as English. 
Among the Fenians in America there was a cer- 
tain dynamite class, who believed that the Eng- 


lish authorities could be frightened into grant- 
ing justice to Ireland by plots for the destruction 
of human life in English cities. An attempt was 
made to blow up London Bridge, in December, 
1884, and one to wreck the Houses of Parlia- 
ment in the following January, both of which 
ended in failure. It may be noted that the ac- 
credited Fenian chiefs never authorized any acts 
of this violent character. Some of the leaders 
were men of high honor and pure motives. 
Among these were John O'Leary, Thomas C. 
Luby and Charles J. Kickham, all men of rare in- 
tellectual gifts and high moral character. 

Two of the Fenians, who were actually sen- 
tenced to death, afterwards won distinction in 
peaceful pursuits. One of these, John Boyle 
O'Reilly, whose death sentence was changed to 
penal servitude for life, managed to escape to 
this country, and settled in Boston, where he 
rose to eminence as a journalist and poet and 
was made welcome in Boston's most exclusive 
literary circles. The other, J. F. X. O'Brien, was 
for many years an honored member of the House 
of Commons, and a stanch adherent of the Irish 
National party. "O'Brien had the curious dis- 
tinction," says Justin McCarthy, "of being the 
last man in these countries [British Isles] on 
whom the now abolished sentence of death, with 
drawing and quartering included, was passed." 
One result of the Fenian uprising was that it 
fixed the attention of English statesmen on Ire- 
land, and convinced them that something must 
be done for the pacification of the country. 



The constitutional agitation, which had been 
interrupted by the Fenian movement, soon again 
became active. It found a leader in Isaac Butt, 
the eloquent advocate who had defended some of 
the state prisoners at Clonmel, and had made 
himself prominent as a sympathizer with Ire- 
land's aspirations for a National Parliament. 
Butt was a Protestant, and at first a Conserva- 
tive, but he had become thoroughly in sympathy 
with Ireland's cause. Under his leadership the 
name of Home Rule was first given to the new 
constitutional claim. Butt's methods were much 
too formal for the energy which was once more 
animating Irishmen. His plan was to bring for- 
ward at every session a motion in favor of Home 
Rule for Ireland. This motion, introduced by 
him in an able argumentation speech, was the 
subject of a formal debate, and when the decision 
was taken, was invariably found to have only a 
very small minority of supporters. The question 
was then laid aside until the next session. 

Some young men from Ireland were meantime 
coming into the House of Commons. One of 
these, Charles Stewart Parnell, destined to make 
for himself an enduring name in Irish history, 
soon took the lead in a new and vigorous parlia- 
mentary movement. Irish by birth and resi- 
dence, Parnell (whose ancestors settled in Ire- 
land in the time of Charles II.) had studied at 
Cambridge University, but had given no evidence 


of any uncommon ability, and was entirely un- 
known to the vast majority of the House of Com- 
mons, when in April, 1875, he was elected as 
Home Ruler for County Meath. Parnell soon 
showed that he had a profound interest in the 
land question, and he devised or perfected a prac- 
tical plan which came to be known as the policy 
of obstruction. The idea of this policy was that 
if the members of the House of Commons could 
not be persuaded to devote time and interest to 
the demands of Ireland, the Irish National party 
must make it clear that they would not be allowed 
to transact any other business. 

Obstruction had indeed been put into prac- 
tice from time to time for the purpose of talking 
down obnoxious measures, but it had never 
before been employed as the systematic plan of 
a parliamentary party. Parnell and his followers 
debated every question as it came up with tire- 
less energy, and, as the rules of the House were 
not then formed to prevent obstruction, they 
kept the Commons sitting night after night by 
continuous speeches. Butt was a parliamentary 
politician of the conventional school, and set 
himself wholly against the plans of Parnell, but 
the latter proved too able for him, and soon the 
whole power of Irish Nationalism at home and 
abroad was under his command. Butt died in 
May, 1879, and after a short time Parnell was 
chosen leader of the Irish National party. 

The new chief was an able and effective de- 
bater, with a rare talent for political leadership. 
No man since O'Connell's time had anything 
like the same power over his countrymen, and 
Parnell had a better and more popular parlia- 
mentary policy than O'Connell's in the House of 
Commons. Parnell especially wanted to force 


the Irish question on the attention of the public 
and of parliament, and this he proved himself 
able to do. The House of Commons, at the 
desire of successive ministries, introduced new 
rules for the abolition, or restriction of obstruc- 
tion, but the debates on each new proposal gave 
fresh opportunities for the obstruction policy. 
New coercive measures were introduced for Ire- 
land, and prosecutions led to the imprisonment 
of Parnell himself and many of his leading fol- 
lowers; but the power of the great Irish leader 
could not be broken. English statesmen were 
beginning to ask themselves whether there must 
not be something calling for redress in a move- 
ment which could thus unite the great majority 
of the Irish people. 

The Irish land system imperatively needed 
reforming. In 1879, after three years of bad 
harvest, the majority of the population of Ire- 
land was threatened with starvation. The hor- 
rors of the great famine seemed likely to appear 
again. The Irish party in parliament urged the 
government to take some action to relieve the 
distress, but nothing was done, and the hardships 
increased. Outside of parliament an able and 
earnest man was preparing to introduce the 
greatest land agitation for reform in modern 
times. Michael Davitt was the son of an evicted 
tenant; his earliest youthful impressions had 
been of the misery of the Irish peasant and the 
tyranny of the Irish landlord. A great agita- 
tion, led by Davitt, spread rapidly throughout 
the country in 1879. During this year land meet- 
ings were held in many parts of Ireland, and, in 
October, Davitt, Parnell and other Nationalists 
met in Dublin and formally established the Irish 
National Land League, "the most powerful po- 


litical organization that had been formed since 
the union." 

Parnell was elected the first president of the 
Land League, the objects of which were Home 
Rule, the abolition of the existing land system, 
and the introduction of peasant proprietorship. 
The father of this movement was Davitt, but it 
owed much of its success to the political genius 
of Parnell. Every detail of the land question 
was made clear to the peasants everywhere at 
great public meetings, addressed by Parnell, 
Davitt and their associates. The Land League 
agitation penetrated to every part of Ireland 
and aroused such strong feelings against extor- 
tion and injustice that acts of violence, outrage 
and homicide were common. 

The agitation spread to this country, where 
an extensive organization was formed for the 
purpose of providing means to carry on the work 
in Ireland. A large parliamentary fund was col- 
lected, and Parnell was soon in a position to pro- 
vide for his many followers, who were thus able 
to devote themselves exclusively to the work of 
reform. Parnell led an able party of over eighty 
members, and never, perhaps, was a party so well 
or so finely disciplined. 

The eminent English statesman, William E. 
Gladstone, had before this become convinced of 
the necessity of making some change in the land- 
tenure system of Ireland, and for the abolition 
of the Irish Established Church. When at the 
head of the government in 1868 he set himself 
to carry out these objects. During that admin- 
istration he disestablished and disendowed the 
Irish State Church and carried a bill through par- 
liament recognizing the right of the Irish tenant 
to payment for improvement effected by him in 


the land if he were to be deprived of his farm. 
This measure, although imperfect as a complete 
settlement of the land question, was the first step 
in the legislation attempted since by the Impe- 
rial Parliament for securing to the Irish tenant a 
fair chance of making a living by his industry. 

Gladstone was applying himself to the ques- 
tion of Home Rule when the assassination of 
Lord Frederick Cavendish and Thomas H. Burke 
took place in Phoenix Park, Dublin, May 6, 1882, 
and sent a shock of horror through the civilized 
world. This deed was the work of a group of 
desperate conspirators who had chosen to asso- 
ciate themselves with the National cause of Ire- 
land. Lord Cavendish had just been appointed 
chief secretary to the lord lieutenant by Glad- 
stone, with the hope of introducing a more con- 
ciliatory form of government into Ireland and 
getting rid of the old coercive system. Burke was 
under secretary and one of the permanent offi- 
cials at Dublin Castle, and was supposed to have 
obtained the secret plans drawn up by these con- 
spirators, and to have discovered the identity of 
their authors. It seems that the plan of the con- 
spirators was to "remove" Burke, and that Lord 
Cavendish was put to death only because he tried 
to defend his companion, with whom he was 
walking when the attack was made. This homi- 
cide was publicly condemned by all the leading 
Irish Nationalists, and was regretted all the 
more because of the general feeling against the 
Irish National cause which it naturally created. 

Gladstone remained steadfast in his faith in 
the better system of government needed for Ire- 
land. He went out of office in 1885 for a short 
time, but soon returned to power again after a 
general election the next year. He then intro- 


duced his first measure of Home Rule, the two 
leading principles of which were that Ireland 
should have a National Parliament of her own, 
without a representative in the British Parlia- 
ment. Grattan's Parliament was to be restored 
to Ireland without the absurd restrictions as to 
property and religion. Gladstone's Home Rule 
bill was defeated by a defection or split in the 
Liberal party, and the formation of the party 
called the Liberal Unionists, who opposed Home 
Rule and voted to uphold the union between Eng- 
land and Ireland. In June, 1886, there was a 
division on the measure, in which it was rejected 
by a majority of thirty. Gladstone now appealed 
to the country, and the result was that he and 
the Home Rulers were defeated and the Con- 
servatives came into office. 

In 1889 Parnell and his leading associates 
were triumphantly acquitted of the charge of 
persuading and bribing men to commit crimes, 
which the London Times had made against them, 
and of carrying on a dangerous agitation, 
fotmded on letters attributed to Parnell. The 
special commission appointed by the govern- 
ment for the investigation of these charges found 
that the letters (alleged to have been written by 
Parnell) were all forgeries. The forger, Richard 
Pigott, fled to Spain, and took his own life in 
Madrid to avoid arrest and its consequences. 
After the report of the commission, when Parnell 
took his seat in Parliament he was received with 
a warm welcome from the entire Liberal party; 
also from many independent and generous men 
among the Conservatives, "such as had never 
been given to a private member before." 

Soon after this reception came the O'Shea 
trial, which brought on a political calamity. Glad- 


stone and the leading- Liberals at once maintained 
that it would be impossible to pass a Home Rule 
measure if Parnell should continue to lead the 
Irish National party. A large majority of his 
associates now insisted upon the resignation of 
Parnell, while the minority asserted that he 
should be sustained in the leadership at all haz- 
ards. As no agreement cotild be effected after 
five days of heated debate, the anti-Parnellites 
separated and formed a party, with Justin Mc- 
Carthy as leader. Thus a deplorable division 
took place in the Irish ranks. Parnell and his 
followers now departed on a strenuous campaign 
in Ireland for the maintenance of his power, and 
there were many fiercely contested elections. 

Under the strain of failure and excessive 
fatigue, Parnell's health (greatly impaired by 
overwork for some years) broke down completely 
and Ireland's great statesman died October 6, 
1891. "So melancholy a close to a great political 
career," says Justin McCarthy, "is not often re- 
corded in history. The one fault and the one 
mistake of Parnell were soon forgotten by Ire- 
land as she bent over his grave." In the fall and 
death of her great leader Ireland suffered a 
memorable and irreparable loss. The division in 
the ranks of the Nationalists was not closed 
until January, 1900, when John E. Redmond 
became leader of the reunited Irish party. 



In February, 1893, Gladstone introduced into 
the House of Commons his second Home Rule 
measure. This modified bill was, in some of its 
provisions, a decided improvement over the one 
of '86. "It proposed to give Ireland a domestic 
or National Parliament for the management of 
her own affairs, and a certain proportionate rep- 
resentation in the Imperial Parliament." Many 
British Liberals who were also Home Rulers had 
strongly objected to the idea of separating Ire- 
land from any representation in the British 
House of Commons. Ireland's representation in 
the Imperial Parliament was to consist of eighty 
members. The new bill was therefore regarded 
with greater favor than its predecessor, and the 
Home Rule cause made another step in advance. 
The measure passed through the Commons by a 
majority of thirty-four votes, but it was rejected 
in the House of Lords. 

The principle of Home Rule for Ireland thus 
obtained the recognition and approval of the 
House of Commons, and "it is a tradition in 
British politics that any bill which once passes 
the Lower House is bound to win in the end." 
The Irish people for many years after the great 
leader's fall, both in Ireland and elsewhere, were 
a prey to faction and political impotency. The 
leaders of the Home Rule party at last reunited 
and agreed to "bury the hatchet" and work in 
harmony. John E. Redmond, the late lead- 


er's able lieutenant, faithful through calm and 
storm, was elected chairman of the united Irish 
party, and Ireland again presented a solid pha- 
lanx of over eighty members in the House of 
Commons. ''Even when this body was not 
entirely united they stood together for every 
measure of Irish reform, including the County 
Council bill, which did away with the usurpation 
of the non-representative grand juries and gave 
local Home Rule to all of the Irish munici- 

When united under Redmond the Irish came 
out boldly in the House of Commons against the 
Boer war, and voted against every bill of supply 
that would aid the monopolists in their attack 
on the independence of the South African Re- 
publics. Michael Davitt resigned his seat in the 
House of Commons rather than be even indi- 
rectly responsible for that uncalled for war on 
liberty and humanity. In the battle for land 
reforms the united Irish of this century showed 
much of the unconquerable spirit of their prede- 
cessors, and from time to time many members 
of parliament were imprisoned for the open asser- 
tion of their views. Queen Victoria died in Jan- 
uary, 1901, while the Boers were still heroically 
battling for freedom; Albert Edward, Prince of 
Wales, succeeded immediately, under the title of 
Edward VII. 

"The greatest measure of reform wrung 
from England by Irish effort in later years must 
be credited to the United Irish League, of which 
John E. Redmond, John Dillon, and Thomas P. 
O'Connor are the acknowledged leaders. The 
Land Purchase bill, after a long and bitter strug- 
gle with the Irish people, in which the 'Castle 
Government' was worsted, was introduced into 


the House of Commons by Irish Secretary Wynd- 
ham in the beginning of 1903, and, after passing 
through the routine stages in both houses of 
Parliament, was signed by Edward VII. on Aug- 
ust 14 of that year. It went into effect in the 
following November. This bill is the most rad- 
ical agrarian measure ever passed by the British 
legislature. While it needs many important 
amendments, particularly in regard to the rights 
of the laborers on farms and elsewhere, it irre- 
vocably establishes the principle of popular own- 
ership of the land, as opposed to the feudal sys- 
tem, which virtually obtained in Ireland until 
recent times; and it furthermore assures, in great 
measure, the future happiness and prosperity of 
the Irish people of all classes and callings." 

The cause of Irish home government is yet 
the leading subject at issue between England 
and Ireland, and can not be satisfactorily settled 
until the former country yields and an Irish par- 
liament, representing every interest among the 
people, resumes its long interrupted proceedings 
in the capital of the Irish nation. 





Barony — A petty sessional division of Irish Counties; the term 
in Britain applies to the estates of barons. 

Borough. — A town ^of England, Ireland, or Wales) sending mem- 
bers to parliament, or which is governed by municipal charter. 
A county borough is any borough instituted by the Local Gov- 
ernment act (1888) which either has a population of not less 
than 50,000, or is a county of itself. Such boroughs are, for the 
purposes of the act, administrative counties. 

Hamlet. — A small scattered village, a group of houses, a section of 
a parish. 

Local Government District. — A town, or other populous place of a 
more or less urban nature, which has adopted the Public Health 

Market Town. — A town holding markets on specified days — gen- 
erally once a week. 

Parish. — A division for combined civil and ecclesiastical purposes. 

Urban District. — A term applied to ' ' Local Government District. ' ' 
See above. 

C. & McD. — This is an abbreviation of Connellan and McDermott, 
whose Notes on the "Annals of Ireland" are a valuable addi- 
tion to that great work. 


B. & C. D. E. — Belfast and County Down Kailway. 

B. & N. C. E. — Belfast and Northern Counties Railway. 

C. & L. R. — Cavan and Leitrim Railway. 

C. B. & S. C. R. — Cork, Bandon and South Coast Railway. 

C. B. & P. R. — Cork, Bandon and Passage Railway. 

D. W. & W. R.— Dublin, Wicklow and Wexford Railway. 
G. N. I. R. — Great Northern (Ireland) Railway. 

G. S. & W. R. — Great Southern and Western Railwa3^ 

M. G. W. R. — Midland Great Western Railway. 

S. L. & N. C. R. — Sligo, Leitrim and Northern Counties Railway. 

L. L. S. & L. R. — Londonderry, Lough Swilly and Letterkenny 


All distances (if not stated to the contrary) are given in English 
statute miles, and heights in English feet. Statute mile, 5,280 
feet; Irish mile, 6,720 feet. 

The population of places in Ireland is taken from the census 
of 1901. 



Abercromby, Sir Ralph (1734-1801), British general, was born in 
Scotland. He first served in the Seven Years' war, and in 
1792-94 was ■^^mployed -vith the local rank of lieutenant-general 
in Flanders and Holland, against the revolutionary armies of 
France. He was wounded at Nimeguen, and throughout that 
disastrous campaign his military knowledge and courage were 
signally shown. In 1795 he was made a Knight of the Bath, 
and was appointed commander-in-chief of the forces in the West 
Indies. On his return to England, he was made governor of 
the Isle of Wight, and raised to the rank of lieutenant-general. 
In 1798 he was appointed commander-in-chief of the forces in 
Ireland, and subsequently held the same post in Scotland. In 
1800 he was made commander-in-chief of the expedition sent to 
Egypt, with the view of expelling the French from that country. 
He landed at Aboukir, after a severe contest with the enemy, 
March 8, 1801, and on the 21st of the same month fought the 
decisive battle of Alexandria. After a sanguinary struggle, the 
British were victorious, but their commander was mortally 
wounded. On the retreat of the French, he was conveyed on 
board the admiral's flag-ship, where he died seven days after. 
His body was deposited under the castle of St. Elmo at Malta, 
and a monument to his memory was erected by parliament in 
St. Paul's Cathedral, London. 

Aberdeen, Earl of, See Gordon, George Hamilton. 

Abraham or Abram (fl. B. C. 2000?), father of the Hebrews, was 
born at Ur, a city of Caldee about 2,000 years (it is supposed) 
before the Christian era. The place has been commonly identi- 
fied with the site of the mound Mugheir in Southern Babylonia. 
The family of Abraham traced its descent from Shem, one of 
the sons of Noah or Noe. He is styled ' ' father of the faithful, ' ' 
and is supposed to have died at the age of 175. 

Adair or Adare (ancient Athdara), parish and market town, with 
railway station (G. S. & W, E.), on the river Maig, County 
Limerick, 11 miles southeast of the City of Limerick and 140 
miles southwest of Dublin. The parish has an area of 11,938 
acres, and a population of 1,657. In ancient times it was a town 
of great note, and contains extensive ruins of abbeys and 
churches, and remains of a strong castle. The town gives the 
title of baron and viscount Adare and has a population of 478. 
Adare Manor is the seat of the Earl of Dunraven. 

Adoration, Plain of, see Magh Sleachta. 



Adrian IV. (1100-1159), the only Englishman who attained the 
papal dignity, was born at Langley, near St. Albans, England. 
His name was Nicholas Breakspere, and in his childhood he 
was dependent for his daily substance on the charity of the 
monastery, to which his father was a servitor. Unable through 
poverty to attend the schools, he was refused admission into 
the monastery for deficiency in learning; arid went to France, 
where he became a clerk in the monastery of St. Eufus, near 
Avignon, of which he was afterwards chosen abbot. In 1146 
he became cardinal, and, two years afterwards, went as legate 
to Denmark and Norway, where he made many converts. In 
December 1154 he was chosen Pope, under the name of Adrian, 
on which King Henry II. of England sent the abbot of St. 
Albans with three bishops to congratulate him. Adrian treated 
the abbot with great courtesy, and granted the ^abbey extraor- 
dinary privileges; also he is said to have issued in favor of 
Henry the celebrated document which sanctioned the conquest 
of Ireland on certain conditions. This disputed, important point 
in history is fully discussed in the Notes to Chapter XI., in 
which the best authorities regarding the genuineness of Adrian's 
Bull are given. In 1155 Adrian excommunicated the Eomans, 
and laid an interdict on the city until they banished Arnold of 
Brescia and put an end to the government which the latter 
had established. He also excommunicated "William the Norman, 
King of Sicily, for ravaging the territories of the Church, and, 
about the same time, became involved in difficulties with the 
Emperor Frederick of Suabia. Adrian died In 1159. 

Africa, the name applied since the time of the Eomans to the 
continent lying to the south of the Mediterranean. The inhab- 
itants of the north and northeast of Africa, including the Abys- 
sinians (a Semitic people), Egyptians, and Berbers, as well 
as the Asiatic settlers, the Arabs and the Jews, are 
all markedly different from those of the south and south- 
west, among whom the negro features are more or less promi- 
nent. The Jews are settled in considerable numbers in the Atlas 
States, and the Arabs are more widely diffused, being settled 
in large numbers in the north and east, and having the command 
of the trade (largely a slave-trade) of a great part of East and 
Central Africa. The Mohammedan religion has been Iritroduced 
by the Arabs into all North Africa, East Africa as far as the 
Zanzibar coast, and into the Sudan States between the Nile and 
the Niger basin; and in Central Africa Mohammedanism is 
constantly gaining ground. Ancient Christian sects survive in 
Abyssinia and Egypt (in th^ latter country called Copts). The 
rest of Africa is heathen, except where there are European set- 
tlers (chiefly English and Dutch Colonists in the south). Mis- 
government, internal wars, and the practice of slavery keep 
down the density of the population. 

Agrlcola, Cnaeus Julius (A. D. 37-93), a distingufshed Eoman 
general, was born A. D. 37 in Frejus, a Eoman colony in GauL 


His first military service was under Suetonius Paulinus in 
Britain. On his return to Eome he married a lady of rank, and 
was made qutestor in Asia, where he maintained the strictest 
integrity. He was chosen Tribune of the people, and quaestor 
(or treasurer) under Nero; and under Galba he was appointed 
commissioner to examine the state of the treasures belonging to 
the temples which Nero had avariciously confiscated. By Vespa- 
sian he was made a patrician and governor of Aquitania. In 
the same year his daughter married the historian Tacitus. 
Soon afterwards he was made governor of Britain, and carried 
his conquests into Scotland, where the famous engagement took 
place between the Eomans and the Caledonians, under the 
leadership of Galgacus. The Emperor Domitian, envying Agric- 
ola's virtues, recalled him, and ordered him to enter Kome in 
the night, that no triumph might be granted him. He obeyed, 
and, without betraying any resentment, retired into private 
life. He died A. D. 93, not without suspicion of having been 
poisoned by Domitian. 

Aherlow, village and rivulet. County Tipperary, flowing from the 
Galtee mountains 20 miles north and east to the Suir two and 
one-half miles above Cahir. The village of Aherlow is five miles 
south of Tipperary. 

Aileach, Palace of, the chief residence of the Kings of Ulster, 
and monarchs of Ireland of the Northern Hy Niall race, includ- 
ing Eugenians and Connellians, was at the royal fortress of 
Aileach, in Tirconnell, situated on a high hill or mountain, called 
Grianan, on the eastern shore of Lough Swilly, south of Inch 
Island, in the parish of Burt, or Fahan, barony of Inisowen, 
County Donegal. This fortress was called Grianan Aileach, from 
Grianan, which signifies a palace or royal residence, and Aileach, 
a stone fortress, derived from Ail, a rock. It was likewise named 
Aileach Neid, or the stone fortress of Neid, one of the Tuatha 
De Danann princes, and it was used as a residence in very remote 
ages by the Danann kings. The Eugenians, and their descend- 
ants, the O'Neills, and also the MacLoughlins, or O'Loughlins, 
who were a branch of the O 'Neills, appear to have chiefly resided 
at Aileach in early times. Aileach was often attacked by the 
Danes in the ninth and tenth centuries, particularly in A. D. 900, 
when it was taken by them; and again it was taken and plun- 
dered in A. D. 937 by the Danish forces, who came up with a 
fleet into Lough Swilly, on which occasion they took Murkertach 
O'Neill prisoner, the celebrated prince of Aileach, whom, how- 
ever, they soon after liberated. Murtough O'Brien, King of 
Munster in 1101, with a powerful force invaded Ulster, marched 
to Easroe, now Ballyshannon, proceeded to Inisowen, and took 
the fortress of Aileach, which he demolished, in revenge for the 
destruction of the Palace of Kincora, the royal seat of the 
Kings of Munster, near Killaloe in Clare, which had been burned 
in 1088 by Donal MacLoughlin, King of Ulster. After the 
destruction of Aileach, the O'Neills, Princes of Ulster, had their 


chief fortress and residence at Dungannon, in Tyrone. The 
fortress of Aileach was of a circular form, built of large stones 
well fitted together, and of great strength, constructed in the 
style of Cyclopean architecture. There are still considerable 
remains of the stone fortress, and the wall varies from ten to 
fifteen feet in thickness, and is of immense strength; the circum- 
ference of the building is about 100 yards, and it is surrounded 
with three great earthen ramparts, of which there are still some 
remains along the top of the mountain, and also traces of the 
ancient road which led between rocks of the fortress. — C. & McD. 

Alban Hills, near Kome, are noted as being the source from which 
the capital is supplied with water. B. C. 144 an aqueduct sixtv- 
two miles in length was constructed from Rome to the Alban 
Hills. Aqueducts on their huge arches across the Campagna and 
still bringing copious supplies of water from the Apennines and 
the Alban Hills are among the most striking features of modern 

Albemarle, Duke of, see Monk, George. 

Alfred (849-901), surnamed the great. King of the West Saxons 
in England, was born at Wantage in Berkshire in 849. He 
assumed the sovereignty and was crowned at Winchester in 871. 
He was immediately placed under the necessity of fighting for 
his crown, as the Danes had poured innumerable multitudes into 
England, and in the year of Alfred's accession many battles were 
fought between them and the Saxons. He fortified London and 
received submission of the Angles and Saxons throughout 
Britain. He finally routed the Danes with great slaughter at 
Edington in 878, and forced the survivors to surrender at discre- 
tion. He was assailed again by another great host of Northmen, 
who were joined by the Danes of East Anglia in 894. War raged 
in all parts of England until 897, when the invaders withdrew, 
and Alfred, by improving his ships, put an end to the ravagings 
of the smaller vikings. Alfred's promotion of learning is per- 
haps the most distinctive feature of his rule, and brought to 
Wessex the best scholars of the time. The period of his own 
greatest literary activity lay between 880 and 893. He restored 
and built many monasteries in the kingdom, enacted excellent 
laws, built a fleet, revived learning, and laid the foundation of 
the English constitution. He died in 901, and was buried at 
New Minster (afterwards Hyde Abbey) at Winchester. 
Allen, Bog of, a bog of great but undefined extent, in Leinster. 
The name generally applies to the whole series of bogs between 
the Slieve Bloom mountains and the parallel of Mullingar, and 
especially to the east broken portion of the series, which lies 
in the northwest of County Kildare, and thence expands west 
into King's County. It contains upwards of 240,000 acres, and 
is .250 feet above sea-level. 
Allen, Hill of, is a historic hill in County Kildare. The celebrated 
hero, Finn MacCoul, commander of the Fenian warriors in the 
third century, had his chief residence or fortress at Almain (now 


the Hill of Allen), in Kildare, which appears to have been of 
great extent, and surrounded with many other habitations, pro- 
vided for the Fenian troops under his command. The place is 
highly celebrated in the Ossianie poems and other productions 
of the ancient bards. The great battle of Almain (or Cath 
Almhaine) was fought here in the beginning of the eighth cen- 
tury, between Fergal (or Farrell), Monarch of Ireland, and 
Donough, son of Murrough, King of Leinster, and Hugh, son of 
Colgan, when the former marched into Leinster to enforce pay- 
ment of the Boarian tribute. Fergal was defeated and slaia 
together with 160 of his chiefs.— C. & McD. 

All Saints' Day, a church festival introduced because of the impos- 
sibility of keeping a separate day for every saint. As early 
as the fourth century, the Sunday after Easter was appointed 
by the Greek Christian Church for commemorating the martyrs 
generally, and in the Christian Church of Eome a similar festival 
was introduced about 610. But the real festival of All Saints 
was first regularly instituted by Pope Gregory IV. in 835, on the 
first of November. It is also called All Hallows, and in French 
La Toussaint. 

Almanza, Battle of (war of the Spanish Succession), was fought April 
25, 1707, between the French under James FitzJames (Marshal 
and Duke of Berwick), and the British and Portuguese under 
Lord Galway and the Marquis das Minas. Galway at first 
attacked the French with success, but the British center, attacked 
in front and flank simultaneously, was routed with heavy loss 
and forced to surrender. As a consequence of this battle, Philip 
V. was established on the Spanish throne. 

Alphabet, Ancient Irish. It is considered that some of those 
eastern colonies, Phenicians, Tuatha De Dananns, or Milesians, 
introduced the use of letters into Ireland in the early ages. The 
term Ogham was applied to the occult or secret writing practiced 
by the Druids, and records of events were thus inscribed on 
stone pillars, of which many with Ogham inscriptions have been 
found in various parts of Ireland; but these inscriptions, from 
their great antiquity, are almost as unintelligible as the arrow- 
headed characters found on the columns and bricks in the ruins 
of Persepolis and Babylon, or the Eunie inscriptions found on 
stone pillars in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and other northern 
nations. Modes of writing were, no doubt, used in Ireland many 
centuries before the Christian era. Duald MacFirbis, and other 
Irish antiquaries, state that no less than 180 volumes of the 
books of the Druids were burned by St. Patrick at the assembly 
of Tara; though it has been absurdly asserted by some shallow 
antiquaries that the Irish had no use of letters before the arrival 
of St. Patrick; for though St. Patrick is considered to have in- 
troduced the Roman alphabet and Latin language, the Irish had 
their own Celtic alphabet, and a written Celtic or Hiberno- 
Celtic language, many centuries before that time. The earliest 
mode of writing was on stone, but afterwards the bark of trees 


and smooth birchen boards were used; hence the first letter of the 
Irish alphabet signifies a birch tree, and all the letters of the 
Irish alphabet take their names from different trees. In after 
times parchment or vellum, and lastly paper were used, the name 
paper being derived from the leaves of a plant or reed found in 
Egypt, called papyrus, which was used for writing on by the 
Egyptians, Greeks and Komans; and it may be observed that the 
word liber, meaning in Latin a book, was also derived from liber, 
the bark of a tree, which was used as a material for writing, and 
bach in the German signifies a beech tree, from which was 
derived the word book, as beechen boards were used for writing 
on in that country in ancient times. Plates of copper, brass, 
and other metals, and also ivory, and boards covered with com- 
positions of wax, were also used as materials to write on by the 
Eomans and other ancient nations. It may be further observed 
that the word Ogham, or Ogam, in the Irish language, signifies 
occult or sacred, and is considered by various antiquarians to 
have originated from Gaul, as the ancient Gauls worshiped Her- 
cules, as the God of Learning and Eloquence under the name of 
Ogmius; or, according to others, the name was derived from 
Ogma, one of the Tuatha De Danann chiefs, who had introduced 
that occult mode of writing into Ireland. — C. & McD. 

Alps, the most extensive system of lofty mountains in Europe, rais- 
ing their giant masses on a basis of 90,000 square miles and 
extending in some places from the 44th to the 48th parallel of 
latitude. The Alpine system is bounded on the north by the 
hilly ground of Switzerland and the upper plain of the Danube; 
on the east by the low plains of Austria; on the south by the 
Adriatic Sea, the plains of Lombardy, and the Gulf of Genoa; 
and on the west by the plains of Provence and the valley of the 
Ehone. In the range crowned by the summit of Mont Blanc, the 
Alpine chain attains its highest elevation. Several peaks, such 
as the Grand Combin, Matterhorn, Lyskamm, and Monte Bosa, 
exceed 14,000 feet in height. Including the Semmering Pass, 
there are now not less than sixty Alpine passes that are traversed 
by carriage roads; and besides several lines of railway. At the 
earliest period of which records are preserved the Alps appear 
to have been mainly inhabited by Celtic tribes, some of which, 
before they were subjugated by the Eomans, had made consider- 
able progress in the knowledge of the useful arts. 

Amergin (fl. B. C. 1120), one of the sons of Milesius, was a Druid 
skilled in all the arts of the East, and led by his wise counsels, 
his brothers countermined the magicians, and beat them at their 
own weapons. This Amergin was, according to universal usage in 
ancient times, at once poet, priest and prophet, yet when his 
warlike brethren divided the island between them, they left the 
poet out of the reckoning. He was finally drowned in the waters 
of the river Avoca, which is probably the reason why that river 
has been so suggestive of melody and song ever since. — T. D. 


America, or the New World, the great division of the globe between 
the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, along with the adjacent islands 
and Greenland. It was discovered by Norsemen about A. D. 1000, 
and various parts of the coast were settled by them, but they 
were driven out by the Eskimo, and the knowledge then gained 
became only a Norse tradition. America had of course been 
known to the barbarous tribes of Eastern Asia for thousands 
of years; but it is singular that it should have been visited by 
one of the most enterprising nations of Europe five centuries be- 
fore Columbus without awakening the attention of either states- 
men or philosophers. The continent was finally made known to 
Europeans by the voyage of Columbus, who landed on Watling 
Island, Bahamas, October 12, 1492. The discovery of a continent 
so large that it may be said to have doubled the habitable world 
is an event so momentous that nothing parallel to it can ever 
occur again in the history of mankind. Its southern part was 
in large part explored in 1501-1502 by the Florentine Amerigo 
Vespucci, and the continent was named after him by Waltze- 
muller, or Waldseemuller, in his " Cosmographise Introductio" 
(1507). Long after that it continued to be known in the Pyre- 
nean Peninsula as the West Indies, the continent having been 
at first believed to be the eastern part of Asia. The Isthmus 
of Panama divides the continent into two great subdivisions, 
North America and South America. The name Central America 
is applied in a political sense to the five republics of North 
America to the south of Mexico, and usually in a geographical 
sense to the region occupied by these republics, but it is also 
applied by some in the latter sense to the land extending from 
the Isthmus of Tehuantepec to that of Panama. 

Amiens, capital department of Somme, France, twenty-six miles 
southeast by east of Abbeville, on the Somme, which here 
receives the Avre and Celle, and breaks up into eleven canals, 
on which account it has been called the "Little Venice"; with 
a beautiful Gothic cathedral (built 1120-1288), museum of paint- 
ings and antiquities, and numerous manufactures. In ancient 
times it was the capital of the Ambiani. The Peace of Amiens 
was signed in the town-hall (built by Henry IV.) in 1802. Birth- 
place of Peter the Hermit, the promoter of the first crusade, and 
of the scholar Ducange. 

Anabaptists, a name applied to a religious party that denied the 
validity of infant baptism. They maintained that as baptism 
should not be administered without a personal confession of 
faith, the baptism of infants was worthless, and those who were 
thus baptized must be baptized again as adults, at their own 
express desire and after a confession of faith. The name is 
properly applied to a set of fanatical enthusiasts, called the 
Prophets of Zoriekan, in Saxony, at whose head were Thomas 
Munzer (1520) and others, who appeared shortly after the begin- 
ning of the Beformation. 


Anglican Church, is the established state church of England. Com- 
monly called the Church of England, it acknowledges the suprem- 
acy of the English crown, and is recognized by the law as 
the national church. The faith of the church since the Keforma- 
tion is known as the Protestant Episcopal. The failure of King 
Henry VIII. of England to obtain a divorce at the hands of Pope 
Clement VII. from his queen, Catherine of Aragon, led to his 
determination to break with Eome; and though Cardinal Wolsey 
declined to assist his plans, and was disgraced in consequence, 
yet in Thomas Cranmer, who, in 1532, was raised to the primacy, 
the king found a ready instrument for his purpose. Cranmer 
declared the marriage with Catherine void, and the king 's private 
marriage to Anne Boleyn valid; while Henry retorted upon 
the Pope 's verdict of 1534 against this union by hastening the 
proceedings of the "Reformation Parliament," which continued 
from 1529 to 1536. Under the auspices of Cranmer, an English 
version of the Bible was published. The doctrinal standards of 
the Anglican Church are primarily the "Book of Common 
Prayer," and secondly, the "Thirty-nine Articles." Henry 
VIII. 's tyrannical character was shown in his dissolution of the 
monasteries and the squandering of the larger part of the wealth 
which thus fell under his control. Having denied the Pope 's 
spiritual authority, Henry declared' himself head of the Anglican 
or English Church, and thus is considered its founder. 

Anglo-Irish. Natives of Ireland of English extraction. The 
Welsh-Normans and the Anglo-Normans in Ireland and their 
descendants are generally known as Anglo-Irish. See Anglo- 
Normans and also Normandy. See chapters XI., XII., XIII., 
XIV. and XV. 

Anglo-Normans. About the middle of the eleventh century the 
Norman dukes of France claimed the crown of England, and in 
1066, William, Duke of Normandy, a descendant of Rollo the 
Viking, collected a powerful fleet consisting, according to Turner 
and others, of over a thousand, and sailed for the invasion of 
England. He landed with an army of about 60,000 men in Sussex, 
September 28, and on the 14th of October fought the great battle 
near Hastings, in which the Anglo-Saxons, under their king 
Harold, were totally vanquished. In this battle 20,000 Normans 
and from 25,000 to 30,000 Saxons were slain. Harold himself, the 
last Saxon king of England, while valiantly fighting under his 
own standard, was killed by the shot of an arrow which pierced 
his brain. The victory of Hastings, won by the valor and skill 
of the Duke of Normandy, thus transferred in one battle, and 
in a single day, the Anglo-Saxon sceptre to the Normans of 
France, and their duke became King of England, under the title 
of William the Conqueror. The descendants of William reigned 
for many centuries as Kings of England; and even to modern 
times collateral branches, imbued with some of the Norman 
blood, have reigned as Kings and Queens of England. The 
descendants of the old Norman nobility also form many of the 


most powerful families of the aristocracy of Great Britain and 
Ireland to the present day. The Normans and Anglo-Normans 
were equally eminent in the arts as in war, and introduced the 
style denominated Norman architecture, of which there are still 
many magnificent and beautiful specimens, such as ruins and 
remains of castles, cathedrals, churches and abbeys, in France, 
England, Ireland and Scotland. In Ireland the descendants 
of the Normans of France who conquered England became 
masters of a great part of the country in the latter part of the 
twelfth and beginning of the thirteenth century, under Eichard 
de Clare, Earl of Pembroke, commonly called Strongbow, and his 
followers; and they still form many of the most powerful 
families of the Anglo-Irish nobility. The principal families of 
the Anglo-Normans in Ireland were the De Clares, Earls of 
Pembroke, and their successors, the Marshals, Earls of Pembroke 
and Lords of Leinster; the Fitzgeralds, Earls of Desmond, Earls 
of Kildare, and Dukes of Leinster; the De Burghs or Burkes, 
Lords of Connaught, Earls of Ulster, Earls of Clanricard, and 
Earls of Mayo; the Butlers, Earls of Ormond; the De Laceys, 
Lords of Meath and Earls of Ulster, and the Mortimers, their 
successors; the De Courcys, Earls of Ulster and Barons of Kin- 
sale; the Carews, Earls of Cork and Barons of Idrone, in Carlow; 
the Fitzmauriees, Earls of Kerry; the Graces of Kilkenny, Barons 
of Courtstown; the Le Poers of Waterford, Earls of Tyrone and 
Barons of Decies; the De Barrys of Cork, Earls of Barrymore; the 
Roches of Cork, Viscounts of Fermoy; the De Veseys, Lords of 
Kildare; the Fitzeustaces, Barons of Portlester and Baltinglas; 
the Nugents, Barons of Devlin and Earls of West Meath; the 
Barnwalls, Barons of Trimlestown; the Netervilles, Barons of 
Dowth in Meath; the Nangles, Barons of Navan; the Prestons, 
Viscounts of Gormanstown; the Flemings, Barons of Slane; the 
Tyrrells, Barons of Castleknock; the Dillons, Earls of Roscommon 
and Barons of Kilkenny West, in West Meath; the De Berming- 
hams, Barons of Athenry, in Galway and Earls of Louth; the 
Taaffes, Earls of Carlingford and Barons of Ballymote in Sligo; 
the Talbots, Barons of Malahide and Earls of Shrewsbury, Water- 
ford and Wexford; the St. Lawrences, Earls of Howth; the Sars- 
fields, Viscounts of Kilmallock in Limerick, and Earls of Lucan 
in Dublin; the Plunkets, Earls of Fingal, Barons of Louth and 
Barons of Dunsaney, are of Danish descent. There were many 
other families of note besides those above mentioned of Anglo- 
Norman descent in various parts of Ireland, as the Devereuxes, 
Darcys, D'Altons, Petits, Delamers, Dexeters, Barretts, Cusacks, 
Cruises, Cantwells, Cogans, Nagles, Prendergasts, Stantons, De 
Verdons, Fitzsimons, Fitzhenrys, Bellews, Browns, Husseys, 
Keatings, Montmorencys and Purcells. The Anglo-Normans, a 
Teutonic race, descended from the Normans of France, were a 
mixture of Norwegians, Danes and French, and conquered Eng- 
land in the eleventh century, came to Ireland in the twelfth 
century, and got possession of a great part of the country under 


their chief leader, Eichard de Clare, Earl of Pembroke, who was 
named Strongbow, hence his followers have been called Strong- 
bownians. — C. and McD. 

Anglo-Saxon is a word which has been commonly applied to the 
aggregate of the Teutonic or German inhabitants of Britain, who 
lived under native institutions up to the date of the Norman 
conquest; to the earliest form of the English language of which 
memorials survive, and, by an absurd modern meaningless usage, 
to the sum total of the men of English speech and origin, to 
whatever nation they may belong, who are now scattered over 
the globe. The Anglo-Saxons (or English), a Teutonic race, 
came [to Ireland] from the twelfth to the eighteenth century. 
The Britons or Welsh, a mixture of Celts and Saxons, came [to 
Ireland] in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. These Eng- 
lish colonists were located chiefly in Leinster, but also in great 
numbers in Munster and Connaught, and partly in Ulster. — C. 
and McD. 

Anne (1665-1714), Queen of England, was the second daughter of 
King James II. by his first wife, Anne Hyde, daughter of 
Lord Clarendon. July 28, 1683, she married Prince George of 
Denmark, by whom she had several children, but all of them 
died young. She succeeded to the crown of England by the 
death of her brother-in-law. King William III., who died without 
issue, in March 1702. Her reign was distinguished by 
great glory, and, on account of the eminent literary characters 
which adorned it, has been called the Augustan age of Britain. 
But the spirit of party never, perhaps, rose higher than it did 
in her time. She died August 1, 1714, and with her ended the 
line of the Stuarts, which, from the accession of James I., in 
1603, had swayed the sceptre of England (except a few years 
during the time of Cromwell) 111 years. 

Antrim, a county in the extreme northeastern part of Ireland in 
the Province of Ulster. Bounded north by the Atlantic Ocean, 
east by the North Channel, southeast and south by Belfast Lough 
and County Down, and west by Lough Neagh and the river Bann, 
which separates it from Counties Tyrone and Londonderry. 
Greatest length, north and south, fifty-six miles; greatest breadth, 
east and west, thirty miles; coast -line, ninety miles. Area, 
administrative county, 751,965 acres (51,798 water), or 3.6 per 
cent, of the total area of Ireland. Population, administrative 
county (exclusive of the city of Belfast), 196,090, of whom about 
99,552 the Presbyterians, 40,381 Catholics, 40,983 Episcopalians, 
and 3,739 Methodists. Off the north coast are Eathlin Island 
and the Skerries; off the east are the Maiden Rocks with two 
lighthouses. The chief headlands are Bengore Head, Fair Head, 
Garron Point, and Ballygalley Head, while the principal rivers 
are the Bann and the Lagan. Lough Neagh, in the southwest of 
the county, has an area of over 98,000 acres, and is one of the 
largest fresh-water lakes in Europe. The surface consists chiefly 
of a tableland of basaltic trap, broken by numerous valleys, and 


presenting on the north coast the most wonderful columnar for- 
mations (see Giants' Causeway); chief summit, Trostan, 1,817 
feet. The salmon and other fisheries on the coast are impor- 
tant. Good rock-salt is obtained in the district of Carrick- 
fergus. The cultivation of flax and the manufacture of linen, 
cotton, and coarse woollens give employment to most of the 
people. The county comprises sixty-nine parishes and parts of 
nine other parishes, the greater part of parliamentary and 
municipal borough of Belfast (four members), and the towns 
of Antrim, Ballymena, Ballymoney, Carrickfergus, Larne, Lis- 
burn, Portrush and Ballyclare. For parliamentary purposes it is 
divided into four divisions — North, Middle, East and South — 
one member for each division. 

Antrim, parish and market town. County Antrim has 8,439 acres, 
and a population of 3,941. The town of Antrim, with railway 
station (Antrim Junction), G. N. I. Ey. in the above parish, is 
situated on the Six-Mile-Water, about one mile above its influx 
to Lough Neagh, twenty-eight miles from Belfast, and 126 
miles from Dublin by rail. It has 197 acres, and a population 
of 1,826. Linen, hosiery and paper manufactures, with some 
malting and distilling, are carried on. Near the town is Antrim 
Castle (1662), the seat of Viscount Massereene and Ferrard. 

Aran or Arran, a group of islands in County Galway (often called 
South Aran), forming a chain of about fifteen miles long, nearly 
across the entrance of Galway Bay; they contain 11,578 acres, 
and a population of 2,800. Nearly the whole area consists of 
three islands — Aranmore or Inishmore, Inishman and Inisheer. 

Aran, a small island off the west coast of Donegal. It is some- 
times called North Aran. 

Architecture, Cyclopean. Of that massive rude architecture com- 
posed of large stones without cement, and forming walls and 
fortresses of immense strength, there are many remains in Ire- 
land, resembling the Cyclopean architecture of ancient Greece 
and Etruria, such as the fortress of Aileach in Donegal, and 
Dun ^ngus, on one of the Arran islands off the coast of Gal- 
way; but the most remarkable specimen of Cyclopean archi- 
tecture in Ireland is that called Staigue or Straigue Fort, sit- 
uated in the parish of Kilcrohane, on a hill near the Bay of 
Kenmare. It is built of stones, without cement, but of admi- 
rable architecture, of a circular form, and the internal area 
about ninety feet in diameter, the walls eighteen feet high and 
thirteen feet thick, a doorway opening to the interior; on 
the outside a broad and deep fosse surrounds the entire building. 
That Ireland has been peopled from the most remote ages there 
exists abundant evidence over the entire country. In every 
county, and almost in every parish, are found some memorials, 
such as remains of Cromlechs, Druidical temples, round towers, 
cairns, sepulchral mounds, Cyclopean fortresses, raths, and other 
antiquities, the histories of which, and even their traditions, 
are lost in the night of time. — C. & McD. 


Ardee, parish and town with railway station (G. N. I. R.), County 
Louth, on the river Dee, six miles west of Dunleer and fourteen 
miles northwest of Drogheda. The parish has 4,884 acres, and 
a population of 2,406; the town has a population of 1,883. 
Carries on distilling, tanning and basket-making. 

Ardfinnan, parish, village and seat, County Tipperary, five miles 
southeast from Caher. The parish has 1,812 acres, and a popu- 
lation of 350; the village has a population of 316. The Suir is 
here crossed by a bridge of fourteen arches. St. Finnan is said 
to have founded a monastery here. 

Ardglass, parish, town, seat and railway station (B. & C. D. E.), 
County Down, six miles southeast of Downpatrick. Parish has 
2,022 acres, and a population of 784; the town has a population 
of 501. Situated on Ardglass Bay, the town was once the 
chief port of Ulster, but is now only known as a large station of 
the north herring fishery, and also as a bathing resort. It is 
the nearest point of Ireland to the Isle of Man. There is a 
lighthouse on the pier. About the middle of the 15th eentury at 
Ardglass was fought a fierce battle between the Irish and Eng- 
lish. See Chapter XX. 

Argyllshire, or Argyleshire, a county in the west of Scotland, 
cut up into many peninsulas by arms of the sea, and including 
numerous islands. Next to Inverness, it is the largest county in 
Scotland, its area being 3,110 square miles, of which 623 belong 
to the islands. Sheep and cattle rearing is the chief occupa- 
tion of the farmer, more sheep being reared in Argyllshire than 
in any county in Scotland. Population (1901) 73,642—37,741 
Gaelic-speaking. Among the antiquities of Argyllshire are the 
ecclesiastical ruins of Jona and Oronsay, and the castles of 
Dunstaffrage, Dunolly and Kilchurn. 

Arklow, market town and seaport with railway station (D. W. & 
W. R.), twenty-one miles southeast of Wicklow, situated at the 
mouth of the river Avoca, forty-nine miles south by east from 
Dublin by rail, is the shipping port for the copper and lead 
mines in the vale of Avoca, and is the chief seat of the Wicklow 
herring and oyster fisheries, which are largely carried on at 
Arklow Bank, an extensive shoal off the coast, marked by light- 
ships and buoys. Area, 1,572 acres; population, 4,944. Its 
ancient fortress was captured and destroyed by Cromwell in 
1649, and here in 1798 a large body of insurgents suffered 
defeat from the royalists. Shelton Abbey, seat of the Earl 
of Wicklow, is in vicinity. 

Armada, The Invincible. The name given by the Spaniards to 
the great Spanish and Portugese fleet dispatched by King 
Philip II. of Spain for the conquest of England in 1588. After 
being harried by the English ships under Howard of Effingham, 
Drake, Frobisher and others, it was finally dispersed by violent 
storms in the North Sea, and out of 130 ships only fifty-three 
returned to Spain, 


Armagh, an inland county, Province of Ulster, bounded north by 
County Tyrone and Lough Neagh, east by County Down, south 
by Louth, and west by Counties Monaghan and Tyrone. Greatest 
length, north and south, thirty-two miles; greatest breadth, east 
and west, twenty miles. Area, 327,704 acres (17,029 water), or 
1.6 per cent, of the total area of Ireland. Population, 125,392, 
of whom 56,652 were Catholics, 40,922 Episcopalians, 20,097 
Presbyterians, and 5,098 Methodists. The surface rises with 
gentle undulations from the shores of Lough Neagh to the 
hilly districts of the south and southeast; chief summit, Slieve 
Gullion, 1,893 feet. The rivers are the Bann, Blackwater, 
Callan, and Newry; the salmon fisheries of the two former are 
important. The soil is generally fertile, and there is much bog. 
Linen is the staple manufacture. The county comprises twenty- 
three parishes and parts of six parishes, part of the parlia- 
mentary borough of Newry, urban district of Armagh, and the 
towns of Lurgan, Portadown, Tanderagee, Bessbrook Town 
and Keady Town. For parliamentary purposes it is divided into 
three divisions — North, Middle and South — one member for each 

Armagh, parliamentary borough, county town of Armagh, parish 
and urban district and ecclesiastical metropolis of Ireland, with 
railway station (G. N. I. E.), situated on a hill near the river 
Callan, thirty-six miles southwest of Belfast, and eighty-nine 
miles north by west of Dublin by rail. The parish has 1,092 
acres, and a population of 9,908; the urban district, 342 acres, 
with a population of 7,588. The Anglican Cathedral, built in 
1765, on supposed site of St. Patrick's Church, was improved 
and renovated by Archbishops Robinson and Beresford. The 
palace of the archbishop, the Catholic Cathedral, and the col- 
lege, are the other principal buildings; there are also barracks 
for 200 men. The diocese of Armagh comprises nearly all the 
Counties of Armagh and Louth, with portions of Counties 
Tyrone, Londonderry and Meath, and that portion of Drogheda, 
urban district north of the river Boyne. 

Armagh, The Book of. This is now in Trinity College, Dublin, 
and for beauty of execution stands only second to the Book 
of Kells, and occasionally exceeds it in fineness and richness 
of ornamentation. The book was finished in 807, and originally 
consisted of 442 pages, of which ten are lost; except this it is 
as perfect as when written. It is chiefly in Latin, with a good 
deal of old Irish interspersed. It has a Life of St. Patrick, 
a complete copy of the New Testament, and a Life of St. 
Martin of Tours. Perhaps the most interesting part of the 
whole MS. is what is now commonly known as St. Patrick's 
Confession, in which the saint gives a brief account in simple 
Latin of his captivity, escape from slavery, his return to Ire- 
land and final success of his mission. This "Confession" may 
be said to be the oldest piece of Irish literature we possess. — 
Dr. P. W, Joyce. See Notes to chapter I. 


Armagh, School or University of, was the center of early Irish 
monastic civilization and learning. From here came the scholars 
who made Ireland famous on the continent and throughout 
Great Britain. The most celebrated among the Irish scholars, 
trained at Armagh, was Joannes Scotus Erigena, who died 
about 875. Even the capture of Armagh by the Danes was 
not sufficient to destroy entirely its school and its fame for 
learning. The continuance of the existence of a school there 
is vouched for by the proceedings of a synod in 1158, which 
decided that no one was to be instituted as a professor of 
theology who had not completed his education at Armagh. 
The presence of foreign students can be traced at least as far as 
the eleventh century. 

Armagh, Synod of. A synod of the Irish prelates, held in 1170, 
at which, in view of the Welsh-Norman invasion, it was re- 
solved to release all English captives held in slavery. 

Association Act. An act passed in 1826 by the British parlia- 
ment, directed mainly against the Catholic Association. It re- 
stricted the right of meeting of political associations and for- 
bade the levying of subscriptions or the administration of 

Associations Bill (1826), was directed chiefly against the Catholic 
Associations. It forbade periodical sittings of political associa- 
tions, the appointment of committees for more than fourteen 
days, the levying of money to redress grievances, the adminis- 
tering of oaths, the exclusion of men on account of their 
religion, and the affiliation of societies. It lasted for three 
years, but failed to crush O'Connell's agitation for Catholic 

Aston or Ashton, Sir Arthur (died in 1649), a Catholic commander 
in the service of Charles I., was born in Middlesex, England. 
At Edgehill, as general of the dragoons, he proved himself to 
be an expert commander. His behavior on this occasion led to 
his being appointed governor of Eeading, a town without any 
regular fortifications. The garrison consisted of about 3,000 
foot and 300 horse, and was besieged by the parliament army 
of 16,000 foot and 300 horse. Aston was dangerously wounded, 
and the command having devolved upon Colonel Fielding, the 
town surrendered after a siege of twelve days. Aston was 
afterward made governor of Oxford, and received a wound 
which rendered necessary the amputation of his leg. After the 
execution of Charles I., and when the royal cause was past 
recovery in England, he carried over a considerable body of 
veteran troops into Ireland, and being appointed governor of 
Drogheda, made a noble stand against Oliver Cromwell in 
1649. The town, however, was eventually taken and sacked, 
Aston 's brains, it is said, being dashed out with his wooden leg 
during the slaughter. 

Athboy, parish and market town, with railway station (M. G 
W. E.), County Meath, seven miles northwest of Trim. Parish 


has 11,884 acres, and a population of 1,802; the town has a 
population of 610. 

Athenry, parish, County Galway, has 24,950 acres, and a population 
of 2,683. 

Athenry, market town, with railway station (G. S. & W. & M. 
G. W.) in the above parish, twelve miles east of Galway. A 
very ancient town, with ruins of a Dominican friary. 

Athlone, market town and urban district, with railway station 
(G. S. & W. »& M. G W.), Counties Roscommon and West Meath, 
seventy-eight miles west of Dublin and forty-eight miles east of 
Galway by rail. The urban district has 1,198 acres, and a 
population of 6,617. The town is divided by the river Shannon. 
It derives its importance chiefly from its garrison, being the 
military headquarters for the West of Ireland, with a large store 
depot and accommodation for 2,000 troops. The ancient castle 
was besieged and captured by the army of William III. in 
1691. There is considerable carrying trade with Dublin by 
means of the Grand and Eoyal canals, and with Limerick by 
steamers on the Shannon. There are linen manufactures, several 
distilleries, flour mills and tan yards; the fisheries are also 
important. For sieges of Athlone see Chapters XLV. and XLVI. 

Athlone, Earl of (Baron of Aughrim), see De Ginkell, Godert. 

Athy, urban district and market town, with railway station 
(G. S. & W. E.), County Kildare on the river Barrow, and a 
branch of the Grand Canal, forty-five miles southwest of 
Dublin by rail. Area, 961 acres; population, 3,599. It is an 
ancient town with cloth and hat manufactures, and has one 
of the best grain markets in Ireland. Athy is now a garrison 
town. A battle was fought near here in the 14th century in 
which the Irish led by Edward Bruce were victorious. See 
Chapter XVII. 

Attainder, Act of, was introduced into the Irish Parliament, Jan- 
uary 25, 1689, and the debate on it lasted a long time. King 
James II. gave his consent to it with great reluctance. Between 
2,000 and 3,000 names, including half the Irish peerage and even 
many prominent English Jacobites (adherents of King James), 
were included in the bill. All those who were in revolt against 
King James were to surrender and take their trial before August 
10, otherwise they were to be deemed guilty of high treason. 
Macaulay asserts that care was taken to keep the list of at- 
tainted persons secret, but the evidence he adduced is inconclu- 
sive. The same eloquent but misleading author calls it an "act 
without parallel in the history of any civilized country." In 
justice to the Catholic Irish we must look to the history of Ire- 
land since the time of the Reformation, and especially since 
1641, and to the conduct of the English Parliament, during the 
same period. 

Aughrim, parish and village. County Galway, five miles southwest 
of Ballinasloe railway station. Parish has 7,251 acres and a 
population of 739. The village has a population of 256. Near 


the village was fought, July 12, 1691, the last battle between the 
forces of James II. and those of William III., in which action 
the French general, St. Kuth (see St. Kuth) was slain. See 
chapter XLVII., page 351. 

Aughrim, parish. County Roscommon, four miles south of Carrick- 
on-Shannon, has 8,119 acres and a population of 1,236. 

Aughrim, village, with railway station (D. W. & W. E.), County 
Wicklow, eight miles southwest of Rathdrum by road and 49 
miles southwest from Dublin by rail, on the river Aughrim. 
Population 268. 

Aughrim, the most southerly of the three headstreams of the river 
Avoca, County Wicklow, running 14 miles from the Lugnaquila 
mountain to the second "meeting of the waters," three miles 
above Arklow. 

Australia, a vast island lying between the Indian and Pacific 
Oceans, separated from New Guinea and the Eastern Archipelago 
by Torres Strait, the Arafura Sea, and the Sea of Timor, from 
Tasmania by Bass Strait; greatest length from west to east 
more than 2,300 miles; greatest breadth, from Cape York to 
Wilson's Promontory, about 2,000 miles; areu, including small 
islands adjacent, about 3,000,000 square miles. The native Aus- 
tralians are a dark colored race, as black as negroes, but without 
the woolly hair and thick protruding lips which distinguish the 
latter. Old maps show that Australia was known to the Portu- 
guese before 1540. Early in the 17th century some knowledge 
of the coasts was gained by several Dutch navigators, to whom 
we owe the Dutch names for several coast features and maritime 
tracts. Towards the close of the same century several parts of 
the coast were visited by Dampier. In 1770 Captain Cook sailed 
along the east coast and through Torres Strait, and in 1791 somq 
important discoveries were made by Vancouver on the south 
coast. In 1801-3, Flinders made important explorations on the 
southeast and north coasts, and it was he who first proposed 
Australia as the name of the vast island now so called. The name 
"Terra Australis" (southern land) had previously been in use 
as a general name for all the lands of the southern seas, and the 
name of New Holland, which was bestowed by the Dutch navi- 
gator Tasman in 1644, remained in use long after that date. 
Our knowledge of the interior of Australia has been gradually 
accumulated since the date of the first settlement by the British. 
In August, 1860, Robert 'Hara Burke, the explorer, and Wills 
started from Melbourne to cross the continent to the Gulf of Car- 
pentaria, and in February 1861, the party arrived at the destina- 
tion of the expedition and earned the distinction of being the first 
white men to traverse the Australian continent. The common- 
wealth of Australia (a British dependency) consists of a federa- 
tion of six original states. The temporary seat of the Federal 
government is Melbourne. The estimated population of Aus- 
tralia (exclusive of aborigines) in 1908 was 4,300,385. 


Austria, Archduchy of, tfeg (territory which formed the nucleus of 
the Austro-Hungarian empire, occupying both sides of the valley 
of the Danube, now divided into the crownlands of Upper and 
Lower Austria; chief towns Vienna and Linz. Originally a 
margraviate, Austria was erected into a duchy in 1156, and the 
title of archduke (borne solely by members of the Habsburg 
family) was first formally conferred by imperial letters patent 
in 1453, though it had previously been assumed by some of the 
Dukes of Austria. Austria formally held the first rank in the 
Germanic confederation, which was dissolved in 1866, the event 
leading to the formation (1867) of the Austro-Hungarian mon- 
archy. Under this organization the western and the eastern part 
of the empire form two virtually independent states, the connec- 
tion between both being formed by the hereditary sovereign — 
called emperor in Austria proper, and king in Hungary — and by 
a legislative body for common purposes (chiefly foreign affairs, 
military and naval affairs, and finance) entitled delegations. 
The history of Austria-Hungary is to a large extent a dynastic 
and family history. It may be held to begin with the conquest 
of the Avars in the region now belonging to Lower Austria in 
791-99. The area of Austria is 115,905 square miles; of Hun- 
gary, 125,608 square miles. According to the census of 1900 the 
population of Austria was 26,150,708, and of Hungary, 19,254,559. 
October 5, 1908, Bosnia and Herzegovina were annexed to Aus- 
tria-Hungary. The capital of Austria is Vienna, and of Hun- 
gary, Budapest. 

Augustine, Saint (died in 604), apostle of the English and first 
Archbishop of Canterbury, was prior of a Benedictine monastery 
in Eome, when Pope Gregory the Great selected him to go to Eng- 
land to convert the Anglo-Saxons. Accompanied by several 
monks and interpreters, numbering altogether about forty per- 
sons, he landed at the island of Thanet, on the east coast of 
Kent, A. D. 596. He was well received by King Ethelbert, who 
gave them necessary substance and a dwelling place in Canter- 
bury, the capital city of his dominions. In a short time the 
king and many of his subjects were converted and baptized. 
Subsequently St. Augustine went to France and received episco- 
pal consecration at the hands of Virgilius, Archbishop of Aries, 
A. D. 597. On his return to Britain he sent to Eome for more 
assistants, and among those who joined him were Mellitus, first 
Bishop of London; Justus, first Bishop of Rochester; and Pauli- 
nus, first Archbishop of York. In 600 Pope Gregory sent St. 
Augustine the archiepiscopal pallium, with authority to ordain 
twelve bishops, who should be subject to the archiepiscopal see 
of Canterbury. He died in 604. 

Bagnall or Bagenal, Sir Henry (1556-1598), son of Sir Nicholas 
Bagnall, marshal of the army in Ireland (1547-53 and 1565-90). 
In 1577 Sir Henry was associated with his father in a commis- 
sion for the government of Ulster, and in 1578 was knighted. He 
held command under Arthur Grey (Baron Grey de Wilton), when 


the latter was defeated by the Irish in Glenmalure. He suc- 
ceeded his father as marshal of the army in Ireland in 1590, and 
was chief commissioner for the government of Ulster in 1591. 
His sister, Mabel, married Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone, which 
marriage he bitterly opposed. In command of the English forces, 
he was defeated and slain at the decisive battle of the Yellow 
Ford in 1598 by the Irish under their great leader, Hugh O 'Neill, 
the "Hannibal of Ireland." 

Bale, John (1495-1563), Anglican Bishop of Ossory, was born in 
Suffolk, England, in 1495, and educated at Oxford. At first a 
Catholic, he became one of the most active supporters of King 
Henry VIII. 's Reformation. In 1552 he was appointed to the see 
of Ossory, Ireland, by King Edward VI. When Queen Mary as- 
cended the English throne he fled to the continent. On the 
accession of Queen Elizabeth he was made a prebendary of the 
Cathedral of Canterbury, England, where he died in 1563. He 
was the author of many works. It is said that he was the first to 
apply the terms tragedy and comedy to English dramatic com- 
position. He is chiefly known by his "Lives of the Most Emi- 
nent Writers of Great Britain, ' ' written in Latin. He was 
remarkable for "his wilful obstinacy, and imperious temper." 
He never omitted an opportunity of abusing the ancient Church 
in which he was educated. He wrote many controversial arti- 
cles, disfigured by uncommon coarseness and violent language. 
He was indeed unfair and uncandid even beyond the usual rancor 
in controversy of that illiberal age. Bale also wrote 19 miracle 
plays in his attempt to advance the Eeformation. He married 
and had several children. 

Ballinasloe, market town and urban district, with railway station 
(M. G. W. E.), on the borders of Counties Eoscommon and Gal- 
way, on river Suck, 12 miles southwest of Athlone, 35 miles east 
of Galway and 92 miles west of Dublin by rail. The urban dis- 
trict has 4,235 acres and a population of 4,904. It has large corn 
mills and farming implement works, also tanneries, breweries, 
and coachbuilding works. A great fair, chiefly for cattle, is held 
here annually in October, lasting five days. There is also a wool 

Ballingarry, parish and town, 16 miles southwest of Limerick, and 
five miles southeast of Eathkeale railway station. Parish has 
17,732 acres, and a population of 2,251. The town has a popula- 
tion of 540. It has remains of two castles and a friary. 

Ballingarry, parish. County Limerick, eight miles east of Kilmal- 
lock, has 6,113 acres and a population of 989. 

Ballingarry, parish and village, County Tipperary, 13 miles north- 
east of Nenagh railway station and three miles east of Borriso- 
kane, has 6,683 acres and a population of 541; the village has 
a population of 204. 

Ballingarry, parish and village, County Tipperary, 15 miles south- 
west of Thurles railway station. The parish has 13,714 acrea 
and a population of 2,224. 


Ballingarry, old castle, County Kerry, five miles northeast of 
Kerry Head, built by Colonel Crosbie during the civil war of 
1641. It is now a coastguard station. 

Ballymote, Book of. The Book of Ballymote, so called from 
having been partly composed at the monastery of Ballymote, 
or according to others, from having been in the possession of 
the MacDonoghs at their castle of Ballymote in Sligo, was 
compiled in the latter end of the fourteenth century, chiefly by 
Solomon O'Drom and Manus O'Duigenan, learned antiquarians 
and historians. Tomaltagh MacDonogh, Lord of Tirerrill and 
Corran in Sligo, was the patron of these learned men, and the 
Book of Ballymote remained a long time in possession of this 
family, but was purchased from one of the MacDonoghs, in 
A. D. 1522, by Hugh Duv, son of Hugh Eoe, son of Niall 
Garv O'Donnell, of Donegal, the price given for the book be- 
ing 140 milch cows. The Book of Ballymote is a large folio 
MS. on vellum. It contains the ancient history of Ireland from 
the earliest period to the end of the fourteenth century, and 
is considered a very authentic work and of great authority. 
The original is deposited in the Royal Irish Academy. — 6. and 
McD. See Notes to Chapter I. 

Ballynahinch, village with railway station (M. Q. W. E.) near 
lough and rivulet of same name, about eight miles southeast of 
Clifden. Green marble is quarried in vicinity; good salmon 
fishing may be had. 

Ballynahinch, market town with railway station (B. & C. D. R), 
County Down, on river Annacloy, 22 miles south of Belfast. It 
has a population of 1,512. 

Balljmahincli, place in County Tipperary, six miles north of New- 

Ballynamuck, village in County Longford, 10 miles northeast of 
the city of Longford. Here the French army surrendered to 
Marquis Cornwallis in 1798. 

Ballyragget, market town with railway station (G. S. & W. E.), in 
County Kilkenny, 11 miles northwest of Kilkenny, has a popu- 
lation of 499. 

Ballysadare, parish and village with railway station (G. S. & 
W. & S. &. L. railways) in county and four miles southwest of 
Sligo at head of Ballysadare Bay. The parish has 16,019 acres, 
and a population of 2,993; the village has a population of 208. 
In the vicinity is the abbey of St. Fechin. There is an impor- 
tant salmon fishery. Ballj^sadare Bay lies in the south of Sligo 
Bay; is about seven miles long, and contains many sand-banks. 

Baltic Sea, a large sea of North Europe, surrounded by Sweden, 
Russia, Germany, and Denmark. The name by which this inland 
sea is commonly designated is first found in the work of Adam 
of Bremen in the 11th century. Ice hinders the navigation of 
the Baltic from three to five months a year. Its shallowness and 
narrowness, its numerous islands and reefs, the shoal coasts of 
Prussia on the one side, and the rocky coasts of Sweden on the 


other, and above all, the numerous and sudden changes of wind 
accompanied by violent storms, make the navigation of the Bal- 
tic very dangerous. Greatest length, 960 miles; greatest breadth, 
390 miles; area, 160,000 square miles. 

Baltimore, fishing village with railway station (C. B. & S. C. K.), 
County Cork, on Baltimore Bay, eight miles southwest of Skib- 
bereen. It has a population of 597. The bay is formed by the 
estuary of the river Hen. There is an important fishery; the 
exports are slate, copper, wheat, and flax. 

Bauba, one of the ancient names of Ireland. See Ireland, An- 
cient names of, and Chapter I. 

Baudon, market town, with railway station (C. B. & S. C, K.), 
County Cork, on river Bandon, 20 miles southwest of Cork. The 
town has a population of 2,830. It carries on an important corn 
and provision trade; and there are several cotton and cloth fac- 
tories, an extensive distillery, with malting and flour mills. The 
river is navigable for barges four miles to Innishannon. The 
town dates its origin from the year 1610, when a settlement of 
English was established there by Richard Boyle, first Earl of 

angor, parish, urban district, and seaport town, with railway sta- 
tion (B. & C. D. R.), County Down, on the south side of Belfast 
Lough, 12 miles northeast of Belfast by rail. The parish has 
17,015 acres, and a population of 9,666. Fishing is the chief in- 
dustry; muslin embroidery and linen manufactures are carried 
on. It is a sea-bathing resort and has coastguard stations. In 
the vicinity is Bangor castle, and the ruins of an abbey. 

Bangor, place in County Mayo, 12 miles southeast of Belmullet, ia 
also called Bangor Erris. 

Bann, a river in County Wexford, flowing from Annagh Hill 20 
miles to the Slanej', three miles north of Enniscorthy. 

Baun, Lower, a river flowing from Lough Neagh along the boundary 
between Counties Antrim and Londonderry, 33 miles northwest 
to the Atlantic Ocean, five miles below Coleraine, to which it is 

Bann, Upper, a river in southwest County Down, flowing from the 
Mourne mouutains 25 miles northwest past Banbridge to Lough 
Neagh at Banfoot Ferry in County Armagh.' It is joined by the 
Newry Canal at Portadown. The salmon fisheries on the Bann 
are very productive. 

Bannockbum, Battle of. In 1314 King Edward 11. of England led 
an army of 100,000 men into Scotland for the subjugation of that 
country. At this time Robert Bruce was King of the Scots. He 
raised an army of 30,000 men and prepared to resist the English 
invasion. Bruce chose his ground as to compel the enemy to nar- 
row their front of attack and prevent them from availing them- 
selves of their numerous forces by extending them in order to 
turn his flanks. The ground was partly encumbered with trees. 
The direct approach to the Scottish front was protected by a 
morass. A brook called Bannockbum running to the eastward 


between rocky and precipitous banks effectually covered the 
Scottish right wing. The left flank was protected by field works. 
Bruce caused many rows of pits to be dug close together. In 
these pits sharp stakes were driven and the aperture covered 
carefully with sods, that the condition of the ground might 
escape observation. Calthrops were also scattered in different di- 
rections. Edward Bruce had command of the right wing, James 
Douglas of the left and Thomas Eandolph of the center. In the 
rear a select body of horse as a reserve was commanded by 
Bruce in person. Edward on his approach detached Sir Robert 
Clifford with 800 horse to avoid the front of the Scottish army 
and turn their left flank. Eandolph with a few scores of spears- 
men on foot advanced against Clifford. The English knight 
wheeled his body of cavalry upon Eandolph, who threw his men 
into a circle to receive the charge and their wall of spears suc- 
cessfully resisted every effort of the English to dislodge them. 
The discomfitted cavalry thus checked were forced to retire. In 
a personal encounter before the battle with an English knight 
Bruce killed his adversary and these two events tended to fill 
the English with ominous feelings, while it raised the confidence 
of the Scots, who now looked for victory. Edward resolved to 
put off the battle till the morrow. On the morning of June 24, 
1314, Edward advanced in form to the attack of the Scots. Ed- 
ward himself commanded his army. As the Scots saw the 
immense display of their enemies rolling towards them like a 
surging ocean they were called on to join in an appeal to 
heaven against the strength of human foes. Edward commanded 
the charge to be sounded and the attack to take place. The 
English charged furiously the left wing. They arrived at the 
shock disordered and out of breath and were unable to break 
the deep ranks of the spearsmen. Many horses were thrown down 
and their masters left at the mercy of the enemy. The English 
archers now came up and began to show their formidable skill 
at the expense of the Scottish spearsmen; but for this Bruce 
was prepared. He ordered 400 men-at-arms whom he kept in 
reserve for the purpose to make a circuit and charge the English 
bowmen in the flank. This was done with a celerity and pre- 
cision which dispersed the whole archery, who not having long 
weapons to repel the horse were cut down at pleasure and almost 
without resistance. The battle continued to rage but with dis- 
advantage to the English. The Scottish archers had now an 
opportunity of galling their infantry without opposition, and 
Edward could find no opportunity to bring any part of his 
numerous center or rear guard to the support of those in front, 
who were engaged at disadvantage, as his army consisted mostly 
of cavalry. Bruce seeing the confusion thicken now placed him- 
self at the head of the reserve and rushed into the engagement. 
The effect was decisive. Those of the English who had been 
staggered were now constrained to retreat; those who were al- 
ready in retreat took to actual flight. At this critical moment 


the camp followers of the Scottish army, seized with curiosity 
to see how the fight went, suddenly showed themselves on the 
ridge of the hill in the rear of the Scottish line of battle. As they 
displayed clothes upon poles for ensigns they bore in the eyes of 
the English the terrors .of an army with banners; this idea of 
a new army gave the last impulse of terror and all fled, even 
those who had before resisted. The slaughter was immense. 
The deep ravine of Bannockburn was almost choked and bridged 
with slain. Twenty-seveu barons, 200 knights and 700 esquires 
of high birth were killed and 30,000 of the common file filled up 
the fatal roll. The quantity of spoil gained by the victors was 
inestimable. The Scottish loss was very small. Edward had a 
narrow escape from being captured, but finally reached a place 
of safety. This great victory secured the independence of Scot- 

Bantry, market and seaport town with railway station (C. B. & 
S, C. E.) on Bantry Bay, 58 miles southwest of Cork. Popula- 
tion 3,109. The seat of the Earl of Bantry is in the vicinity. 

Bantry Bay, a spacious and picturesque inlet, about 25 miles long 
in southwest County Cork. In 1689 Chateau Renard anchored 
here with a French fleet. In 1796 another large French fleet en- 
tered Bantry Bay and anchored there for a week. 

Bards. In Ireland the bards were a famous order from the 
earliest ages among the Milesians and Amergin, one of the sons 
of Milesius, was appointed chief bard of the kingdom. In sub- 
sequent times many even of the kings and princes composed 
poems and attained the high honor of being enrolled amongst 
the bards. In the institutions of the country the bards held a 
rank equal to the princes and chief nobility; the bards and 
brehons were permitted to wear six colors in their garments, 
the kings wearing seven, while military commanders and vari- 
ous other public oflQ.cers, according to their rank and dignities, 
wore only five, four, three and two colors, and the common 
people were allowed to wear only one color. The bards and 
brehons assisted at the inauguration of kings and princes, and 
had some of the highest seats appropriated to them at the ban- 
quet. The bards attended on battle fields, recited their war 
songs and animated the champions to the contest, and they 
recorded the heroic actions of the warriors who fell in the 
conflict. They were held in high esteem, had many privileges 
and extensive lands were allotted to their use. — C. and McD. 

Bareges, a small watering-place in France, in the Department of 
Hautes-Pyrenees. The Vallee de Bastan in which Bareges stands 
at an altitude of 4,040 feet is subject to terrible avalanches. 
The French government has erected here two hospitals for sol- 
diers. Population about 2,000. 

Bargy, seat in County Wexford. It is eight miles south of the 
city of Wexford. 

Barretstown, or Barrettstown, seat, County Kildare, three miles 
northeast of Newbridge. 


Barrettstown Castle, seat, County Kildare; post-town, Ballymore 

Barrow, a river dividing Counties Kildare, Carlow, and Wexford 
on the east from Kilkenny and Queen's counties on the west. 
It rises in the Slieve Bloom mountains and flows south about 119 
miles to Waterford harbor, where it joins the river Suir. The 
river is navigable for vessels of 200 tons to New Eoss, and thence 
to Athy and the Grand Canal for barges. Its chief affluents are 
the Nore, Blackwood, and Greese. Portarlington, Waterford, Car- 
low, Bagenalstown, and New Eoss are the principal towns on its 

Bastile or Bastille, a famous Paris fortress and prison, was built 
by order of Charles V., between 1370 and 1383, at Porte St. 
Antoine as a defense against the English. From the first, how- 
ever, it was used as a state prison. During the 16th and 17th 
centuries it was greatly extended and provided with strong bul- 
warks. On the breaking out of the French revolution the Bas- 
tile was attacked by the Parisians; and, after a vigorous resist- 
ance, it was taken and razed to the ground, July 14, 1789. A 
very striking account of the siege will be found in Carlyle's 
"French Eevolution. " The site of the building is now marked 
by a lofty column of bronze dedicated to the memory of the 
patriots of 1789 and 1830. 

Bath, Order of The. An order of Knighthood, founded by King 
Henry IV. of England in 1399. From the time of King Charles 
1. it lapsed, until revived by King George I. in 1725, as a mili- 
tary order, which it remained until 1845, when it was estab- 
lished on its present basis with a military and a civil division. 

Beachy Head, a promontory, on the south coast of Sussex, Eng- 
land, three miles southwest of Eastboiirne. Altitude, 530 feet. 
Here the French defeated the English and Dutch fleet in 1690. 
A new lighthouse about one mile to the east was opened in 1902. 
Has a coastguard station. 

Beagh, or Behagh, parish, County Galway, containing part of Gort, 
contains 13,838 acres, and has a i)opulation of 2,068. 

Beagh, village. Abbey parish. County Clare, 11 miles northwest of 

Beagh, hamlet. County Leitrim, four miles southeast of Druma- 

Beagh, or Veagh, lough, about three miles, in County Donegal, be- 
tween Glendowan and Derryveagh mountains. 

Bede or Baeda (673-735), called The Venerable, an ancient Anglo- 
Saxon monk, historian, and scholar, "the father of English 
learning," was born in 673, at Wearmouth, in the bishopric of 
Durham, England. He was educated in the monastery of St. 
Peter, and ordained by St. John of Beverley, Bishop of Hexham, 
in 703. His fame for learning was so esteemed that Pope Sergius 
wrote to the abbot of .Tarrow to send him to Eome, but Bede 
declined the honor. He spent his life mainly at the monastery 
of Jarrow (a famous seat of learning in Northumbria), being a 


diligent teacher and Latin, Greek and Hebrew scholar. After 
his ordination he began to devote himself to literary pursuits. 
Besides numerous volumes of commentaries on the Bible and 
other theological works, Bede wrote treatises on philosophy, 
astronomy, arithmetic, grammar, rhetoric, poetry, ecclesiastical 
history, and the lives of the saints. The marvelous industry 
and extraordinary merits of Bede were early recognized. He 
devoted his life mainly to the composition of his ecclesiastical 
history and other literary works, and in instructing his fellow 
monks. Many of his pupils became eminent for learning and 
sanctity. His last illness was long and painful, notwithstanding 
which he labored for the edification of others to the very last, 
and dictated to an amanuensis a translation of the Gospel of 
St. John into the Saxon language. He soon afterwards expired — 
May 26, 735. J. E. Green calls Bede "at once the founder 
of mediaeval history and the first English historian . . . 
First among English scholars, first among English theologians, it 
is in the monk of Jarrow that English literature strikes its 
roots. Bede was a statesman as well as a scholar. He is the 
father of our national education . . . he is the first figure 
to which our science looks back." The first general collection 
of his 45 works was made in Paris in 1545. His "Ecclesiastical 
History of the English Nation," in Latin, has been several 
times translated into English. An excellent version forms a vol- 
ume of Bohn's "Ecclesiastical Library." 
Bedell, William (1571-1642), Anglican Bishop of Kilmore and 
Ardagh, was born at Black Notley, in Essex, England. He 
was educated at Cambridge, where in 1593 he obtained a fellow- 
ship. He resided for eight years in Venice as chaplain to the 
English ambassador, Sir Henry Wotton. There he formed inti- 
macies with Father Paul Sarpi and other ecclesiastics and scholars, 
with whom he examined and compared the Greek Testament. 
On his return to England, he established himself at Bury St. 
Edmunds in Suffolk, where he first regularly engaged in the min- 
istry, and where he married. In 1627 he was appointed to the 
provostship of Trinity College, Dublin, and in 1629 was made 
Bishop of Kilmore (County Cavan), and Ardagh (County Long- 
ford). He resigned the see of Ardagh in 1633. The bishop 
studied Irish and secured the services of competent persons to 
translate the Bible into Gaelic. He made preparations for print- 
ing the work at his own house, and had already translated into 
Gaelic some sermons and homilies, when the Civil war of 1641- 
52 broke out. The respect he showed for Catholics in his writ- 
ings and discussions now bore good fruit in the regard and con- 
sideration with which he and the numerous fugitives who 
crowded his mansion and outhouses were treated by the Catholic 
leaders. He was joined by the Anglican Bishop of Elphin, and 
the free exercise of their religion and services were permitted to 
them, the elements for the communion being even specially sup- 
plied. It is to be noted that while his memoirs speak of the 


sufferings which the English settlers had to endure in being 
driven from their plantations, there is nothing in his writings 
about the so-called massacre, so dwelt upon by misleading, par- 
tisan historians. He even drew up for the leaders in revolt 
their "Eemonstrance and Statement of Grievances" in justifica- 
tion of their having taken up arms for presentation to the lords 
justices. When he became ill, he was attended with the greatest 
care and his last hours were soothed by every attention that 
warm attachment could dictate. He died February 6, 1642, and 
was buried in the churchyard of Kilmore. He was interred with 
military honors by the Irish soldiers and when the grave closed 
over his remains, all joined in the simple prayer: "May the 
last Englishman rest in peace. ' ' He composed in Latin with 
great elegance, and corresponded with many of the eminent men 
of his time on the continent, by whom he was held in great and 
deserved estimation. His writings exhibit him as a learned and 
amiable man of extraordinary liberality, nobility, humility, 
and depth of character, far in advance of his illiberal age in 
many ways. 

Beelzebub, the title of a heathen deity, to whom the Jews as- 
cribed the sovereignty of the evil spirits. Milton in his "Para- 
dise Lost" makes him second in rank to Satan, but Wierus, the 
celebrated demonographer in the sixteenth century, says that 
Satan is no longer the sovereign of hell, but that Beelzebub 
reigns in his place. Other mediaeval writers, who reckon nine 
ranks or orders of demons, place Beelzebub at the head of the 
first rank, which consists of the false gods of the Gentiles. 

Belfast, parliamentary and county borough, manufacturing and 
seaport town, with railway stations (B. & C. D., B & N. C, and 
G. N. I.), is the principal town of Ulster. It is chiefly in Shan- 
kill parish, County Antrim, but partly also in Holywood and 
Knockbreda parishes, County Down, at the influx of the Lagan 
to Belfast Lough, 113 miles north of Dublin by rail, 135 from 
Glasgow, and 156 from Liverpool. The county borough has 
16,504 acres and a population of 349,180; the parliamentary 
borough has a population of 348,705. On the land side the city 
is bounded and sheltered by a lofty and picturesque ridge of 
hills, which ends abruptly in the basaltic eminence of Cavehill, 
1,188 feet. It presents a clean, prosperous, and business-like 
appearance, and possesses wide and regular streets, substantial 
buildings and beautiful environs. An insignificant village in 
1612, when Scotch and English colonists first settled there, Bel- 
fast is now the chief seat of trade and manufactures of Ireland, 
and the second port next to Dublin, Of its numerous educa- 
tional institutions, the most important is Queen's College, opened 
in 1849; it has professorships in art, law, medicine, and science, 
including engineering and agriculture. Among the chief public 
buildings are the new City Hall, built on the site of the old 
Linen Hall; the Free Library, containing also the Art Gallery 
and Museum; and the Ulster Hall, with accommodation for 3,000 


people. Belfast is the chief seat of the linen industry; bleach- 
ing, dyeing, and calico-printing are extensively carried on. Some 
of the flax mills are very large. There are flour and oil mills, 
chemical works, iron foundries, breweries, distilleries, alabaster 
and barilla mills, rope and sailcloth yards. There is an immense 
trade in whisky and tobacco, while the manufacture of mineral 
waters, and ham and bacon curing form important branches of 
trade. From the extensive shipbuilding yards on Queen 's Island, 
the largest steamers in the world have been launched. The 
docks and wharfage have become very extensive. Belfast has 
constant intercommunication with all large ports in Great 
Britain, and by this means much of its foreign trade is carried 
on. The borough returns four members to parliament. Belfast 
Castle is three miles north of the city. 

Belfast Lough, or Carrickfergus Bay, between the counties of 
Antrim and Down, is about 12 miles long, with an average 
breadth of three miles. It forms an exceedingly safe and com- 
modior.s haven with good anchorage. 

"Belgium, a European kingdom, forming the southern division of the 
Low Countries, on the North Sea between Holland and France, 
is about one-eighth of the size of Great Britain. The frontier 
line inland is purely arbitrary, not being marked by any well- 
defined, physical features. The country is divided into eight 
provinces. The greater part of the surface, including the prov- 
inces of Limburg, Antwerp, Brabant, Hainaut, and West and 
East Flanders, is flat and slightly undulating. The government 
is a constitutional hereditary monarchy, dating from 1831. The 
executive authority is vested in the king, and the legislative in 
the king, the senate, and the chamber of representatives. Under 
the Roman dominion Belgium formed part of Gaul. Afterwards, 
for several centuries, it was ruled by the Franks, and then di- 
vided into several independent states. In course of time the 
Counts of Flanders acquired the supremacy, but in 1385 their 
dominions passed to the House of Burgundy, whose sway was 
soon extended over the whole of the Netherlands. The marriage 
of Mary of Burgundy with Maximilian in 1477 transferred 
these provinces to the Austrian rule, from which they passed to 
that of Spain. When the northern provinces asserted their inde- 
pendence, the southern or Belgian still adhered to Spain. For 
a short period in the beginning of the 17th century Belgium 
was formed into an independent state under the Archduke 
Albert, but on his death it reverted to Spain. In 1713 it was 
ceded to Austria, from which it was taken by France during 
the revolutionary war. In 1814 it was united with Holland under 
the rule of the House of Orange. This union proved uncongenial, 
and in 1830 the Belgians asserted their independence, and formed 
themselves into a separate kingdom. The population is partly 
of Teutonic and partly of Romance origin, the former repre- 
sented by the Flemings, and the latter by the Walloons, The 
Flemings speak the Flemish, and the Walloons French, or a 


Romance dialect closely akin to it. French is the official lan- 
guage, and that of the upper classes generally. The prevailing 
religion is Catholic. The principal towns are Brussels, Antwerp, 
Ghent, Bruges, and Liege. Belgium has an area of 11,373 square 
miles, and a population (1900) of 6,687,651. 

Bellingham, Sir Edward (died in 1549), lord deputy of Ireland, 
was born in England. He served in Hungary under Sir Thomas 
Seymour, and with the Earl of Surrey in Boulogne and Isle of 
Wight. He was lord deputy of Ireland in 1548. He suppressed 
risings in Kings and Queens counties. 

Benburb, a village in County Tyrone, on the river Blackwater, 
seven miles south of Dungaunon. Population, 273. Benburb 
Castle is in the vicinity. The chief industries are linen-weaving 
and limestone quarrjang. For description of the Battle of Ben- 
burb see chapter XXXVI., page 284. 

Bentinck, William (1649-1709), first Earl of Portland, was born in 
Holland, and came to England with the Prince of Orange. On 
the latter 's accession to the English throne he was created Earl 
of Portland, and obtained several high offices, military and 
civil. He accompanied William III. on his Irish campaign in 
1690. His son, Henry, the second earl, was created Duke of 
Portland in 1716, went to Jamaica as governor, and died there 
in 1726. Another son, William, the second duke, who died in 
1762, married Lady Margaret Cavendish Harley, only child of 
the second Earl of Oxford, and heiress to the Cavendish estate. 

Bentinck, William Henry Cavendish (1738-1809), third Duke of 
Portland, statesman during the reign of King George III., was 
born in 1738. After sitting for some time in the Lower House 
as member for Weobly, he was called to the Upper House on 
the death of his father in 1762. From that time he usually 
voted with the Marquis of Eockingham; and during the latter 's 
administration in 1765 he was lord chamberlain. During the 
American Eevolution he acted with the opposition against that 
war, but in 1782 he was appointed lord lieutenant of Ireland, 
where he remained only three months. On the breaking out of 
the French Eevolution, he, along with Edmund Burke and other 
liberals, left the Whig party and gave their support to the 
Tories. In 1792 he was chosen chancellor of the University of 
Oxford, and in 1794 he accepted the office of secretary of state 
for the home department, which he resigned in 1801, and was 
then appointed president of the council. In 1807 he became 
first lord of the treasury, but soon relinquished that office, and 
was succeeded by Perceval. Died in 1809. The authorship of 
the Letters of Junius has been ascribed to him, but "without 
the slightest probability." He was a man of only moderate 
abilities, but highly honorable and of great influence. 

Berne, or Bern, capital of the Swiss Confederation, situated on 
a high platform washed at its base on three sides by the river 
Aar, in the middle of the Swiss plateau, 80 miles northeast of 
Geneva. Commands a magnificent view of the Alps of the 


Bernese, Oberland; contains an old cathedral (founded 144), 
and among its chief modern structures is the Federal Palace, 
the building of the Swiss legislature. Population (1888), 47,150. 

Berwick, Duke of. See FitzJames James. 

Bingham, Sir Richard (1528-1599), Governor of Connaught, an 
English general, served in Scotland in 1547; under Don Juan of 
Austria against the Turks in the conquest of Cyprus in 1572, 
and in the Low Countries in 1573. In 1578 he served under the 
Dutch flag against the Spaniards. Jn 1584 he was knighted and 
appointed Governor of Connaught. Temporarily recalled (1587- 
88), to take part in the war in the Netherlands, he returned 
to Ireland and repressed O'Rourke's rising in 1590-91. In 1596 
he was imprisoned in London on the charge of uncommon cruelty, 
but returned to Ireland as marshal in 1598. He died in Dublin. 
His memory was long execrated by the Irish. He had two 
younger brothers who acted as assistant commissioners in Con- 
naught. One brother, George, for many years sheriff of Sligo, 
took a leading part in the massacre of the Spaniards in 1588, 
and was killed in battle against the Irish. The Bingham family 
is now represented by the Earl of Lucan. 

Black Monday, The name given to a rising in County Dublin 
in 1209, which nearly exterminated the newly established Eng- 
lish colony. 

Black Kent. An annual tax or stipend paid by the English set- 
tlers within the pale to the Irish chieftains on their borders 
in consideration of their restraining their followers from raid- 
ing the English settlements. Black rent was first paid about 
A. D. 1410. 

Black, or Euxine Sea, a great inland sea between Europe and Asia, 
surrounded by Russia, Caucasia, Asiatic and European Turkey, 
Bulgaria and Roumania. In the ooze at depths of 100 to 600 
fathoms, remains of Caspian brackish-water mussels have been 
discovered, which, with other circumstances, seems to indicate 
that at the close of the Pliocene period, the Black Sea was a 
part of a vast inland sea of brackish water. The Black Sea 
has no perceptible tide; it is liable to frequent storms, such as 
are generally met with in great lakes and enclosed seas; but its 
navigation is so far from being very dangerous, as formerly 
represented, that probably no sea of equal extent is more safe. 
It has neither islands, rocks, nor reefs in the tracks of naviga- 
tion, and has excellent anchorage. 

Blackwater, the largest and most beautiful river in the province 
of Munster. Rising in the southeast of County Kerry, it flows 
east through Counties Cork and Waterford, turning to the south 
before it enters Youghal harbor. It is about 100 miles long, 
and is navigable 12 miles for barges and flat-bottomed boats to 
Mallow. Fermoy and Lismore are towns on its banks. Its chief 
branches are the Bride, Allua, Funcheon, Araglin, and Finisk 
The salmon fisheries are important. 


Blackwater, branch of river Bann, County Cavan. 

rises in the east of County Cavan, and is about 40 miles in 

Blackwater, a river rising in County Tyrone, flows along the 
boundary between Counties Tyrone and Armagh to the southwest 
corner of Lough Neagh, and is about 50 miles in length. 

Blackwater, branch of river Boyne, at Navan, County Meath. It 

Blackwater, rivulet, County Kerry, flows eight miles south into 
Kenmore river. 

Blackwater, village and coastguard station. County Wexford, 10 
miles southeast of Enniscorthy, has a population of 150 

Bloods, The Five. The five chief septs or clans in Ireland in the 
middle ages. They were the O'Neills of Ulster, the O'Briens 
of Munster, the O 'Conors of Connaught, the O 'Malachys of 
Meath, and the MacMurroughs of Leinster. See Chapter X. 

Blount, Sir Charles (1563-1606), soldier and politician. Earl of 
Devonshire and eighth Lord Mountjoy, was born in England. 
He entered parliament, served with Sir Philip Sidney in the 
Low Countries, and was knighted in 1586. He became a royal 
favorite and in 1600, after the failure of the Earl of Essex in 
the Irish war. Queen Elizabeth insisted upon him assuming the 
government of Ireland. He was afterwards implicated in 
Essex's intrigues, but escaped punishment. He defeated 
Hugh O 'Neill and Hugh Eoe 'Donnell at the decisive battle of 
Kinsale and compelled their ally, Don Juan d'Aguila, to capitu- 
late. On arranging the terms of the submission of O'Neill at 
Mellifont he returned to England, after the death of Elizabeth, 
and was received at court with great favor by King James I. 
He was appointed one of the privy council, created Earl of 
Devonshire, and granted extensive estates in Ireland. He died 
in London and was buried in Westminster Abbey. 

Boleyn, Anne (1507-1536), second wife of King Henry VIII. of 
England, and mother of Queen Elizabeth, was the eldest daughter 
of Sir Thomas Boleyn and his wife, Lady Margaret Butler, 
daughter of Thomas Butler, the seventh Earl of Ormond. Her 
father represented an ancient and noble family in Norfolk, 
England. Anne's early years were spent at the French court, 
where she attended the youngest sister of Henry VIIL, Mary 
Tudor, who was queen of Louis XTI. After some years she 
returned to England, and became maid of honor to Queen Cath- 
erine, the wife of Henry A^'ITT. She thus was often in the com- 
pany of the king, who became infatuated with her, but, unable 
to overcome her scruples or policy, he resolved on frivolous 
grounds to procure a divorce from his first wife, the beautiful 
and virtuous Queen Catherine. When the Pope would not con 
sent to so arbitrary a measure, Henry broke with Eome and 
declared himself spiritual and temporal head of the Church of 
England. (See Anglican Church.) This base design he carried 
into execution, and married Anne privately in 1533. When she 
became the mother of a daughter (afterwards the celebrated 


Queen Elizabeth), he shortly afterwards publicly acknowledged 
her as queen, and she so continued until the tyrant conceived a 
violent passion for Jane Seymour, one of Anne's maids. He 
then caused the latter to be tried for high treason, being ac- 
cused of criminal intimacy with several other men. Anne was 
beheaded in the Tower, May 19, 1536. 

Bonaparte, Napoleon. See Napoleon I. 

Borlace, or Borlase, Sir John (died in 1649), was a soldier in the 
wars of the Low Countries, where he served before the truce of 
1608. In 1633 he was appointed master of the ordnance in Ire- 
land, which office he held until his death in 1649. He had been 
lord justice from 1640 until 1644, when he was succeeded by the 
Marquis of Ormond as lord lieutenant. 

Boston, capital of Massachusetts, on Boston harbor, an indenta- 
tion of Massachusetts Bay, from which it is separated by some 
.50 islands, and having, with its several arms, an area of 75 
square miles. The older part of the town stands on very uneven 
ground, with narrow and irregular streets, although improve- 
ments were made after the great fire of 1872. The newer parts 
have all the regularity and spaciousness usual in American cities. 
The old State House, Faneuil Hall, the "cradle of liberty," in 
which the revolutionary patriots met, and the Public Library, 
one of the largest in the United States, are the most noted build- 
ings. The Bunker Hill monument, a granite obelisk 221 feet 
high, on a low hill in the former city of Charleston (now a sub- 
urb of Boston), marks the scene of the first conflict between thd 
British and American forces in the Revolutionary war, June 
17, 1775. The earlier settlers called the place Trimountain or 
Tremont. In 1630 a company of English Puritans settled on the 
site of the present city, and in the same year a general court 
of the governing body of that community ordered that the place 
should be called Boston after the town in England, from the 
neighborhood of which many men of the colony had come. The 
park known as Boston Common was reserved for the perpetual 
use of the community in 1634. Many of the great literary men 
of America — Longfellow, Lowell, Whittier, Emerson, Haw- 
thorne, Holmes, Thoreau, O'Reilly, and Prescott, have dwelt 
in or near Boston, most of these having been connected at some 
time with Harvard University, in the adjoining city of Cam- 
bridge. Boston had a population in 1900 of 560,892. 

Boulter, Hugh (1671-1742), Anglican Archbishop of Armagh, was 
born in London. Educated at Oxford, he became chaplain to 
George I., Bishop of Bristol in 1719, and Archbishop of Armagh 
in 1724. His position was more political than ecclesiastical, 
and he was a strong upholder of the English interests. With 
these sentiments he had but a sore time of it, between Swift. 
AVood's halfpence, and a rather fractious Commons. During 
the 19 years of his primacy the real weight of the government 
policy with regard to Ireland rested on him. He died in Lo«- 
don in September, 1742, leaving upwards of £30,000. His ef- 


forts to found schools for the conversion of Catholics did not 
come to much. 

Bowes, John (1690-1767), lord chancellor of Ireland, was admitted 
to the English bar in 1718. Eemoving to Ireland, he was ad- 
mitted to the Irish bar in 1725; became solicitor-general in 
1730; represented Taghmon, County Wexford, in parliament 
in 1731; was attorney-general in 1739, chief baron of the ex- 
chequer in 1741, and chancellor in 1757. The title of Baron 
Clonlyon in County Meath was conferred on him in 1758. He 
was lord justice in Ireland (1765-66). He died at Dublin. 

Boycotting. One of the weapons employed by the Irish Land 
League in its campaign against the landlords in Ireland. It 
consists in ostracizing the person aimed at and forbidding any 
one to deal with or work for him or supply his wants. Its 
first victim was Captain Boycott, the agent of the Earl of Erne 
in 1880, and from his name the word is derived, 

Boyle, Annals of. The abbey of Boyle in Eoscommon, a cele- 
brated Cistercian monastery, was founded in the twelfth cen- 
tury and amply endowed by the MacDermotts, Lords of Moy- 
lurg; it was long eminent as a seat of learning and religion, 
and its remaining ruins show its former magnificence. The 
Annals of Boyle were composed by the monks of that abbey, 
and are considered as the most authentic record of the ancient 
history of Ireland. The Annals of Boyle, translated into Eng- 
lish, accompanied with commentaries on the general history 
of Ireland, are now fortunately published. — C. and McD. See 
Notes to Chapter I. 

Boyne, the chief river of Leinster, rises in the Bog of Allen, 
County Kildare, flows northwest through a portion of King's 
County, thence northeast through County Meath to the Irish 
Sea, four miles below Drogheda, and is 70 miles long. Its 
principal tributaries are the Mattock and the Blackwater. It 
is navigable by sea-borne vessels to Drogheda, and by river 
craft to Navan. On the sandhills on the south side of its 
estuary stand three lighthouses with fixed lights, seen six miles. 
On its banks, three miles west of Drogheda, was fought the battle 
of the Boyne, in which the forces of James II. were routed 
by the army of William III., July 12, 1690. See Chapter XLIV., 
page 332. 

Braganza, a town in Portugal, 85 miles northwest of Salamanca. 
It is the center of the Portuguese silk industry, and divided 
into the upper and older walled town, and the lower new town. 
The city gives its name to the House of Braganza, until the 
overthrow of the monarchy in the fall of 1910 the ruling 
dynasty of Portugal. John, eighth Duke of Braganza, ascended 
the throne as John IV. in 1640, when the Portuguese liberated 
themselves from the Spanish yoke. 

Brefny, an ancient and extensive territory comprised in the 
present Counties of Cavan and Leitrim. It was part of the 
Kingdom of Connaught down to the reign of Elizabeth, Trhen 


it was formed into the Counties of Cavan and Leitrim, and 
Cavan was added to the province of Ulster. Brefny was di- 
vided into two principalities; the O'Eourkes were princes of 
West Brefny (Leitrim) and the O'Eeillys princes of East 
Brefny (Cavan). 
Brehous of Ancient Erin. Bardism and Brehonism, as well as 
Druidism, the religious system of the Celtic nations, Gauls, 
Britons and Irish, prevailed in Ireland from the earliest ages. 
After the introduction of Christianity, the Druids, or pagan 
priests, became extinct, but the Bards and Brehons continued 
in the Christian as well as the pagan times. The Brehons were 
the judges and professors of the law and in ancient times 
delivered their judgment and proclaimed the laws to the chiefs 
and people assembled on the hills and raths on public occa- 
sions, as at the Conventions of Tara, and other great assemblies. 
Many famous Brehons and chief judges flourished from the first 
to the eighth century. These eminent men formed and per- 
fected a great code of laws, which from their spirit were des- 
ignated Celestial Judgments. The Brehons, like the Bards, 
presided at the inauguration of kings, princes and chiefs, and, 
as the judges and expounders of the law, had great power 
and privileges in the state, and extensive lands were allotted 
for their own use. Each of the Irish princes and chiefs of 
note had his own Brehons, and the office, like that of the 
Bards, was hereditary in certain families. — C. and McD. 
Brehon Law. The Irish law which prevailed throughout Ireland 
before and after the Anglo-Norman invasion in the reign of 
King Henry II. of England, excepting within the pale or ter- 
ritory occupied by the English. See notes to Chapter II. 
Brereton, Sir William (died in 1541), born in Cheshire, England, 
knighted in 1523, went to Ireland in 1539 and on his arrival was 
made marshal of the army and a privy councillor. During the 
absence of Lord Leonard Grey in 1540 he acted as lord justice 
in his absence. 
Brest, a fortified city in France and an important naval port. Its 
bay or roadstead communicates with the North Sea by a strait 
called the "Goulet, " defended by forts and batteries, and 
rendered difficult of access. Its inner harbor is secure and 
could accommodate sixty ships of the line. The fortress is pro- 
tected by batteries and a citadel built on a rock, and com- 
municates by a canal with the port of Nantes. It was occu- 
pied by the English in 1372, 1378 and 1397, and was attacked, 
without success, by the Spaniards in 1597 and by the English 
in 1694. Brest is connected with St. Pierre (south of New- 
foundland), and with the mainland of North America (Boston) 
by telegraph cables. 
Bright, John (1811-1889), English orator and statesman, was born 
at Greenbank, in Lancashire. He was a member of the Society 
of Friends. At all times an animated and effective speaker, 
Bright was incessant, both at public meetings and in parliament, 


in his opposition to the Corn Laws, until they were finally re- 
pealed. In 1868 he accepted oi3Eice as president of the Board of 
Trade, but in 1870 was obliged to resign in consequence of 
severe illness. His health having been restored, he took office 
in 1873, and again in 1881, as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lan- 
caster; he was appointed Lord Eector of Glasgow University 
in November, 1880. He died March 27, 1889. He is recognized 
as one of the most eloquent public speakers of his time. 

Britons, is the general name given by the Komans to the in- 
habitants of South Britain, or England and Wales. Its ety- 
mology has generally been traced to the Welsh brith (spotted 
or tattooed), but it is more probably kindred with trethyn, the 
Welsh for cloth. Thus, the Britons were the clothed people, 
as opposed to the pre-Celtic occupants, who probably wore but 
little clothing. 

Browne, George (died in 1556), Anglican Archbishop of Dublin, 
a native of England, was originally a friar of the Order of St. 
Augustine. He subsequently became an active advocate of the 
English Eeformation, and was the chief instrument of Henry 
VIII. in establishing his ecclesiastical supremacy in Ireland. He 
was hated by the clergy and by most of the Irish Council, and 
met with little success in his eiforts to establish the new order 
of things in Ireland. After the full publication of the first 
English Prayer Book, in 1550, the attempt was resumed (in 
which Browne took a leading part) to impose on Ireland the 
English changes in religion. He was made primate of Ireland 
by patent, but on the accession of the Catholic Queen Mary in 
1553, he was deprived of his primacy and deposed from his 
archbishopric, he being a married man. He died soon after. He 
was a man of little weight of character. 

Bruce, Edward (1275?-1318), brother of Eobert Bruce, King of 
Scotland, was crowned King of Ireland in 1316. Encouraged by 
the success of the Scotch at Bannockburn, some of the leading 
princes of Ireland applied to Eobert Bruce, as representative of 
the old Hiberno-Scotic colony, to accept the crown and secure 
the independence of Ireland. He declined for himself, but 
transferred the invitation to his brother. Edward Bruce landed 
in Ireland in May, 1315, with about 6,000 men, accompanied 
by the Earl of Moray and other Scottish commanders. The 
Scots, with their Irish allies, took possession of Carrickfergus, 
laid siege to its strong citadel, and in 1316 Bruce was crowned 
King of Ireland at Dundalk. He encountered and defeated in 
many engagements the forces of the English government in Ire- 
land, but in October 1318, in a conflict near Dundalk, Bruce was 
slain and his forces put to flight. His body was found on the 
field, with that of .lohn de Maupas, an Anglo-Norman knight, 
stretched upon it. See Chapter XVII., page 132. 

Bruce, Eobert (1274-1329), King of Scotland, was descended from 
Eobert de Brus or Bruys, a Norman, who came to England with 
William the Conqueror, and son of Eobert Bruce, Earl of Carrick. 


He opposed Baliol and Comyn for the crown of Scotland, which 
was awarded to his rival, Comyn, by King Edward I. of Eng- 
land, who claimed feudal superiority over Scotland. Comyn was 
slain, Bruce was elected king, and in 1314 totally defeated the 
English under King Edward II. at the decisive battle of Ban- 
nockburn. (See Bannockburn, Battle of.) He afterwards made 
peace with King Edward III., who renounced all claim to Scot- 
land, for himself and his heirs. Bruce died June 7, 1329, and 
on his death-bed desired that his heart might be carried to the 
Holy Land and deposited in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. 
Sir James Douglas on his way to Jerusalem with the embalmed 
heart of Bruce, fell in action with the Moors of Spain. The 
heart was brought back and finally buried in Melrose Abbey. 
The body of Bruce was interred in the abbey church of Dun- 

Buckingham, Marquis of. See Grenville, George Nugent-Temple. 

Buffalo, a city of New York State and capital of Erie County, is 
situated at the east end of Lake Erie, with a water-front of two 
and one-half miles on the lake and an equal frontage on Niagara 
river. The chief buildings are the City and County Hall, Gros- 
venor Free Library, and the Buflfalo Library, which contains 
also the Fine Arts Academy, Societj^ of Natural History, and 
the Buffalo Historical Society. Buffalo was founded in 1801, 
and incorporated as a city in 1832. Population (1900), 352,387. 

Bunratty, parish and village, near river Shannon, County Clare, 
five miles southeast of Newmarket-on-Fergus, has 2,747 acres 
(including islands) and a population of 342. Has ruins of a 
castle. Bunratty Castle is in the vicinity. 

Burgoyne, John (1722-1792), soldier, was born in England in 1722. 
He was given supreme command of the British forces in Canada, 
but capitulated at Saratoga to the American general Gates in 
October, 1777. "When the Whigs returned to power under Lord 
Eockingham in 1782 Burgoyne was made commander-in-chief in 
Ireland and a privy councillor. He went out of power in Decem- 
ber, 1783. He wrote several plays. Died in Mayfair, England. 

Burren, village in County Clare, 10 miles west of Ardrahan rail- 
way station. 

Burren, affluent of river Barrow, County Carlow, flowing 18 mUes 
north from Mount Leinster to the Barrow, near Carlow. 

Burren, hamlet, County Down, two miles north of Warrenspoint. 

Burren, hamlet. County Mayo, five miles north of Castlebar. 

Butler, Sir Theobald (died about 1205), first butler of Ireland, a 
descendant of one of the leaders under William the Conqueror, 
was son and heir of Hervey Walter, of Lancaster and of Suf- 
folk, and elder brother of Hubert Walter, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury. Theobald's surname appears in the various forms, Le 
Botiller, Walter, Walter!, and FitzWalter — Walter, Walteri, and 
FitzWalter from his father, Butler and Le Botiller from his 
office. Landing with King Henry of England at Waterford in 
1171, he received a grant of extensive estates in Limerick, and 


the same year fought and slew Dermot MacCarthy, He further 
received from Prince John (before 1189) grant of Arklow (after- 
wards confirmed to him by William Marshal on becoming Lord 
of Leinster), where in later days Butler founded an abbey. He 
was in constant attendance on Prince John, and received from 
him, as Lord of Ireland, the office of chief butler of Ireland, 
which in time became the surname of his descendants. He 
founded churches and abbeys in several parts of Ireland and 
England. He was the ancestor of the earls and dulses of Ormond. 
"On account of his services," says Webb, "large possessions 
were conferred upon him. He was, in 1177, as a mark of royal 
favor, made chief butler of Ireland, with a perquisite of two 
tuns of wine out of every cargo or upwards breaking bulk in 
Ireland. This right of prisage, as it was termed, was repur- 
chased from the Butler family by the government in 1810 for 
£216,000. Besides Irish property, he possessed large estates in 
Norfolk and Suffolk, England. He died in 1205 or 1206 and was 
interred in County Limerick." His son (second Theobald) was 
born about 1200, and came into possession of his father's estates. 
He was lord- justice of Ireland in 1247, and died in the follow- 
ing year. The latter 's son (third Theobald) married a daughter 
of Eichard de Burgh, and thereby greatly increased the Butler 
estates. He died and was buried in the convent of Friars 
Preachers at Arklow. His grandson (fifth Theobald) succeeded 
to the family possessions in 1285, and at a parliament of the 
great lords of Ireland, held in 1295, he stood fourth on the roll. 
He attended King Edward I. of England in his Scottish wars, 
and gained a great reputation by his valor. He died unmarried 
in 1299. His brother, Edmund, Earl of Carrick, succeeded. In 
1303 the latter was appointed "Gustos Hibernie," and in 1309 
was knighted by King Edward II. of England. In 1312 he de- 
feated the O 'Byrnes and O'Tooles in Glenmalure. Three years 
later he was created Earl of Carrick. He distinguished himself 
in the war against Edward Bruce. He died in 1321 and was 
buried at Gowran, County Kilkenny. By his wife, Joan Fitz- 
Gerald. daughter of the first Earl of Kildare, he had several 
children, the eldest of whom (James) succeeded and became 
the first Earl of Ormond. 
Cahir or Caher (meaning "a stone fort"), market town and par- 
ish on river Suir, with railway station (G. S. & W. E.) in county 
and thirteen miles southeast of Tipperary, and eleven miles 
west of Clonmel. The parish has an area of 13,646 acres and 
a population of 3,989; the town has 165 acres and a popula- 
tion of 2,058. Cahir is a clean and well-built town, in a rich 
and beautiful district, with extensive trade in corn and flour. 
Cahir Castle was originally built in 1142, and now used as a mili- 
tary depot, is situated on an island in the river Suir. In the 
vicinity of the town are the seats of Cahir Abbey and Cahir 


Caliir, parish in southwest County Kerry (containing the town of 
Cahirciveen), has an area of 19,100 acres and a population of 

Cahir, seat sixteen miles northeast of Ennis, County Clare. 

Cahir, hamlet, in county and thirteen miles west of Galway. 

Cahir Island, four miles south of Clare Island in County Mayo. 

Cahir Mountain is situated in County Kerry, eight miles south of 
Killorglin; has an altitude of 3,200 feet. 

Caillemot (died in 1690), an officer in the service of "William 
Prince of Orange (afterwards King William HI.), was descended 
from a noble family of France. Going to England with Will- 
iam in 1688, as colonel of a Huguenot regiment of foot, he was 
despatched to Ireland in the following year with a command in 
the expedition under the Duke of Schomberg. After the reduc- 
tion of Carrickfergus, the army, with the exception of Caille- 
mot 's regiment and that of Cambon 's, having gone into winter 
quarters, this officer had an opportunity of distinguishing him- 
self in a most hazardous enterprise, an attempt against Charle- 
mont Fort, which, although considered an almost impregnable 
position, he succeeded in damaging to such an extent that it 
surrendered to the duke shortly after. Caillemot was slain at 
the battle of the Boyne in 1690. 

Calais, a seaport town in the Department of Pas de Calais, France, 
on the Strait of Dover, 184 miles north of Paris. It ranks as 
a fortress of the first class, the old walls, dividing it from its 
suburb, Saint Pierre, having been demolished since 1883, and 
their place supplied by a ring of exterior forts. Calais is an 
entrepot for colonial produce, Bordeaux wines, brandy and 
cured fish; but its chief importance is owing to its being the 
French port nearest to England. The city had a prominent 
place in all the wars between England and France. It was 
taken in 1347 by the English under Edward III., who built a 
palace there which still survives, though reconstructed in the 
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The French, under the Duke 
of Guise, retook it in the reign of Mary in 1558. Population 
(1891) 56,900. 

Caledon, market town with railway stations (G. N. I. E. and 
Clogher Valley railways). County Tyrone on Eiver Blackwater, 
eight miles west of Armagh, has a population of 614. In vicinity 
is Caledon House, seat of the Earl of Caledon. 

Callan, market town and parish, on Eiver Owenree, thirteen miles 
southwest of Kilkenny railway station. The parish has an area 
of 5,633 acres and a population of 2,403; the town has 377 acres 
and a population of 1,840. Callan has remains of a friary and 
three castles. 

Callan, a branch of the Eiver Blackwater, at Charlemont, County 
Armagh, is twenty miles long. An aqueduct at Derby's Bridge 
conveys the Union canal across the stream. 

Calmucks or Kalmucks, a Mongolian race of people, scattered 
throughout Central Asia and extending westward into South- 


ern Eussia. They are nomads, possessing large herds of horses, 
cattle and sheep. In recent centuries the most noteworthy 
events in their history arose out of the emigration of a large 
band of the Torgod from Zungaria into Russia in 1650. 
Calvin, John (1509-1564), one of the leaders of the Eeformation, 
was born at Noyon in Picardy, France, July 10, 1509. He was 
educated at Paris, with a view to an ecclesiastical life, and 
accordingly two benefices were procured for him; he was not 
destined to enter the priesthood, however; becoming dissatis- 
fied, he resigned his preferments and applied himself to the 
study of the law and obtained the degree of LL.D. He now 
embraced the doctrines of the Eeformation, fixed his abode in 
Paris and frequently preached, having given himself up to the 
study of theology. ' ' Calvin 's master spirit gave him a speedy 
supremacy among the friends of the Eeformation. ' ' At the 
age of twenty-four he published a Commentary on Seneca 's 
treatise, "De dementia," on which occasion he altered his name 
from Cauvin to Calvin. Soon after this a persecution arose 
against the reformers, brought on them by an address of Nicho- 
las Copp, rector of the university of Paris, which was prepared 
by Calvin, who in consequence had to retire to Saintonge, where 
he was protected by the queen of Navarre. By her interest 
this storm passed over and Calvin returned to Paris in 1534, but 
thinking his life in danger, he removed soon afterwards to 
Basle, where in 1535 he published his "Institutions of the 
Christian Eeligion" in Latin, dedicated to King Francis I. of 
France. But this work was not completed till 1558. Soon after 
this Calvin went to visit the duchess of Ferrara, and on his 
return from Italy passed through Geneva, where William Favel, 
also a Frenchman, the reformer, "denounced the divine judg- 
ments against him, if he did not continue there as his fellow 
laborer." To this requisition the magistrates added their ear- 
nest entreaties; and Calvin accordingly was chosen one of their 
ministers and professor of divinity. This was in 1536, and the 
next year Calvin called upon the people to swear to a confession 
of faith, in which they made a renunciation of the ancient be- 
lief. About this time, however, Calvin and Favel incurred the 
resentment of the magistrates for refusing /to administer the 
eucharist indiscriminately, and for not submitting to the regu- 
lations of the synod of Berne, in regard to the use of unleav- 
ened bread, the baptismal fonts, and the celebration of ecclesi- 
astical festivals. As the pastors would not yield to the con- 
sistory, they were banished, and Calvin went to settle at Stras- 
burg; but in 1541 he was recalled, and the first measure he set 
about was to settle the Presbyterian form of church government. 
The rigor of the system which he established was compared by 
many to the terror of the inquisition; and the conduct of Cal- 
vin in causing Servetus to be burnt as a heretic did not tend 
to lessen the parallel. Calvin died May 27, 1564. While at 
Strasburg he married Idoletta de Bures, widow of an Anabap- 


tist. She bore Calvin one son, who died in infancy. The theo- 
logical system of Calvin is founded upon the irrespective decrees 
of the Almighty, without any regard to the will or merits of 
man. "As a commentator he stands in the first rank, and has 
been commended by Scaliger, Huet, Horsley and other scholars 
of mark. The best edition of his works is that of Amsterdam, 
1671, nine volumes folio." "As Luther was the orator and 
Melancthon the scholar, so Calvin was the divine and dialecti- 
cian of the Keformation. " He suffered during much of his life 
under a complication of diseases — asthma, gout, stone and fever 
tormented him. He took little sleep and often ate only a meal 
a day. His memory was marvelous. His works have been often 
printed, both in Latin and French. His complete works ap- 
peared at Geneva, 1617, in twelve volumes folio. His letters 
have been translated into English, as well as many of his works. 
His character was in many respects not unlike that of Luther. 

Cambridge, University of, is fifty-seven miles northeast of Lon- 
don in the town of Cambridge. The University of Cambridge, 
supposed to have been founded in the seventh century by Sige- 
bert, king of East Anglia, contains seventeen colleges, as fol- 
lows: St. Peter's College or Peterhouse, founded in 1284; Clare 
College, 1326; Pembroke College, 1347; Caius College, 1348; 
Trinity Hall, 1350; Corpus Christi College, 1352; King's Col- 
lege, 1441; Owen's College, 1448; St. Catherine College, 1473; 
Jesus College, 1496; Christ's College, 1505; St. John's College, 
1511; Magdalen College, 1519; Trinity College, 1546; Emmanuel 
College, 1584; Sidney Sussex College, founded in 1594 on the 
site of a suppressed religious house granted by King Henry 
VIII. to Trinity; and Downing College, 1800. Principal build- 
ings connected with the university are the senate house, the 
public schools, library, science museums and laboratories, ob- 
servatory, university union (club debating society) buildings, 
Pitt press or university printing oflfiee, and Fitzwilliam museum. 
The university sends two members to the House of Commons, 
who are chosen by the members of the senate. Eelics prove 
Cambridge to have existed in Eoman times. It is first recorded 
as being burnt by the Danes in 871. After the conquest, Will- 
iam the Conqueror built a castle there to overawe the Saxons 
under Hereward the Wake, whe defied him and made the Isle 
of Ely a camp and temporary home. In the reign of King 
Henry I. Cambridge was incorporated. There are also two 
unendowed colleges — Selwyn College, 1882, and Ayerst's Hos- 
tel, 1884. The town of Cambridge has a population of about 

Camden, Marquis. See Pratt, John Jeffreys. 

Campagna di Roma, region of the province of Latium, Italy, ex- 
tending along the west coast from Cape Linaro, south of Civita 
Vecchia, to Astura and the Pontine marshes and inland to the 
Alban and Sabine hills, Eome being near its center; through 
it runs the Appian Way. It is an undulating region, rising to 


200 feet above the sea and skirted on the Mediterranean by a 
strip of marsh land from two to three miles in breadth. It 
was swept by Goths, Vandals and Langobards from the fifth to 
the eighth century and afterwards by the Normans and Saracens. 
There is little cultivation, though the soil is by no means in- 
fertile and the region is mainly used for the pasturage of cattle 
and sheep. 

Camperdown, a broad tract of low dunes in North Holland, is 
famous for the victory obtained off the coast here by Admiral 
Duncan over the Dutch fleet under Admiral De Winter October 
11, 1797. 

Canada, Dominion of. The territory belonging to this dominion is 
situated to the north of the United States. The dominion, 
formed in 1867 by the union of separate provinces, has a gen- 
eral government and parliament for the common affairs, but it 
has nine provinces with separate legislatures, empowered to deal 
with matters of local concern. There is also a separate legis- 
lature for the five provisional districts. The seat of the general 
government is Ottawa in the province of Ontario. In 1497 Se- 
bastian Cabot, who sailed from Bristol, England, touched at 
some part of the coast of Labrador, but it is not known that he 
then visited any portion of what is now dominion territory, but 
in 1517 he made his way into what was afterwards called Hud- 
son's Bay, and accordingly may be regarded as the first Euro- 
pean visitor. The first important explorations, as well as the 
first settlements, are, however, due to the French. Jacques 
Cartier made three visits to what are now the eastern prov- 
inces in 1534, 1535 and 1540. Samuel de Champlain made sev- 
eral visits and carried on a considerable amount of explora- 
tion in 1603 and subsequent years, and in 1608 founded the city 
of Quebec. During the next century and a half the St. Law- 
rence region formed a French colony under the name of Can- 
ada, but in 1670 the English Hudson 's Bay Company was founded 
and began to trade with the Indians in the northwest, and in 
1749 Halifax, Novia Scotia, was founded and a number of Brit- 
ish emigrants settled in that province under a British gov- 
ernor. In 1759 Quebec was taken by General Wolfe, who thereby 
secured the possession of Canada for the British, though the 
formal cession was not made by the French till the close of the 
Seven Years' war in 1763, by the treaty of Paris. The execu- 
tive government is vested in the British sovereign, who gov- 
erns through the person of a governor-general, appointed for a 
term of five years. There is one parliament for Canada, con- 
sisting of the governor-general, an upper house, styled the sen- 
ate, the members of which are appointed, and a lower house, or 
house of commons, the members of which are elected. Canada 
has an area of 3,745,574 square miles and a population (1901) of 

Carew, Sir George (1557-1629), Earl of Totness, second sou of Dr. 
George Carew (Avho held many high preferments in the Estab- 


lished Church), was born in Devonshire, England. He was edu- 
cated at Oxford, but quitted the university to enter upon a mili- 
tary life, in which capacity he served in Ireland, where he was 
made governor of Askettou Castle. In 1585 he was knighted 
and two years after was created master of the ordnance in 
Ireland for life. In 1596 he went with the expedition to Cadiz. 
His next appointment was that of President of Munster in 
Ireland, and while there he was made a member of the privy 
council and one of the lord justices. Here he reduced several 
places; and in 1601 helped to defeat the Spaniards, who had 
landed at Kinsale in Cork. In 1603 he returned to England 
and was made Governor of Guernsey. In 1605 he was advanced 
to the dignity of a baron. In 1606 he was appointed master 
of the ordnance and a member of the privy council. On the 
accession of Charles I. he became a peer of parliament and was 
created Earl of Totness. He wrote, or rather caused to be writ- 
ten, "Paeata Hibernia, or the History of the Wars in Ireland," 
folio, 1633, published by his natural son, Thomas Stafford, who 
also collected four large volumes of chronologies, charters, etc., 
relating to Ireland, which are in the Bodleian Library. 

Carew, Sir Peter (1514-1575), was born in Devonshire, England. 
After a varied and eventful political and military career at 
home and on the continent, he appeared in Ireland in 1558 as 
claimant of the old Leinster and Munster estates of his ances- 
tors, which had gradually been reoccupied by the Irish chief- 
tains during the wars of the Koses. Large estates had been 
granted in Ireland by King Henry II. of England to Eobert 
FitzStephen (one of the original Norman invaders), whose daugh- 
ter married a Carew, whom Sir Peter claimed as an ancestor. 
His presence materially contributed to the wars of the Butlers 
and other chieftains, who resented the government putting him 
in the possession of estates which they had occupied for cen- 
turies. In 1568 he was appointed Governor of Leighlin. Sev- 
eral attempts A"'ere made to assassinate him. Sir Edmund But- 
ler, brother of '^he Earl of Ormond, especially resented his 
claiming some of his lands, and in 1569 raised an insurrection. 
In 1572, after a short visit to England, he repaired to Cork and 
again prosecuted his claims to certain Munster estates. He died at 
Eoss in 1575 and was buried at Waterford with great pomp, 

Carhampton, Lord; see Luttrell, Henry Lawes. 

Carlingford, market and seaport town and parish, with railway sta- 
tion (L. & N. W. E.), County Louth, on south side of Carling- 
ford Lough, ten miles northeast of Dundalk. The parish has an 
area of 19,924 acres and a population of 5.892; the population 
of the town is 606. The inhabitants are chiefly engaged in fish- 
ing, large quantities of oysters being exported. Carlingford 
is also a watering place and holiday resort. There are remains 
of a castle and a monastery. Carlingford mountain (1,935 feet) 
rises on the northwest side of the town. 


Carlingford Lough, a sea inlet, between Counties Down and Louth, 
nine miles northeast of Dundalk, is about ten miles long and two 
miles wide. It has depth of water for the largest ships, but 
its entrance is dangerous from sunken rocks, through which a 
channel 400 feet wide has been cut. There are several light- 
houses. Carlingford Lough is connected with Lough Neagh by 
the Neway canal. 

Carlow, inland county of Leinster province, and, with the ex- 
ception of Louth, the smallest county in Ireland, is surrounded 
by Counties Kildare, Wicklow, Wexford, Kilkenny and Queen 's 
County. Greatest length, north and south, thirty-three miles j 
greatest breadth, east and west, twenty miles; average breadth, 
ten miles. Area 221,473 acres (including 508 acres water), or 
a little over one per cent of the total area of Ireland. Popu- 
lation 37,748, of whom 33,339 are Catholics, 3,946 Episcopalians, 
164 Presbyterians, and 197 Methodists. Nearly the whole sur- 
face is flat or gently undulating. The Blackstairs mountains 
(2,409 feet) and Mount Leinster (2,610 feet) rise on the south- 
eastern boundary. The rivers are the Barrow with its affluent 
the Burren, and the Slaney with its affluent the Derreen. Lime- 
stone is abundant and marble is quarried. The soil is generally 
very rich and well adapted for pasture or tillage. The county 
comprises thirty-five parishes and parts of thirteen other par- 
ishes, and the towns of Carlow, Bagenalstown and Tullow. It 
returns one member to parliament. 

Carlow, parish. County Carlow, and urban district with railway 
station (G. S. & W. R.), at the confluence of the rivers Barrow 
and Burren, fifty-six miles southwest of Dublin by rail. The 
parish has an area of 3,319 acres and a population of 6,125; 
the urban district has 595 acres and a population of 6,513. Has 
agricultural markets. Anthracite coal is worked in the district. 

Camot, Lazare Nicolas Marguerite (1753-1823), mathematician, 
author, soldier and "the most able, honest and brave of French 
Republican statesmen," the "organizer of victory" (during the 
early wars of the French revolution), was born in the province 
of Burgundy, France. In 1791 he became a member of the 
Legislative Assembly and in the convention voted for the ex- 
ecution of Louis XVI. In 1793 he was elected a member of the 
committee of public safety, and to him alone was entrusted the 
whole conduct of the affairs of war. "To his skill in direct- 
ing and combining the operations of sometimes as many as 
fourteen armies at once and to his judgment in choosing offi- 
cers to command them are to be ascribed all the honor which 
belongs to the central organization of the glorious career of 
victory that marked the early wars of the French republic. ' ' 
Carnot (fully occupied in guarding the frontiers of France), had 
no share in the domestic tragedy by which his colleagues 
earned for the period of their rule the name of the "Eeign of 
Terror." After the fall of the terrorists, Carnot continued to 
direct the military affairs of the nation with the same success 


as before. He often distinguished himself in the field in actual 
battle and finally attained the rank of lieutenant-general. When 
Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799 seized the supreme power, Carnot 
was made minister of war. The next year, disapproving of the 
government as being opposed to his republican principles, he 
resigned his office and retired to his country seat, where he 
engaged in scientific pursuits. In 1814, when the power of Na- 
poleon was tottering to its fall, Carnot, believing the safety 
of France to be endangered by foreign powers, offered his serv- 
ices to the emperor, which he had refused in the time of Napo- 
leon 's prosperity. The offer was gladly accepted by Napoleon, 
who appointed Carnot governor of Antwerp, "the most impor- 
tant fortress in his dominions." During the "Hundred Days" 
of Napoleon (in 1815), Carnot held the office of minister of the 
interior; and after the second restoration he was proscribed by 
the government of Louis XVIII. and retired first to Warsaw 
and next to Magdeburg, where he passed the remainder of his 
life in the cultivation of literature and science and died in 1823. 
His grandson, Marie Francois Sadie Carnot (1837-1894), was 
chosen president of the French republic in 1887 and was as- 
sassinated by an anarchist at Lyons, June 24, 1894. 

Carrantuel, mountain, eleven miles southwest of Killarney, County 
Kerry, the highest summit of the Macgillycuddy Eeeks, and in 
all Ireland; altitude 3,414 feet. 

Carrick (meaning "a rock"), village and seat, eleven miles west 
of Killybegs in county and twenty-two miles west of Donegal, 
has a population of 131. It has a good hotel for tourists and 
is the center for visitors to Slieve League. 

Carrick, place. County Fermanagh; post town, Lisbellaw. 

Carrick, parish. County Kildare, on Eiver Boyne, three miles north 
of Edenderry, has an area of 5,181 acres and a population of 
293. Carrick has remains of a castle. 

Carrick, parish, County Londonderry, three miles south of Lima- 
vady, has an area of 5,337 acres and a population of 998; con- 
tains Carrick-on-Eoe postoffice. 

Carrick, parish, containing Carrick-on-Suir, County Tipperary, has 
an area of 2,426 acres and a population of 4,587. 

Carrick, parish and seat, County West Meath, on Lough Ennel, 
six miles south of Millingar, has an area of 2,105 acres and a 
population of 175. 

Carrick, parish, in county and two miles north of Wexford, on 
River Slaney, has an area of 3,009 acres and a population of 

Carrick, village in south of county and fourteen miles southwest 
of Wexford, with railway station. 

Carrick Hill, four miles northeast of Eathdrum, County Wicklow, 
has an altitude of 1,251 feet. 

Carrickbjrrne Hill, about seven miles northwest of Taghmon, 
County Wexford. Scullabogue, at its base, was the scene of 
horrible incidents in the rebellion of 1798. 


Carrickfergus, urban district, market town and seaport and coiwity 
of itself, with railway station (B. & N. C. E.), on north side 
of Belfast Lough, County Antrim, is about nine miles north of 
Belfast and fourteen miles south of Larne by rail. Carrickfer- 
gus has an area of 16,702 acres and a population of 8,528; the 
urban district has 138 acres and a population of 4,208. Eock 
salt is largely mined in the vicinity. Flax spinning and manu- 
factures of cotton and leather are carried on. There are ex- 
tensive fisheries; the oysters from this port are highly valued. 
Vessels of 100 tons and upwards can discharge at the piers. 
Carrickfergus Bank is a shoal off the shore. The castle, a noble 
and interesting structure, is now used chiefly as an armory. 
Of the ancient walls of the town only the north gateway is 
now standing. King William III. landed at Carrickfergus in 
1690, previous to the battle of the Boyne. At the head of the 
east and west piers are fixed lights, visible two miles. 

Cashel, ancient episcopal city and urban district, with railway 
station (Goold's Cross and Cashel), G. S. & W. E., six miles 
northwest of the city, in parishes of St. John Baptist, St. Pat- 
ricksrock and Horeabbey, County Tipperary, ninety-six miles 
southwest of Dublin. The urban district has 318 acres and a 
population of 2,938. The city stands in the center of a plain. It 
was the ancient seat of the Kings of Munster. Once the see 
of an archbishop, it was reduced to a bishopric in 1834. Cashel 
was a parliamentary borough until 1870. The diocesan library 
contains 16,000 volumes. The far-famed Eock of Cashel (300 
feet high), a stupendous mass of limestone, is crowned with the 
ruins of a cathedral, a chapel and a round tower. The cele- 
brated Jonathan Swift was a native of Cashel. 

Cashel, hamlet, two miles west of Glenamaddy and ten miles south- 
west of Ballymoe railway station, County Galway. 

Cashel, parish, County Longford, on Lough Eee, six miles south 
of Lanesborough, has an area of 15,859 acres and a population 
of 2,017. 

Cashel, village, northeast Achill Island, County Mayo, has a popu- 
lation of 254. 

Cashel, Psalter of. The Psalter of Cashel, an ancient Irish MS., 
partly in prose and partly in verse, was compiled in the latter 
part of the ninth century by the celebrated Cormac MacCul- 
lenan. Archbishop of Cashel and King of Munster. The Psal- 
ter of Cashel was compiled from the Psalter of Tara, and other 
ancient records, and contained the history of Ireland from 
the earliest ages to the tenth century, to which some additions 
were made after the death of Cormac, bringing the work down 
to the eleventh century. Keating quotes many passages from 
the Psalter of Cashel, of which he had a copy. The original 
Psalter of Cashel, long supposed to be lost, is stated to be 
deposited in the library of the British Museum in London, and 
copies of it are said to be in the Bodleian library at Oxford, 
and in the Duke of Buckingham's library at Stowe. The 


greater part of the Psalter of Cashel is to be found in the 
Books of Lecan and Ballymote. — C. and McD. See Notes to 
Chapter I. 

Castlebar, capital of County Mayo, assize and market town and 
urban district, with railway station (M. G. W. E.), on Eiver 
Castlebar, at the head of Lough Castlebar or Lanach, 150 
miles northwest of Dublin by rail. The urban district has 542 
acres and a population of 3,585. It has a good market for 
agricultural produce and large military barracks. Castlebar was 
held for a short time by the French, after their landiug at 
Killala Bay in 1798. Here is Castlebar House, seat of the Earl 
of Lucan. 

Castleconnor or Castleconor, parish, Counties Sligo and Mayo, four 
miles northeast of Ballina, has an area of 16,667 acres and a 
population of 2,038. Castleconnor House is a seat. 

Castlehaven, Earl of, see Touchet, James. 

Castleisland, town and parish, with railway station (G, S. & W. 
E.), County Kerry, on Eiver Maine, twelve miles southeast of 
Tralee. The parish has an area of 29,635 acres and a popula- 
tion of 5,293; the town has a population of 1,497. A butter 
and egg market is held every Tuesday. The ruins of a castle 
stand here on the banks of the river. 

Castle Island, an island in Eoaring Water Bay, County Cork, five 
miles east of Skull. 

Castlemalne, village and railway station (G. S. & W. E.), eight 
miles south of Tralee, County Kerry, on Eiver Maine, has a 
population of 154. Castlemaine Harbor is two miles southwest, 
at the upper end of Dingle Bay, and is formed by the estuary 
of the Maine and Laune. There is, however, little trade, the 
Maine having silted up and a bar having formed at the entrance 
to the harbor. 

Catherine of Aragon (1485-1536), Queen of England, the first wife 
of Henry VIII., and fourth daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, 
King and Queen of Spain. She occupies a prominent place in 
English history, being the cause or rather the occasion of 
King Henry's reformation. Married November 14, 1501, when 
scarcely sixteen, to Arthur (1486-1502), Prince of Wales, son 
of Henry VII., she was left a widow on the 2d of April, and 
on the 25th of June was betrothed to her brother-in-law, Henry, 
as yet a boy of only eleven years. The pope's dispensation 
enabling such near relatives to marry was obtained in 1504, 
and the marriage took place in June, 1509, seven weeks after 
Henry's accession to the crown as Henry VIII. Between 1510 
and 1518 she bore him five children, one only of whom, the 
Princess Mary, survived; but, though Henry was very far from 
being a model husband and though he had conceived a passion 
for Anne Boleyn as early as 1522, he appears to have treated 
Queen Catherine with all due respect until 1527. He now 
expressed doubts as to the legality of his marriage and set 
about obtaining a divorce, which, all other means failing, was 


at length pronounced by Cranmer in May, 1533 (see Henry 
VIII.). Queen Catherine, who had offered a dignified, passive 
resistance to all the proceedings, did not quit the kingdom, but 
took up her residence first at Ampthill, in Bedfordshire, and 
afterwards at Kimbolton Castle, Huntingdonshire, where she 
led an austere religious life until on January 7, 1536, she died, 
either by poison or cancer of the heart. Queen Catherine 's 
personal character was unimpeachable and her disposition sweet 
and gentle. 

Catholic Bent. An unauthorized tax or cess levied upon Irish 
Catholics by Daniel O'Connell's Catholic Association in 1823 
and afterwards. The funds thus obtained were placed in O'Con- 
nell 's hands, to be used at his absolute discretion for further- 
ing the objects of the Association. 
*^ Catholic Association. The Catholic Association was founded 
by Daniel O'Connell in 1823. It embraced all classes. It re- 
ceived petitions, appointed committees, ordered a census of the 
Catholic population and collected the "Catholic Rent." O'Con- 
nell managed all the money that came in without accounting 
for it to any one. In 1825 the British parliament attempted 
to put down the Association by means of the Convention bill, 
but the Association dissolved itself before the bill came into 
force. This, however, was merely in appearance. In 1829 the 
old Association was renewed and it declared that none but 
Catholics should in future be elected for Irish constituencies. 
The members also began to assemble at monster meetings, to 
which they marched in military array. The object of the Asso- 
ciation was attained in the Emancipation Act in 1829 and it 
was dissolved when a measure for suppressing it was passed. 

Catinat, Nicholas (1637-1712), French general. He defeated the 
Duke of Savoy in 1688 and took the fortress of Ath, in Flan- 
ders, in 1697. Four years afterwards he was appointed com- 
mander of the French army in Italy against Prince Eugene, 
but was obliged to retreat. Died in 1712. 

Cavan, an inland county of Ulster province, is surrounded by 
Counties Fermanagh, Monaghan, Meath, West Meath, Long- 
ford and Leitrim. Greatest length, northwest and southwest, 
fifty-two miles; greatest breadth, north and south, twenty-five 
miles; average breadth, thirteen miles. Area, 477,399 acres 
(23,883 water), or 2.3 per cent of the total area of Ireland. 
Population 97,541, of whom 79,026 are Catholics, 14,112 Episco- 
palians, 3,220 Presbyterians, and 987 Methodists. The narrow 
projection in the northwest is bleak and mountainous, the high- 
est summit, Cuilcagh, having an altitude of 2,188 feet. The 
surface of the rest of the county is undulating and abounds 
in lakes and morasses. Mineral springs are numerous, the 
best known being that at Swanlinbar. The rivers are the 
Annalee, the Blackwater, Woodford and the Upper Erne. The 
soil is generally light and poor. The county comprises twenty- 
nine parishes and parts of seven others, and the towns — Cavan, 


Cootehill, Belturbet and Bailieborough. For parliamentary pur- 
poses it is divided into two divisions, West and East, one mem- 
ber for each division. 

Cavan, urban district and county town of Cavan, with railway 
station (M. G. "W. E.), eighty miles southwest of Belfast by 
rail, has an area of 497 acres and a population of 2,822. The 
demesne of Lord Farnham is adjacent. 

Cavendish, Lord Frederick Charles (1836-1882), chief secretary 
for Ireland, son of William Cavendish, seventh Duke of Devon- 
shire, was born at Compton Place, Eastbourne, England. He 
graduated at Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1858; entered par- 
liament as member for Yorkshire West Kiding in 1865; and 
was made chief secretary for Ireland in 1882. Lord Cavendish 
and Thomas H. Burke were slain by members of a secret polit- 
ical society in Phoenix Park, Dublin, May 6, 1882. 

Ceasair, Queen. The fact that the Pagan gods and heroes of 
those bygone days are still remembered in Ireland indicates or 
proves that Erin had in very ancient times reached a degree 
of civilization rarely attained so early in the history of na- 
tions. Only one of the Ceasaireans has left any considerable 
mark on Irish history — that one is Fintan, the salmon god, 
the ancient Celtic patron of poets and historians. When Queen 
Ceasair and her followers were swept away by the Deluge, 
Fintan, we are told, escaped by taking the form of a salmon, 
until the receding waves left him high and dry on Tara hill, 
where he resumed his human form. Some legends tell us that 
it was Fintan who related the early history of Ireland to 
St. Patrick and that to him we owe our knowledge of those 
primitive times, he having visibly appeared to the Irish bards 
and historians for their instruction. Others, however, say that 
it was not Fintan but Amergin (the son of Milesius), a famous 
Druid who flourished 1,200 years after the Deluge, who first 
collected the materials for this curious early history. — W. S. 
Gregg. See Chapter I. 

Celestine I. (died in 432), was elected to the papal dignity in 
422, on the death of Pope Boniface I. The acts of his pon- 
tificate are noticed under two heads — his resistance to heresy, 
which was called into action mainly in the East, and his meas- 
ures to convert the heathen, which transport us to the North 
and West. Nestorius, the famous author of a heresy, succeeded 
to the patriarchate of Constantinople in 428. He prided him- 
self on his zeal for the purity of the faith; and to prove it 
commenced a persecution of the Arians, Novatians and others 
at Constantinople. "But his sermons against the Apollinanans 
overshot the mark, and while reprobating those who confounded 
the two natures, he himself denied by implication the unity of 
the person of Christ. Cyril, the patriarch of Alexandria, de- 
tected and combated the error." Nestorius thereupon referred 
the matter to Pope Celestine, to whom Cyril also wrote, send- 
ing copies of all the documents which had passed and stating 


that he had not yet broken off communion with Nestorius, 
pending the declaration of the pope's opinion. Celestine, after 
being furnished with all that each side had to allege, convened 
a council at Eome, which condemned the doctrine of Nestorius. 
Upon hearing this, the emperor, Theodosius the Younger, 
strongly urged by the Nestorian party, convoked the general 
council of Ephesus, which met in 431. At the second session 
of the council the papal legates appeared and opened the pro- 
ceedings by reading a letter from Celestine. The condemna- 
tion and deposition of Nestorius was finally resolved on. Dur- 
ing the entire proceedings the pope kept up a diligent and 
vigorous correspondence with the emperor, the council, St. 
Cyril and all concerned, and his letters bear the stamp of no 
common ability. While thus he crushed the new heresy in the 
East, he was not less watchful against the inroads of an old 
enemy in the West. He combated semi-pelagianism in France 
and pelagianism in Britain, where he sent St. Germanus in 430 
to stamp it out. The other great division of his actions em- 
braces his labors for the conversion of the heathen, and must 
here be very briefly stated. Early in his pontificate he sent 
Palladius to convert the Irish and upon hearing of his failure 
and death in 432, he selected St. Patrick as his successor, or- 
dained him bishop and sent him to preach the faith in Ire- 
land. Pope Celestine died in April, 432. Celestine was the 
name of five popes. 
Celts. When we first hear of the Celts, centuries before our era, 
they appear as a great and conquering nation. Thronging the 
valley of the Danube, they thence overran Spain and broke 
into Greece, Italy and France. From the latter country they 
spread northward and occupied the British Isles. For ages 
they were a terror to the Greek and equally so to the Eoman. 
They were the great recruiting ground whence the Cartha- 
genians and other early nations replenished their armies. "The 
word Celt itself," says Dr. Douglas Hyde, "is of very ancient 
origin and was no doubt in use 800 or 1,000 years before 
Christ." "The Celts," he adds, "invaded Italy about the year 
400 B. C, fought the great battle of Allia, July 18, 390, and 
stormed Rome three days later. They were at this time at 
the height of their power. From about the year 500 to 300 
B. C. they possessed a very high degree of political unity, 
were led by a single king and followed with signal success a 
wise and consistent external policy. The most important 
events in their history during this period were the three suc- 
cessful wars which they waged — first against the Carthagenians, 
out of whose hands they wrested the peninsula of Spain; sec- 
ondly in Italy, which ended in making themselves masters of 
the north of that country; and thirdly along the Danube. 
All of these wars were followed by large accession of territory. 
The Greek writers of the fourth century, B. C, speak of the 
Celts as practicing justice, of having nearly the same manners 


as themselves and they notice their hospitality to Grecian 
strangers. Nor did Alexander the Great embark upon his 
expedition into Asia without having first assured himself of 
the friendship of the Celts. He received their ambassadors as 
friends and made with them a satisfactory alliance before his 
departure for Persia. On the shores of Ireland alone did the 
Eoman eagle check its victorious flight and the Irish Celts alone 
of the nations of western Europe were neither molded nor 
crushed into his own shape by the conqueror of France and 

Chamberlain, Joseph (1836 ), English politician, was born in 

London. He was three times mayor of Birmingham, radical 
member of parliament from Birmingham, 1876-85; president of 
Board of Trade, 1880-85; secretary of state for colonies in the 
Unionist cabinet, 1895-1903. He opposed Gladstone's Home 
Eule policy, and became leader of the Liberal-Unionists when 
the Duke of Devonshire went to the Upper House. He was 
one of the foremost English leaders who aided in bringing about 
the Boer war. 

Charlemagne (742-814), or Charles the Great, King of France (also 
styled "King of the Franks and Eoman Emperor"), was born 
in 742. He was the eldest son of Pepin and grandson of 
Charles Martel. On Pepin's death he succeeded jointly with 
his brother Carloman to the throne of France. In 771, on 
Carloman's death, he became ruler of the kingdom, then com- 
prising France and a large part of Germany. After defeat- 
ing the pagan Saxons, he crossed the Alps, putting an end 
to the Lombard kingdom, and in 800 he was crowned Em- 
peror of the West by Pope Leo III. in St. Peter's Church at 
Eome. During his long reign he fought many battles in Italy 
and Germany, suppressing the numerous insurrections of the con- 
quered chiefs. He entered Spain to fight the Moors and Arabs 
in 778. In 783-85 Charlemagne persuaded the Saxon leaders 
to submit to baptism and henceforth they became his faithful 
vassals. The last years of his reign were spent in consolidat- 
ing his vast empire extending from the Ebro to the Elbe. His 
fame spread to all parts of the world. Charlemagne was not 
only one of the greatest rulers, statesmen and warriors that 
ever lived, but an encourager of learning, the builder of nu- 
merous palaces, churches and the founder of several universi- 
ties. He himself could speak Latin and read Greek. His reign was 
a notable attempt to consolidate order and Christian culture 
among the nations of the West. He died January 28, 814. 

Charles I. (1600-1649), King of England, second son of King 
James I. of England and Anne of Denmark, was born at Dun- 
fermline, Scotland. He was created Duke of York in 1605 and 
Prince of Wales in 1616, four years after the death of his 
elder brother Henry had left him heir to the crown. At the 
death of James I. he succeeded to the throne (March 27, 1625), 
and in the same year married Henrietta Maria, daughter of the 


French King, Henry IV. Three parliaments were sitmmoned 
and dissolved in the first four years of his reign; then for 
eleven years he ruled without one. In 1640 he called two par- 
liaments — the Short Parliament, which lasted but three weeks, 
and the other (met November 3, 1640), has become famous as 
the Long Parliament. January his attempt to arrest John 
Pym, John Hampden and three other members of parliament 
was followed by four years of civil war. Charles vainly tried 
to obtain large forces from Ireland and elsewhere. His cause 
was permanently lost at the battle of Naseby, in June, 1645, 
and he surrendered to the Scots at Newark, May 5, 1646, and 
in the following January was handed over to the English par- 
liament. He was executed January 30, 1649. Six children 
survived him — Charles and James, his successors; Mary, 
Princess of Orange (1631-60); Elizabeth (1635-50); Henry, Duke 
of Gloucester (1639-60), and Henrietta, Dutchess of Orleans 
(1644-70). "Charles possessed many of the qualities which 
adorn private life and if his lot had been cast in more propi- 
tious circumstances he might have been a respectable and use- 
ful, if not a popular, sovereign. But it was his misfortune to 
live at a period when the ancient forms of the constitution re- 
quired to be accommodated to the growing intelligence and 
spirit of the people, and he perished in the vain attempt to 
resist the onward progress of freedom. ' ' 
Charles II. (1630-1685), King of England, second son of Charles 
I. and his queen, Henrietta Maria, was born in London. On 
the breaking out of the civil war Prince Charles, though a 
mere youth, took up arms in his father's cause. After the 
ruin of the royalists he retired to the continent and finally took 
refuge in Paris. In 1650 he accepted the terms of the Scottish 
commissioners, landed in Scotland, signed the "solemn league and 
covenant" and was proclaimed King of Scotland. Soon after 
the arrival of the prince, Oliver Cromwell invaded Scotland at 
the head of a powerful army. The Scots were completely de- 
feated at the battle of Dunbar and the whole country south 
of the Forth fell into the hands of the victors. In 1651 Charles 
marched with 10,000 men into England in the hope that his 
friends in that country would flock to his standard. In this, 
however, he was completely disappointed and was utterly routed 
by Cromwell with an overwhelming force, after a fierce and 
long struggle at Worcester, September 3, 1651. For six weeks 
he wandered a fugitive in the garb of a peasant, but after 
a variety of romantic adventures and narrow escapes he at last 
found refuge in France. Nearly nine years later (after the 
death of Cromwell and the resignation of his son Richard) 
Charles landed at Dover and a few days later was proclaimed 
king at London, amid the most extravagant demonstrations of 
joy. In November, 1660, he issued a declaration for the set- 
tlement of Ireland, and April 23, 1661, was formally crowned. 
The first seven years of his reign was the period of Lord 


Clarendon's ascendency, who was succeeded by the "cabal" 
or cabinet, and the latter by Shaftesbury. In 1670 he entered 
into a secret treaty with France, became its pensioner, by which 
he bound himself in return for the promise of a large subsidy 
to assist King Louis XIV. in his ambitious designs on Holland 
and Spain. He aimed at securing toleration of the English 
Catholics, but thereby only excited the jealousy of parliament 
and added to the severities of the Act of Uniformity. His 
Declaration of Indulgence in favor of Catholics (March, 1671), 
was canceled two years later, owing to parliamentary agita- 
tion, and was followed by the Test Act in February, 1685. He 
died February 6, 1685. A few hours before his death he made 
a profession of the ancient faith, which he had long held in 
secret, and was received into the Catholic Church. "Charles 
possessed excellent abilities and was good tempered, witty, 
affable and polite; but he was an unfaithful husband, a cold- 
hearted and treacherous friend, a profligate man and a bad 
sovereign. . . . there can be no doubt that his shameless 
conduct and that of his associates contributed in no small de- 
gree to produce that deep rooted and general corruption of 
morals and manners which throughout his reign disgraced the 
nation." During his reign the great plague broke out in 
London and in six months swept away 600,000 victims. The 
groat fire followed, which laid a large part of the metropolis 
in ruins. 

Chatham, Earl of, see Pitt, William. 

Chesterfield, Earl of, see Stanhope, Philip Dormer. 

Chester Castle, situated in the city of Chester, England, was 
built by William the Conqueror about 1069. The castle, with 
the exception of "Caesar's Tower," has been removed, its 
site being occupied by barracks and county buildings. A pro- 
jected Fenian attack on the castle in 1867 proved abortive. 

Chichester, Sir Arthur (1563-1625), Baron Chichester of Belfast, 
born in England and entered Exeter College, Oxford, in 1583, 
He assaulted a royal purveyor and withdrew to France to 
avoid punishment, where he remained until pardon was granted. 
He served against the Armada in 1588; in Drake's expedition 
in 1595 and in Essex's Cadiz expedition in 1596. He was 
knighted in 1597; made colonel of a regiment at Drogheda, 
Ireland, in 1598; was Governor of Carrickfergus (1599-1603), 
and lord-deputy of Ireland (1604-15). He aimed at disarming 
the Irish and breaking down the clan system. He also advo- 
cated the translation of the Common Prayer Book in Irish. He 
was active in planting Ulster with English and Scottish colo- 
nists, and was created Baron Chichester in 1613. He was ap- 
pointed lord-treasurer of Ireland in 1616, which office he held 
until 1625. He died in London the latter year and was buried 
at Carrickfergus, near Belfast, Ireland. 

Chichester, Arthur (1606-1674), first Earl of Donegal, was born 
in June, 1606, and early entered upon the military life, in 


which he became subsequently distinguished. In 1627 he had 
the command of a troop of horse, and had risen to the rank 
of colonel before the breaking out of the civil war, in which 
he distinguished himself by his fidelity to the royal cause and 
his bravery and activity. In reward for his long services and 
on the representation of the Duke of Ormond, he was, in 1645, 
created Earl of Donegal. After the restoration of Charles II. 
he was appointed Governor of Carrickfergus in Ireland, a post 
which proved to be one of peril and difficulty. He died in 
Belfast in 1674. He was succeeded by his nephew, Sir xVrthur 

Chronicon Scotorum. The Chronicon Scotorum was an ancient 
work, composed at Clonmacnois, written in Irish, and continued 
to 1150, containing much information on the ancient history of 
Ireland. Dr. Douglas Hyde says: "The Chronicon Scotorum 
is a valuable book of annals of uncertain origin, edited for the 
Master of the Eolls in one volume, by the late Mr. Hennessy, 
from a manuscript in the handwriting of the celebrated Duald 
MacFirbis. It begins with the legendary Fenius Farsa, who 
is said to have composed the Gaelic language 'out of seventy- 
two languages.' It then jumps to the year 353 A. D., merely 
remarking 'I pass to another time and he who is will bless it. 
In this year, 353, Patrick was born. ' . . . Columcille 's [St. 
Columba] prayer ... is given under the year 561, and 
consists of three poetic ranns . . . as in the Four Masters, 
we meet with numerous scraps of poems given as authorities." 
There was a copy of the Chronicon Scotorum in the possession 
of Bryan Geraghty, Dublin publisher of the "Annals of Ire- 
land," translated by Owen Connellan and issued in 1846, and 
another in the library of Sir William Betham. See notes to 
Chapter 1. 

Churchill, John (1650-1722), Duke of Marlborough, soldier, states- 
man, diplomat and courtier, "whose extraordinary genius shed 
the greatest luster upon the reign of Queen Anne," was born 
at Ashe, in Devonshire, England. He was the eldest son of 
Sir Winston Churchill, and was educated at St. Paul's School. 
At the age of twelve his father took him to court, where he 
became page to the Duke of York, and in 1666 obtained a posi- 
tion in the guards. His first service was at the siege of Tan- 
gier, and in 1672 he was captain of grenadiers under the Duke 
of Monmouth, with whom he served in the Low Countries and 
distinguished himself so gallantly at the siege of Nimeguen 
as to attract the notice of the great Turenne, who called him 
"the handsome Englishman." For his conduct at the siege 
of Maastricht he received the thanks of the French king. On 
his return to England he was made lieutenant-colonel, also gen- 
tleman of the bed chamber and master of the robes to the 
Duke of York, whom he attended to the Netherlands in 1679, 
as he afterwards did to Scotland. In 1681 he married Miss 
Sarah Jennings (lady in waiting to Princess Anne), which 


union greatly strengthened his interest at court. In 1682 he 
was shipwrecked with the Duke of York in their passage to 
Scotland and in the same year was made Baron of Eymouth. 
He still continued to be a favorite after the accession of King 
James II., who sent him ambassador to France. In 1685 he 
was created Lord Churchill of Sandridge, and the same year he 
suppressed Monmouth 's rebellion. He continued to serve King 
James with great ability, until the arrival of William Prince 
of Orange, and then deserted him, for which he has been se- 
verely censured. After the revolution he was created Earl of 
Marlborough, and appointed commander-in-chief of the English 
army in the Low Countries. He next served in Ireland, where 
he reduced Cork and other strong places. Notwithstanding 
these services, in 1692 he was suddenly dismissed from his of- 
fices and committed to the Tower on a charge of treason, but 
soon obtained his release. After the death of Queen Mary 
(wife of King William III.) in 1694, he was restored to favor 
and appointed governor to the young Duke of Gloucester. In 
1700 he was made commander-in-chief of the English forces 
in Holland, where he also held the office of ambassador. At 
the beginning of the next reign (1702) he received the Order 
of the Garter and was declared captain-general of all the forces 
in England and abroad. The states-general of Holland also 
gave him the supreme command of the Dutch troops, and in 
the campaign of 1702 he took a number of strong towns, 
particularly Liege, for which he received the thanks of both 
Houses of Parliament, and was created Duke of Marlborough. 
In 1704 he joined Prince Eugene, with whom he gained the 
battle of Blenheim, taking Marshal Tallard prisoner. Just be- 
fore this he had been created a prince of the empire. In the 
winter he returned to England and again received the thanks 
of parliament, "with the grant of the manor of Woodstock 
and the hundred of Wotton." May 12, 1706, he fought the 
battle of Eamillies, which victory hastened the fall of Louvain, 
Brussels, and other important places. He arrived in England 
in November and received fresh honors and grants from Queen 
Anne and parliament. A bill was passed to settle his honors 
upon the male and female issue of his daughters, and Blenheim 
Castle was ordered to be built to perpetuate his exploits. In 
1708 the battle of Oudenarde was fought and resulted in a de- 
cisive triumph for the English general. Another fierce strug- 
gle took place in 1709 at Malplaquet, where each opposing 
army numbered about 100,000 men. The French were defeated 
and compelled to retreat. This action was the last of Marl- 
borough's great victories. He was undoubtedly the greatest 
general of his time. In 1712 his enemies in England contrived 
to have him deprived of all his offices. However, after Queen 
Anne's death in 1714 he again came into favor. He died in 
1722 and was buried in Westminster Abbey, but his remains 
were afterwards removed to Blenheim. "Anecdotes abound 


illustrative of the greatness and littleness of this remarkable 
man. His sweetness of temper, his humanity, his intrepidity, 
his sagacity, his falseness and mean avarice have been recorded 
by many pens." His sister, Arabella, formed a liaison with 
the Duke of York (afterwards James II.). The famous Duke 
of Berwick (see FitzJames, James) was the result of this 

Clare, a maritime county of Munster province (anciently called 
Thomond), is bounded west by the Atlantic Ocean, north by 
the Galway Bay and County Galway, and east and south by 
the Kiver Shannon, which divides it from Counties Tipperary, 
Limerick and Kerry. Greatest length, northeast and southwest, 
seventy-three miles; greatest breadth, northwest and southeast, 
forty-eight miles; average breadth, twenty-one miles; coast 
line, 145 miles. Area 852,389 acres (70,777 water), or 4.1 per 
cent of the total area of Ireland. Population 112,334, of whom 
110,062 are Catholics, 2,036 Episcopalians, 157 Presbyterians, 
and forty-eight Methodists. The coast of Clare contains some 
of the grandest cliff scenery in the British Isles, being equaled 
only by Slieve League, Hoy, Orkney Mainland and parts of 
Stromness. The height of the cliffs in some cases reaches nearly 
1,000 feet, and in no other part of the kingdom can the "roll- 
ers" of the Atlantic be seen to such advantage. Extensive 
oyster beds lie off the shore of Galway Bay and the salmon 
fisheries on the coast and in the estuaries of the Shannon and 
Fergus are very important. The chief bays on the coast are 
Ballyvaghan, Liscannor and Malbay. There are many small 
islands off the coast, the principal being the Aran Islands. 
The surface varies, rising from the central valley of the Kiver 
Fergus into bleak upland or mountain on the east and west. 
Clay slate is the prevailing rock; limestone is abundant; slate 
and lead are worked; flagstones are quarried near Kilrushand, 
Milltown and Malbay. At Lisdoonvarna are mineral springs. 
The chief crops are oats and potatoes. The county comprises 
seventy-six parishes and parts of five others and the towns of 
Ennis, Ennistimmon, Kilrush and Kilkee. It has two parlia- 
mentary divisions. East and West, one member for each. 

Clare, town with railway station (Clare Castle), G. S. & W. E., 
County Clare, on Eiver Fergus, two miles southeast of Ennis 
and twenty-three miles northwest of Limerick by rail. Popu- 
lation 591. The salmon fishery is of some local importance. 

Clare, village, three miles southwest of Tanderagee, County Ar- 

Clare Island (six miles by three miles), in Clew Bay, County 
Mayo. On the north point is a lighthouse, with a fixed light 
seen at a distance of twenty-seven miles. 

Clare, place, three miles south of Castlederg, County Tyrone. 

Clarendon, Earl of, see Hyde, Henry. 

Clifford, Sir Conyers (d. 1599), military commander of Kent, 
served as captain in the English army sent under the Earl of 


Essex to the siege of Eouen in 1591, and was knighted in the 
same year. He represented Pembroke in parliament in 1593; 
was sergeant-major in the Cadiz expedition in 1596, and was 
made President of Connaught, Ireland, in 1597. In 1599 at 
the decisive battle of Curlieu mountains he fell into an am- 
buscade, contrived by Hugh Eoe O'Donnell, and was slain with 
half his army. 

Clonard, village, one mile west of Balbriggan, County Dublin. It 
is also known as Great Folkstown. 

Clonard, parish and village. County Meath, on Eiver Boyne, two 
miles from Hill of Down railway station and twelve miles 
southwest of Trim, has an area of 13,324 acres and a popula- 
tion of 1,471. The district formerly was often flooded by the 
river; this is now prevented by an extensive system of drainage. 

Clones, parish. County Fermanagh and County Monaghan, has an 
area of 42,873 acres and a population of 10,079. 

Clones, market town and urban district, with railway station 
(G. N. I. E.), in the above parish, County Monaghan, 
forty miles northwest of Dundalk, sixty-five miles south- 
west of Belfast and ninety-four miles northwest of Dublin by 
rail. The urban district has 181 acres and a population of 
2,068. Clones has an ancient market cross, the remains of an 
abbey, and a round tower. There are spade manufactories and 
several large corn mills in the neighborhood. Clones is an 
important agricultural and railway center. 

Clonlyon, Baron; see Bowes, John. 

Clonmacnois, or Clonmacnoise. The see of Clonmacnois signifies, 
according to some accounts, the retreat of the sons of the noble, 
either from the great numbers of the sons of the Irish nobility 
who resorted to its college for education, or from many of the 
Irish princes having their burial places in the cemetery. An 
abbey was founded here in the sixth century by St. Kiaran the 
younger, on lands granted by Dermod, the son of Carroll, monarch 
of Ireland, and it became one of the most celebrated seats of 
learning and religion in Ireland in the early ages. It was formed 
into a bishop 's see, and the cathedral was erected in the twelfth 
century by the O 'Melachlins, Kings of Meath, who conferred 
most extensive endowments of lands on the abbey and see. A 
city and college were also founded here, and the place main- 
tained its literary and religious celebrity for many centuries; 
but having been repeatedly devastated by the Danes, during the 
ninth, tenth, and eleventh centuries, and frequently ravaged by 
the English, in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries; and its 
cathedral and churches having been finally demolished by bar- 
barous soldiers of the English garrison of Athlone, in the reign 
of Elizabeth, it has fallen into utter decay; but its ancient 
greatness is amply demonstrated by the magnificent and vener- 
able ruins of the cathedral and several churches, and of a castle, 
together with two beautiful round towers, some splendid stone 
crosses, and other antiquities which still remain. It contains 


one of the most ancient and extensive cemeteries in Ireland, and 
was the burial place of many of the Irish kings and princes, as 
the O 'Conors, Kings of Connaught, of whom Torlogh [or Tur- 
lough] O 'Conor, monarch of Ireland in the twelfth century, 
together with his son Eoderic O 'Conor, the last Milesian monarch 
of Ireland, were buried in its cathedral, and also many of the 
O'Melachlins, Kings of Meath, the O'Kellys, princes of Hy 
Maine; the MacDermotts, princes of Moylurg, and several ancient 
and noble Irish families. Clonmacnois, called the lona of Ire- 
land, is beautifully situated in a lonely retreat on the banks of 
the Shannon, and though now part of King's County, the diocese 
originally formed part of the ancient kingdom of Meath, and 
was united to the see of Meath in the latter part of the sixteenth 
century. In the abbey of Clonmacnois was written the celebrated 
work called the "Annals of Tigearnach, " by that learned abbot 
in the sixteenth century. — C. & McD. 

Clonmacnois, The Annals of. These are from the earliest period to 
1408. The original Irish of this is lost, but we have an English 
translation by Connell MacGeoghegan of West Meath, which he 
compiled in 1627. A copy of these is in Trinity College, Dublin, 
and another in the British Museum. The whole collection has 
been lately edited by the Eev. Denis Murphy, S. J. — Dr. P. W. 
Joyce. See notes to Chapter I. 

Clonrael, market and assize town, municipal borough and railway 
station (G. S. & W, R.), Counties Tipperary and Waterford, on 
River Suir, twenty-eight miles northwest of Waterford and 112 
miles southwest of Dublin by rail. The municipal borough 
has 1,299 acres and a population of 10,167. Clonmel is the 
county town of County Tipperary and is situated chiefly within 
that county, in the center of a fertile district, and is an im- 
portant railway center. The town is situated on both banks 
of the Suir and on Moore and Long Islands, which are joined 
to the mainland by bridges. The River Suir is navigable 
hence to Waterford; and a considerable export trade in corn 
and provisions is carried on. The trade in butter is very ira- 
portant; tanning, brewing and flour milling are also followed. 
There is a well endowed school. Lawrence Sterne, author of 
"Tristram Shandy," was a native of Clonmel. It gives the 
title of earl and viscount to the family of Scott. 

Clonmel, parish. County Cork, containing part of Queenstown, has 
3,197 acres and a population of 2,563. In the churchyard are 
the remains of the Rev. Charles Wolfe, author of "The Burial 
of Sir John Moore. ' ' 

Clontarf, town, parish and watering place, with railway station 
(G. N. I. R.), in county and one and one-half miles northeast 
of Dublin. The parish has 1,310 acres and a population of 
4,309. The town, situated on the north shore of Dublin Bay, 
is much frequented for sea bathing and is a favorite resi- 
dential suburb. At Clontarf was fought (1014) a famous bat- 
tle (see Chapter IX, page 70), in which King Brian Boru de- 


feated the Danes. Clontarf Castle is a modern seat built on 
the site of the ancient castle. 

Coercion Act. An act of the British parliament passed in 1833, 
giving the lord-lieutenant of Ireland power to prohibit any 
meeting of whatever nature which he regarded as dangerous to 
the peace, and to declare any district to be in a disturbed state. 
The bill gave a right to search for arms and suspend the habeas 
corpus act in the proclaimed districts, substituting martial law 
for the regular tribunals. 

Coleraine, seaport, market town, parish and urban district, with 
railway station (B. & N. C. E.), County Londonderry, on Eiver 
Bann, four miles from the sea, thirty-four miles northeast of 
Londonderry, sixty-two miles northwest of Belfast and 174 
miles north by west of Dublin by rail. The parish has an 
area of 4,839 acres and a population of 6,030; the urban dis- 
trict (partly in Killowen parish), has 1,012 acres and a popula- 
tion of 6,958. Coleraine stands on the right bank of the river 
and is connected by a handsome stone bridge, 288 feet long, 
with the suburb of Waterside or Killowen, on the left bank 
of the river. Coleraine has long carried on the linen trade 
and a fine description of cloth is known as " Coleraines. " Pork 
curing is extensively prosecuted. The salmon fishery on the 
Bann is very productive and considerable quantities of fish are 
exported. The harbor commissioners were recently engaged 
on improvements to the cost of £70,000, the main features of 
which are two piers at the mouth of the river. 

Coliseum, a spacious building, generally oval in form, used by 
the Komans for exhibiting gladiatorial combats, fights of wild 
beasts and other spectacles. At first these erections were of 
wood and merely temporary, like a modern race stand. Coli- 
seums of stone, however, were erected at an early period, the 
first having been built in 31 B. C. at the desire of Augustus. 
The coliseum at Eome was begun by Vespasian and finished 
by Titus 80 A. D., ten years after the destruction of Jerusalem. 
It was the largest structure of the kind and is fortunately also 
the best preserved. It covers about five acres of ground and 
was capable of seating 87,000 spectators. On the occasion of 
its dedication by Titus 5,000 wild beasts were slain in the 
arena, the games lasting nearly a hundred days. 

Conde, Louis II. De Bourbon (1621-1686), Prince due d'Enghien, 
styled "the great Conde," a celebrated French general, was 
born at Paris, son of Henry Prince of Conde, and Charlotte 
de Montmorenci. When only twenty-two he defeated the Span- 
iards at the battle of Eocroi, and after taking Thionville and 
other towns, he entered Germany as a conqueror. His attempts 
upon Lerida in Catalonia proved abortive, but in Flanders he 
acquired fresh honors by the defeat of the Imperialists. In 
the civil wars of France he espoused the cause of the court, 
though afterwards he opposed the views of Mazarin and of the 
monarchy. In 1650 he was arrested by the queen or Mazarin 


and imprisoned one year, after which he raised an army and 
attacked the royalists under Turenne at Paris in 1652. He 
next entered the Spanish service against his own country. The 
peace of the Pyrenees in 1659, however, reconciled him to 
France. He afterwards fought against William of Orange, and 
though wounded at the passage of the Rhine, he completed 
the conquest of Franche-Comte and spread terror in Germany. 

Cong, parish. County Galway and County Mayo, has an area of 
22,786 acres and a population of 3,849. 

Cong, village in the above parish. County Mayo, near the head 
of Lough Corrib, twenty-seven miles northwest of Galway 
by road, has a population of 168. Cong has a pier and steamer 
connection with Galway. It is situated on a rapid stream 
(four miles long) that flows from Lough Mask to Lough Corrib. 
During the famine (1846-47) a relief scheme was set on foot 
to connect these loughs by a canal, but after completion this 
was found incapable of holding water, owing to the porous 
nature of the stone. The objects of interest are the stone 
cross, the fine ruin of an abbey and the curious natural caverns 
in the neighborhood. 

Connaught, the smallest, least populous and most westerly of the 
four provinces of Ireland, is bounded north and west by the 
Atlantic Ocean, east by the provinces of Ulster and Leinster 
and south by the province of Munster and the Atlantic. The 
River Shannon flows along nearly the entire length of the 
boundary between Connaught and the provinces of Leinster and 
Munster. Area 4,374,460 acres, or 21 per cent of the total area 
of Ireland. Sheep are raised very numerously, principally in 
Galway; the inhabitants of the province are chiefly engaged 
in agriculture and fishing. Population 646,932 (or 10.1 per cent 
less than in 1891), 95.8 per cent of whom are Catholics, 3.5 
per cent Protestant Episcopalians, 0.4 per cent Presbyterians, 
and 0.2 per cent Methodists. During the Irish pentarchy Con- 
naught was ruled by the O 'Conors. In 1590 it was brought 
under English administration and divided into six counties, 
of which Clare was afterwards joined to Munster. It now 
comprises the counties of Galway, Leitrim, Mayo, Roscommon 
and Sligo. 

Connaught, The Annals of. These are from 1224 to 1562. There 
is a copy in Trinity College, Dublin, and another in the Royal 
Irish Academy. — Dr. P. W. Joyce. See notes to Chapter I. 

Connemara, the most western district of County Galway, bounded 
on the east by line running south by way of the Mamturk 
mountains, from Killary Harbor to Kilkieran Bay. It consists 
of a wild and mountainous country, the population being lo- 
cated chiefly along the coast, which is rugged and much in- 
dented. The sea inlets and streams abound with fish. In the 
west the mountains known as the "Twelve Pins of Benne- 
beola" rise from the shores of Loughs Ballynahinch, Derry- 
clare and Inagh. The scenery of the coast and among the 


mountains and numerous lakes of the interior attracts groat 
numbers of tourists. 
Conservatives. This name came into use to designate the British 
Tory party about 1837. It was first employed by John Wilson 
Croker, in an article in the "Quarterly Eeview. " 

Cooke, Edward (died in 1820), son of Dr. Cooke, Dean of Ely and 
Provost of King's College, Cambridge, was educated at Eton 
and at King's College. During the Duke of Eutland's admin- 
istration he was appointed chief clerk of the Irish House of 
Commons. He afterwards became secretary of the military 
and then of the civil department in Ireland, in which latter of- 
fice he continued until the Legislative Union between Great 
Britain and Ireland. He was a great friend of Lord Castle- 
reagh, whom he accompanied to the Congress of Vienna. He 
wrote "Arguments for and Against the Union Between Great 
Britain and Ireland," Dublin, 1798. 

Coote, Sir Charles (died in 1642), went to Ireland at an early 
age from Devonshire, England, where his family had long been 
settled. He served under Mountjoy in Ireland in the war 
against Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone. He was knighted in 
1616, created a privy councilor in 1620, and made a Barouette 
of Ireland in the following year. He also received large grants 
of land, chiefly in Connaught. On the breaking out of the Irish 
civil war in 1641 Coote was despatched to relieve the castle of 
Wicklow, but was shortly recalled to defend Dublin. His com- 
mand was characterized by vigor, but at the same time with 
almost incredible cruelty. In April Coote was sent with six 
troops of horse to the relief of Birr, where he exhibited great 
coolness and skill, for which the Earldom of Mountrath was 
conferred on his son. After assisting Ormond at the battle of 
Kilrush, Coote proceeded with Lord Lisle to the aid of Lady 
Offaly, who successfully defended her castle of Geashill till 
relieved by the royalist forces. Coote had now to go through 
a difficult and dangerous district to the relief of Philipstown; 
the defile, however, was passed in safety, Philipstown taken 
and the royalists marched on Trim May 7, 1642. At night the 
Irish to the number of 3,000 fell on the royalist troops un- 
expectedly. Coote, however, finally succeeded in routing the 
enemy, but he was himself slain by a shot from the Irish, or, as 
some think, from his own party. 

Coote, Sir Charles (died in 1661), Earl of Mountrath, son of pre- 
ceding, was like his father a man of vigor, but cruel, rapacious 
and illiberal. In the civil war of 1641-52 he early took the 
side of the English Parliament. He was made president of 
Connaught and bravely defended it against the royalists. He 
held Derry against the Irish and defeated the latter under 
their warlike bishop, Heber MacMahon, whom he captured and 
"caused to be hanged with all the circumstances of contumely, 
reproach and cruelty which he could devise. ' ' He was active, 
able and relentless on the side of the Puritans till the end of 


the war, after which he held important positions in Ireland un- 
der the government of Cromwell. On the death of the latter 
he successfully intrigued with Broghill and other Cromwellians 
for the restoration of Charles II. After the restoration he 
was confirmed in his office as president of Connaught and ele- 
vated to the peerage (in 1660) as Earl of Mountrath. He was 
lord justice of Ireland for a time. The large estates he held 
before the civil war were increased by further government 
grants. He died in 1661 and was interred in Christ Church, 
Dublin. The earldom became extinct in 1802 on the death of 
the seventh earl. Kichard Coote, Earl of Bellamont, nephew 
of the first Earl of Mountrath, became colonial governor of 
New England. Sir Eyre Coote, a relative, was a distinguished 
British general in India. 
Cork, a maritime county and the largest in Ireland, is bounded 
north by County Limerick, east by Counties Tipperary and 
Waterford, south and southwest by the Atlantic Ocean, and 
west by County Kerry. Greatest length, east and west, 108 
miles; greatest breadth, north and south, fifty-seven miles. Cork 
has an area of 1,849,686 acres, or 8.9 per cent of the total 
of Ireland, and a population of 404,611, of whom 365,724 are 
Catholics, 32,021 Episcopalians, 1,830 Presbyterians, and 3,062 
Methodists. The coast line is very extensive, being broken by 
numerous spacious inlets, which afford excellent harbors. The 
principal openings from west to east are Kenmare River, Ban- 
try Bay, Dunmanus Bay, Roaring Water Bay, Clonakilty, Court- 
maesherry Bay, Kinsale Harbor, Cork Harbor and Youghal 
Harbor. The islands of Bere, Whiddy, Clear and numerous 
islets lie off the southwest coast, where the peninsulas of the 
mainland are elongated and rugged. The surface on the west 
and southwest is mountainous or upland, attaining its great- 
est elevation in Caherbarnagh, a summit of 2,239 feet. The 
general slope is to the east and the greater part of the surface 
may be described as a rolling, well-watered and fertile plain. 
The chief crops are oats, barley and potatoes. An immense 
quantity of butter is produced "nd exported. The largest rivers 
are the Blackwater, Lee and Bandon and these are navigable 
by their estuaries for considerable distances. The fisheries are 
very extensive. Copper, lead, anthracite coal, iron and lime- 
stone are all worked to some extent. Copper is principally 
found at Durrus and Killeen, slate and barytes at Bantry. Man- 
ganese is abundant, particularly near Leap, in the south; 
chalybeate springs occur at Mallow and at many other places. 
A peculiar kind of black chalk is found on Whiddy Island. 
The county comprises 239 parishes and parts of twelve others, 
and the parliamentary and municipal borough of Cork (two 
members). The Anglican diocese is co-extensive with the 
county. For parliamentary purposes Cork is divided into 
seven divisions — one member for each division. 


Cork, capital of County Cork, municipal and parliamentary bor- 
ough and seaport with railway stations, Glanmire (G. S. & 
W. E.), Albert Quay (C. B. & S. C. E.), Albert 
Street (Cork, Blackrock and Passage Ey.), Capewell (Cork 
and Macroom Direct Ey.), College (Cork and Muskerry Ey.)- 
Cork is situated on the Eiver Lee, eleven miles above its influx 
into Cork Harbor, 166 miles southwest of Dublin by rail, the 
port being eighty-six miles from Waterford, 176 miles from 
Dublin, 353 miles from Glasgow, 258 miles from Liverpool, 232 
miles from Bristol, 234 miles from Plymouth and 532 miles from 
London. The parliamentary borough has 46,080 acres and a 
population of 100,022; the municipal borough has 2,266 acres 
and a population of 76,122, The greater portion of the city, 
which is the third largest in Ireland, stands on an island 
formed by two channels of the Eiver Lee; there are here up- 
wards of four miles of quayage. Cork is a city of spacious 
streets and handsome public buildings; it has nine bridges, pub- 
lic parks, one of which, the City Park, is principally used as 
a race course and recreation ground; here is a fashionable 
promenade — the Marina, parallel with the Lee. At the west 
end of the city is another pleasantly shaded promenade — the 
Mardyke, one mile long; and two cemeteries — St. Joseph's and 
St. Finbar's. In the lofty steeple of the Church of St. Ann 
Shandon is the famous peal known as "Shandon Bells"; the 
steeple has the peculiarity of being faced on two sides with 
red sandstone, on the others with limestone. In the southwest 
of the city stands St. Finbar's Cathedral, a fine modern struc- 
ture. It is so named after the founder of the ancient cathedral, 
of which no traces now remain. Other churches are numerous 
and include the Catholic Cathedral of St. Mary's. It has also 
several eminent scientific and literary institutions, among which 
are Queen's College, affiliated with the Eoyal University of Ire- 
land; the Eoyal Cork Institution; the Munster Dairy and Ag- 
ricultural School, which has a farm of 180 acres attached to 
it; and the Crawford Science and Art School (1885). The well- 
known Cork Butter Exchange stands in the north of the city. 
The export of butter from Cork is the largest in the kingdom. 
The Victoria barracks accommodate both infantry and cavalry 
and are the headquarters of Cork military district. Other pub- 
lic buildings are Cork Library, Opera House, County and City 
Hospital and the Court House, destroyed by fire in 1891, but 
since rebuilt. The commerce of Cork has long been of great 
importance; the export trade in grain, cattle, dairy produce 
and provisions is very extensive. There is regular steam com- 
munication with Liverpool, Dublin, Belfast, Glasgow, Plymouth, 
Southampton, London, Cardiff, Newport, Milford and Bristol. 
The principal articles of manufacture are woolen goods, gloves 
and agricultural implements and artificial fertilizers. The chief 
local industries are distilling, brewing, shipbuilding, iron found- 
ing, tanning, milling and bacon curing. The diocese of Cork 


extends west from Cork to Bantry Bay. The borough returns 
two members to parliament. 

Cork Harbor, a spacious and well sheltered inlet, formed in part 
by the estuary of the Eiver Lee, eleven miles below Cork city. 
It constitutes one of the best natural harbors in the world 
and is large enough to accommodate the whole British navy, 
having a varying breadth up to eight miles, with an entrance 
of one and one-half by one mile. It contains several islands, 
on the largest of which, Great Island, is the town of Queens- 
town. The smaller islands are used as store depots and forts, 
Camden Fort, Carlisle Fort and Fort "Westmoreland (formerly 
Spike Island) are batteries at the entrance. The other islands 
are occupied by ordnance and convict depots, etc. The quays 
extend 3,000 feet and have a depth alongside of thirty-five feet 
at high water; there are also slips and dry docks. It has light- 
houses at Eoche Point, east side of entrance, at east elbow of 
Spit Bank off Queenstown, at Lough Mahon off Meelough Spit 
at Donkathel, north side of channel, at Black Eock Castle, at 
Dundain and at Tivoli. 

Cornv^all, maritime county of England, forming its southwest ex- 
tremity, is bounded by Devon on the east and washed on all 
other sides by the sea. Cornwall has an area of 868,220 acres 
and a population of 322,334. The tin and copper mines of 
Cornwall have been celebrated from remote ages, having been 
known, it Is supposed, to the Phoenicians. Owing to foreign 
competition, the mines have depreciated greatly in importance. 
Some of them are of very great depth and have been carried 
beneath the sea. A large portion of the Cornish miners have 
emigrated to the silver mines of Nevada and other mining 
centers in the United States and Canada. The eldest son of 
the reigning sovereign inherits the title of Duke of Cornwall; 
this duchy carries with it valuable estates. 

Comwallis, Charles Mann (1738-1805), second earl and first mar- 
quis of, was born in London, December 31, 1738, and educated 
at Eton and St. John's, Cambridge. He entered early upon a 
military life and served as aid-de-camp to the Marquis of 
Granby in the Seven Years' war in Germany. In the American 
Eevolutionary war he served with great activity under Howe 
and Clinton, and distinguished himself at the battle of Brandy- 
wine and the siege of Charleston, after which he was left in 
command in South Carolina; but his plan of invading Virginia 
failed and he with his whole army surrendered to Washing- 
ton at Yorktown in October, 1781. This event proved the death 
blow of British interests in America, but Cornwallis sustained 
no loss of military reputation by it and soon after his return 
to England (in 1786) he went to India as governor-general 
and commander-in-chief and in 1791 defeated the Sultan Tippoo. 
For his success in this war, on his return to England, Corn- 
wallis was made a marquis and appointed master-general of 
the ordnance. In 1798 he was sent to Ireland as lord lieutenant 


and commander-in-chief. After the suppression of the Insur- 
rection of 1798 he used all his influence in passing the bill for 
the Legislative Union in 1800. In 1801 he was sent to France, 
where he signed the treaty of Amiens. Three years afterwards 
he was reappointed governor-general to India and died at Ghaze- 
pore, in the province of Benares, October 5, 1805. 

Cosby, Francis (died in 1580), settled in Ireland in the reign of 
Queen Mary. In 1558 he was appointed by "patent general 
of the kerne," in Ireland and in 1562 was granted Stradbally 
Abbey, Queen's County, which is still owned by his descend- 
ants. He helped to massacre many of the O'Moores (at Mul- 
lamast, near Athy, in 1577), who had been summoned to the 
fortress on avowedly peaceful business. He was killed at the 
battle of Glenmalure, August 25, 1580. Among his numerous 
descendants who occupied high government positions was Ad- 
miral Philip Cosby, a distinguished British naval officer. 

Cossacks, a race whose origin is hardly less disputed than that 
of their name. They are by some held to be Tartars, by more 
to be of merely pure Kussian stock; but the most probable 
view is that they are a people of very mixed origin. In 
physique, as in language and religion, the Cossacks have al- 
ways been mainly Eussian. They furnish a large and valuable 
contingent of light cavalry to the Eussian army and are very 
patient of fatigue, hunger, thirst and cold. The Don Cossacks 
give name to a province with an area of 61,886 square miles 
and a population of over 2,450,000 inhabitants, of whom 20,000 
are Calmucks. 

Cremona, Battle of (War of the Spanish Succession). This city in 
Italy, held by a French garrison, was surprised by the Imperial- 
ists under Prince Eugene, February 1, 1702. The town was 
entered without the alarm being given, and many important 
officers, including Marshal Villeroy, were made prisoners. A 
portion of the garrison (including an Irish regiment under Col- 
onel O'Mahony), however, still held out in the citadel, and 
made Eugene 's tenure of the town precarious, and finally, on the 
approach of a relieving force under the Prince de Vaudemont, 
he was forced to withdraw his troops. The garrison lost 1,000 

Crimes Act (1882). An act empowering the lord-lieutenant of 
Ireland to suspend jury trial in disturbed districts, and to send 
agrarian cases for trial by a commission of three judges, with 
an appeal to the court of criminal cases reserved. Power of 
search was given to the police in proclaimed districts, and, 
further power to arrest and remove strangers thought dangerous 
to public safety. 

Cromer, George (died in 1542), Archbishop of Armagh, described 
by Ware as "an Englishman of great gravity, learning, and a 
sweet disposition," was appointed to the see in 1522, and made 
lord chancellor in 1532. He strenuously opposed Lord Thomas 
FitzGerald's insurrection — not hesitating to incur the young 


lord's displeasure by personal exhortations and advice. Arch- 
bishop Cromer denounced King Henry VIII. 's decrees against 
the Church, and was, therefore, removed from the chancellorship. 
He collected his suffragans and the clergy of his diocese, and 
pronounced anathema against all who should fall away from 
their allegiance to the Pope. Nevertheless he appears later to 
have taken this very course himself, for in 1539 he was sus- 
pended by the Holy See, and was again received into royal favor. 
He died March 16, 1542. 
Cromleacs. The name Cromleac signifies the stone of Crom; and 
they were so called from being used in the worship of Crom, one 
of the deities of the Irish Druids, said to represent Fate, or, 
according to others, the God of Fire, or the sun, and sometimes 
called Black Crom, and Crom Cruach, signifying Crom of the 
Heaps of stones or Cairns. The Idol of Crom Cruach was 
destroyed by St. Patrick at the temple of the Druids, on Magh 
Sleacht in Brefny, now Fenagh in Leinster, and the last Sunday 
of summer is called the Sunday of Black Crom, being sacred to 
St. Patrick as the anniversary commemorating the destruction of 
the idol. The chief deities of the Druids were the sun, moon, 
stars, and winds, and woods, wells, fountains, and rivers, were 
also objects of adoration. The sun was worshiped under the 
designation of Bel, Beal, or Baal, as by the Phenicians and other 
eastern nations, and also under the name of Grian. The time 
dedicated to the worship of the moon was called Samhuin, which 
was one of their deities; and the wind was worshiped under the 
name of Gaoth. The sacred fire of Beal was lighted on the 
evening of the first day of summer, or May eve, at the temple 
of the Druids on the hill of Usneagh, situated a few miles from 
Mullingar in West Meath; hence that day is still named in the 
Irish the day of Deal's fire. The sacred fire of Samhuin was 
lighted on the eve of the first day of winter, at Tlachtga, in 
Meath, another chief seat of Druidism, situated at a place now 
called the Hill of Ward, between Trim and Athboy; and in the 
Irish Samhuins day is the name applied to the first of November. 
No fires were permitted to be lighted in Ireland, but those 
obtained from the Druids in May and November, who delivered 
their sacred fire to the people with great incantations, and for 
obtaining it a payment of a silver coin equivalent to three pence 
of modern money was levied on every house or head of a family. 
Some remnants of tbt custom originating from the celebration 
of the sacred fire of the Druids, is still preserved in the May 
fires lighted in Ireland. The oak was a sacred tree to the Druids, 
and the rites of Druidism were chiefly celebrated in the oak 
groves, and the name Druid is supposed by some to be derived 
from the Irish Dair or Duir, which signifies the oak. The Crom- 
leacs are generally composed of from three to four, to six or 
seven huge pillar stones standing upright and fixed deep in the 
earth on their smaller ends, and varying from five or six, to 
eight or ten feet in height, and on the top is placed a prodigious 


flag, or table stone, in a sloping position, one end being much 
higher than the other. These table stones are of enormous size, 
and some of them estimated to weigh from twenty to forty or 
fifty tons; and as many of these Cromleacs are situated on high 
hills, or in deep valleys, and other places of difficult access, and 
in several instances those stones have been conveyed from a dis- 
tance of many miles, no such stones being found in the neighbor- 
hood; these circumstances have naturally given rise to the pop- 
ular opinion, that the Cromleacs were constructed by giants, and 
it would appear that a race of men of gigantic strength were 
alone capable of placing these prodigious stones, or immense 
fragments of rocks, in their position; for it would be found 
extremely difficult to convey those huge stones any considerable 
distance and place them in their position, even by the great 
power of modern machinery. — C. & McD. 
Cromwell, Oliver (1599-1658), was born at Huntingdon, England, 
April 25, 1599, and educated at Sidney College, Cambridge. 
He subsequently entered Lincoln's Inn, where he indulged in 
various excesses and dissipated the property which had been 
left him by his father. At the age of twenty-one he married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Sir James Bouchier of Essex. In 1628 
he was elected to parliament, where he displayed great zeal 
against the Established Church, and, with some others, formed 
a scheme of going to New England; but this design was frus- 
trated by the royal proclamation. In the Long Parliament 
he was elected and took his seat for the town of Cambridge. 
On the breaking out of the revolt against King Charles I. he 
raised a troop of horse, and going to Cambridge, acted there 
with great severity to the loyal members of the university, 
for which, however, he received the thanks of Parliament, and 
was first raised to the rank of colonel and next to that of 
lieutenant-general. In the battle of Marston Moor (July 3, 
1644) his cavalry obtained the name of Ironsides, and in the 
battle of Newbury, which followed soon after, Cromwell made 
so desperate a charge upon the king's guards as decided the 
fortune of the day. He was now regarded as the head of his 
party, and by his means the ordinance passed, which excluded 
all the members of Parliament (with the exception of him- 
self) from having any military command. He now became vir- 
tually head of the army and at the battle of Naseby, June 14, 
1645, completely ruined the royal cause. When King Charles 
was betrayed by the Scotch, Cromwell saw that his advantage 
lay in getting him into his own hands and this he accomplished 
by his agent. Cornet Joyce, who seized the king at Holmby, 
June 4, 1647, and conducted him to the headquarters of the 
array. Charles for some time thought himself safe, but at 
length his fears prevailed and he fled to the Isle of Wight. 
It is not necessary to relate here what is well known — the 
share Cromwell had in the execution of the monarch. In 1649 
Cromwell went as chief governor to Ireland, which country he 


and his lieutenants finally subdued, though not without the ex- 
ercise of unparalleled cruelties. The Scots having now induced 
Prince Charles to take the covenant, invited him as King 
Charles II. to Scotland and prepared for an invasion of Eng- 
land, on which Cromwell entered their country, and, September 
3, 1650, gained the victory of Dunbar. This, however, did not 
prevent the Scotch the next year from crossing the borders, 
and on the same day of the same month was fought the battle 
of Worcester, which dispersed the royalists and obliged Charles 
to return to France. From this time Cromwell made no secret 
of his views, and April 20, 1653, he entered the House of Com- 
mons with his soldiers and pulled the speaker out of the chair 
and then locked the doors. The government being now vested 
in a council of officers solely under his control, he was invited 
to take upon himself the sovereign authority, and accordingly 
he was proclaimed Lord Protector of the commonwealth of 
England, Ireland and Scotland. Notwithstanding this and the 
military power with which he was surrounded, he saw a spirit 
of disaffection rising around him, on which account he called 
a parliament that was, however, soon dissolved. Amidst this 
disquietude he declared war against Spain and sent Admiral 
Blake to the Mediterranean, where that commander gained so 
many achievements. In the West Indies, Jamaica was added 
to the English possessions. By a treaty with France, Cromwell 
stipulated to send forces into the Low Countries and his suc- 
cesses abroad now made him ambitious of the title of king. A 
plan to this effect was proposed and a parliament convened 
to carry it into execution, but Cromwell, finding that it was 
disapproved of by his friends, pretended to decline the offer 
as being against his own conscience. However, his second in- 
auguration as Lord Protector took place in Westminster Hall 
with much pomp, June 26, 1657. The same year he was much 
annoyed by a pamphlet entitled "Killing no Murder," in which 
the author boldly maintained that one who had violated all law 
had forfeited all right to live. He died at Whitehall, Septem- 
ber 3, 1658 (the anniversary of his two great victories at Dun- 
bar and Worcester), "the boldest and most successful man 
that England has ever seen," and some days afterwards his fu- 
neral was celebrated in Henry VII. 's Chapel, Westminster Ab- 
bey; but after the restoration (in 1661) the body was taken up 
and hanged at Tyburn; finally it was taken down, the head cut 
off and the trunk buried under the gallows. Cromwell had six 
children. His son Eiehard succeeded him in the protectorate, but 
lacking the ability and ambition of his father, when his posi- 
tion was no longer tenable, he resigned and went abroad. Henry, 
who had been lord lieutenant of Ireland under his father, died 
in 1674. Cromwell left four daughters: Bridget married first 
to Ireton, afterward to Fleetwood; Elizabeth married to John 
Claypole; Mary married Lord Fauconbridge, and Frances mar- 
ried first to a grandson of Lord Hawick and afterwards to Sir 


John Kussell. The last representative of the great regicide 
was Oliver Cromwell, great-grandson of Henry Cromwell. He 
practiced as a solicitor in London and died in 1821. 

Cromwell, Thomas (1490-1540), Earl of Essex, was born in Sur- 
rey, England, being the son of a blacksmith. Early in life he 
became clerk or secretary in the English factory at Antwerp, 
which situation he soon left, and went into several coun- 
tries as the secret agent of his sovereign, Henry VIII. On 
his return to England he was taken into the service of Cardinal 
Wolsey, who obtained for him a seat in the House of Commons, 
where he defended his master with great spirit from the 
charge of treason. On the downfall of the cardinal King Henry 
took Cromwell into his own service, and gave him many valuable 
and important offices. The King conferred on him the honor 
of Knighthood, made him a Privy Councillor and his confiden- 
tial favorite and prime minister. He was very instrumental 
in procuring the dissolution of the religious houses and in 
promoting the principles of Henry VIII. 's Eeformation. For 
these services he obtained the title of the Earl of Essex, with 
many manors and estates, chiefly the spoils of the Church. At 
length his affairs took an adverse turn. He had the imprudence 
to advise the marriage of Henry VIII. with Anne of Cleves; but 
the union did not prove agreeable to the fickle king, who 
wreaked vengeance on Cromwell by causing him to be convicted 
and attainted of high treason and heresy. He was beheaded on 
Tower Hill, July 28, 1540. "With his dying breath he declared 
his firm belief in the sacraments and doctrines of the Church, 
which he had been engaged in persecuting and robbing during 
the greater part of his career. ' ' 

Cruachan, in Connaught, was celebrated from the earliest ages, and 
nearly a thousand years before the Christian era. Muime, 
monarch of Ireland, son of Heremon, is stated to have died at 
Cruachan. Cruachan, or Croaghan, was situated near Elphin, in 
County Roscommon, and was also called the Hill of Druids, being 
a great seat of Druidism. Cruachan became the capital of Con- 
naught, and residence of the ancient kings; and the state of 
Connaught held conventions there, to make laws and inaugurate 
their kings. Eocha, monarch of Ireland, about a century before 
the Christian era, erected a royal residence and a rath there, 
called Rath Cruachan, which got its name from Cruachan, his 
queen, mother of Meave. This Meave was Queen of Connaught, 
and a celebrated heroine, who, like the ancient queens of the 
Amazons, commanded her own forces in person, in the seven 
years' war with the Red Branch Knights of Ulster, an event 
famous in many Irish records. Meave is represented in her 
gilded war chariot, surrounded by several other chariots, and 
wearing a golden crown on her head. At Cruachan was the 
burial place of the pagan kings of Connaught, called the Ceme- 
tery of the Kings. The heroic Dathy, the last monarch of Pagan 
Ireland, having carried his victorious arms to Gaul (France), 


and being killed by lightning at the foot of the Alps, A. D. 
429, his body was brought back to Ireland by his soldiers and 
buried in the Cemetery of the Kings, and a large red pillar stone 
erected over his grave remains to this day. Dathy was nephew 
to the famous warrior, Niall of the Nine Hostages, monarch of 
Ireland, and, like him, made war on the Eomans in Gaul (France) 
and Britain. Dathy 's name was Feredach, but he got the appel- 
lation Dathy from his great activity, as the word Dathy or Dathe 
signifies agility, and he is represented to have been so expert in 
the use of his arms and handling his weapons that, if attacked 
by a hundred persons at the same time, all discharging their 
arrows and javelins at him, he would ward off every weapon by 
his dexterity. — C. & McD. 

Curlieu Mountains, a range of mountains in the extreme north of 
County Eoscommon. For a description of the battle of Curlieu 
Mountains, see Chapter XXIX. 

D'Aguila, Don Juan (fl. 1601), a Spanish general, who consented 
in 1601 to take the command of a large force for the invasion 
of Ireland. Owing to difficulties in procuring transports, his 
departure was retarded at port of embarkation, until the 6,000 
men originally comprising the armament were diminished to 
3,000. On the passage, seven of the ships, conveying a chief 
part of the artillery and military stores, were, through stress of 
weather, obliged to put back to Corunna. Don Juan occupied 
Kinsale and the forts at the entrance of the harbor, Septem- 
ber 23, 1601, sent his transports back to Spain for further sup- 
plies, and communicated with Hugh O'Neill, Hugh Eoe O'Don- 
nell, and other Irish chieftains in arms against Queen Elizabeth. 
"No particulars concerning the life of Don Juan D'Aguila 
before or after his Irish expedition appear available." The 
name is spelled indifferently — D 'Aguila, D 'Aquila, and D 'Aquilla. 
Full particulars of the siege and battle of Kinsale will be found 
in chapter XXX. 

Dalcassians, called from Cormac Cas, a famous King of Munster 
of the race of Heber in the 3d century, were the chief warriors 
of Munster from the 3d to the 12th century, and formed mostly 
by the clans of Thomond (now County Clare), with parts of 
Limerick and Tipperary; and they were highly celebrated in 
Irish history, particularly under Brian Boru, who was himself of 
the Daleassian race. 

Dalriada ("the home of the descendants of Eiada"), the ancient 
name of a territory in Ireland, comprehending what is now called 
"the Eoute, " or the northern half of County Antrim. Its 
inhabitants were Gaelic Scots (as the Irish were called in those 
days) living in the midst of a Pictish population, and a number 
of them crossed over to Argyll in 498 and founded there another 
Dalriada, the nucleus of the kingdom of the Scots (or Irish) of 
Alban (Scotland), who ultimately gave a dynasty to North 
Britain, now Scotland. For a long time Ireland was called 


JSeotia Major (the larger Scotland) and Scotland, Scotia Minor 
(the smaller Scotland). See Scotland; see also Chapter V. 

Damnonians, see Morna, Clanna. 

Danes and Norwegians, or Scandinavians, a Teutonic race, of 
Scythian origin, came to Ireland in great numbers, in the 9th 
and 10th centuries, and were located chiefly in Leinster and 
Munster, in many places along the seaeoast, their strongholds 
being the towns of Dublin, Wexford, Waterford, Cork, and 
Limerick. — C. & McD. See Norway and Chapters VII., VIIL, 
IX. and X. 

Dangan, village. County Kilkenny, about five miles north of Water- 
ford, has a population of 119. 

Dangan, a ruined seat, two and one-half miles southeast of Trim, 
County Meath. The Duke of Wellington lived here in his boy 

Dano-Irish. See Chapters XII and XIII. 

D'Auvergne, Henri de la Tour (1611-1675), Vicomte de Turenne, a 
famous French general, second son of Henri, Duke de Bouillon, 
and Elizabeth, daughter of William the Silent, Prince of Orange, 
was born at Sedan, in France. He first served under his uncles, 
the Princes Maurice and Henry of Nassau, and in 1634 was 
made a major-general. In 1644 he became marshal of France; 
and though he lost the battle of Mariendal in 1645, he soon 
after gained that of Nordlingen, which restored the Elector of 
Treves to his dominions; and the next year he formed a junc- 
tion with the Swedish army, which compelled the Duke of 
Bavaria to sue for peace. But the latter soon afterwards broke 
the treaty, whereupon Turenne made himself master of the 
duke's territories. In the civil wars of France he at first joined 
the discontented party, but was soon after brought over to the 
king's side. In 1654 he compelled the Spaniards to raise the 
siege of Arras; and in 1655 gained the battle of the Downs, 
which produced the subjugation of Flanders. In 1667 Turenne 
renounced the Protestant religion. On the renewal of the war 
with Holland, in 1672, he took forty towns in less than a month, 
drove the Elector of Brandenberg to Berlin, and compelled the 
Imperial army to recross the Rhine. In the midst of this career 
of victory he was killed by a cannon-ball, near Acheren, 
July 27, 1675. 

D'Avaux, Jean Antoine de Mesmes (1640-1709), Count, a French 
diplomat, was born in 1640. He was French envoy at the Hague, 
and in 1689 was selected by the King of France, Louis XIV., 
envoy extraordinary to James II. in Ireland. He died in 1709. 

David, Saint (d. 601?), the patron saint of Wales, was the son of 
a British prince, in Cardiganshire, and born in the 5th century. 
He founded twelve monasteries, the principal of which was the 
vale of Eoss. He inculcated daily manual labor upon his devo- 
tees, which perhaps may account for the leek worn on his fes- 
tival. After an early residence in the Isle of Wight, he preached 


the gospel to the Britons and became Archbishop of Wales. 
He succeeded Saint Dubricius in the archiepiscopal see of Caer- 
leon, which he removed to Menevia, now called Saint David's, 
where he died, according to some, about 544, or according to 
others, about 601. He was canonized in 1120 by Pope Calixtus. 
In the calendars this saint 's day falls on the 1st of March. 

De Barry, Robert (died in 1185), Welsh-Norman knight, took part 
in the invasion of Ireland in the 12th century. He was grandson 
of Nesta (princess of South Wales) and brother of Gerald de 
Barry (Giraldus Cambrensis) and Philip de Barry, who obtained 
large estates in Ireland. He accompanied his uncle, Eobert Titz- 
Stephen, to Ireland, in 1169, nearly lost his life in the assault 
on Wexford. "His bravery obtained for him the cognomen of 
Barrymore. " He was killed in battle in 1185. His brother 
Gerald extols him highly by speaking of Eobert as "a man of 
prudence and courage." 

De Barry, Giraldus, see Giraldus Cambrensis. 

De Braosa (or Braose), Philip (died about 1201), was one of the 
three leaders of adventurers left in charge of Wexford at King 
Henry II. 's departure in 1172, and later in the same year he 
received a grant of North Munster. Supported by Robert Fitz- 
Stephen and Miles de Cogan, he set out to take possession, but 
on approaching Limerick turned back in panic. He died prob- 
ably before January 12, 1201, when North Munster was granted 
to his nephew, William. 

De Burgh, William FitzAdelm (died 1204), claimed descent from 
Pepin, King of France. The members of this family, who 
attended William the Conqueror in his descent on England, were 
considerably enriched thereby. When King Henry II. of Eng- 
land received the news of the first successes of the Welsh-Norman 
invaders in Ireland, he sent over William FitzAdelm de Burgh 
with Hugh de Lacy to take the submission of Strongbow and his 
associates. After Strongbow 's death, FitzAdelm was appointed 
governor of Ireland. In 1177 he founded the monastery of St. 
Thomas, near Dublin. We are told that he oppressed and im- 
poverished the Welsh-Norman and Anglo-Norman families, and 
amassed great wealth by conceding privileges to the native 
princes. He was recalled in 1179, and De Lacy appointed in his 
place. He was, however, soon received back into favor, and 
given in marriage Isabel, natural daughter of King Richard I. 
of England and widow of Llewellyn, Prince of Wales, and 
received large grants of land in Connaught. FitzAdelm was the 
founder of the monastery of Dromore, and also the Abbey of 
Athassel, County Tipperary, where he was buried in 1204. The 
name is variously spelled — De Burgh, De Burgo, De Burgho, 
Burke, or Bourke. He was the ancestor of the Earls of Clanri- 
card in Connaught. His character is thus sketched by Cam- 
brensis: "He was large and corpulent, a pleasant and courtly 
man; there was no end of his craftiness, — there was poison in 
the honey, and a snake in the grass. To outward appearance he 


was liberal and courteous, but within there was more aloes than 
honey. ' ' 

De Clare, Eichard (1130M176), surnamed Strongbow, second Earl 
of Pembroke and Strigul, was the leading Welsh-Norman invader 
of Ireland. He was the son of Gilbert de Clare, whom King 
Stephen created Earl of Pembroke in 1138, by his wife Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Kobert de Beaumont, Earl of Leicester and 
Mellent. The family of De Clare was descended directly from 
Count Godfrey, the eldest of the illegitimate sons of Eichard the 
Fearless (d. 996), Duke of Normandy. The family took its name 
from the manor of Clare in Suffolk, founded by Eichard de 
Clare, son of Gilbert de Clare, Count of Eu or Brionne, and 
grandson of Godfrey, who accompanied William the Conqueror 
to England. On the death of Eichard his estates passed to his 
son, Gilbert de Clare, who acquired by conquest possessions in 
Wales. Of his children, Eichard, the eldest son, descended the 
earls of Hertford or Clare, while his younger son, Gilbert de 
Clare, acquired the earldom of Pembroke, and was father of 
Strongbow. The latter was born about 1130, and succeeded his 
father in his title and estates in 1149. Having wasted his sub- 
stance by extravagance, and being out of favor with King 
Henry II., he eagerly seized the first opportunity that offered of 
retrieving his broken fortunes. This came in King Henry's 
license to Dermot MacMurrough permitting him to seek assist- 
ance in Britain to establish his claim to the throne of Leinster. 
MacMurrough offered Strongbow extensive territories in Ire- 
land and the hand of his daughter Eva if he would enter into 
his plans. The intrepid earl threw himself heart and soul into 
the enterprise. For his operations in Ireland, see chapters XI, 
XII, XIII and XIV. Queen Victoria is said to have been 
descended from Strongbow and Eva's daughter Isabel. Strong- 
bow died in 1176 and was buried in Christ Church, Dublin, which 
he had helped to rebuild. There his reputed monument may be 
seen. His daughter Isabel was given in marriage to William 
Marshal, who succeeded to his titles and estates. The town, 
county, and river of Clare in Ireland derive (through Strong- 
bow) their name from this family. Strongbow 's daughter by a 
former marriage became the wife of Eobert de Quincy, who fell 
in battle with the Irish. 

De Cogan, Miles (died in 1182), was one of Nesta's grandsons 
who embarked in the Welsh-Norman invasion of Ireland. He 
was by Strongbow appointed governor of Dublin, and succees- 
fully defended it against the first attack of the Northmen. He 
married his cousin, a daughter of Eobert FitzStephen. In 1177 
he was by patent created "lord of the moiety of the kingdom 
of Cork." He and his son-in-law, Ealph FitzStephen, we are 
told by Giraldus Cambrensis, "jointly governed the kingdom of 
Desmond in peace for five years, restraining by their prudence 
and moderation the unruly spirits of their young men on both 
sides." They were killed in 1182 in an engagement with Mac- 


Tire, Prince of Imokelly, as they were, with a party of knights, 
proceeding from Cork to Lismore, to hold conference with some 
of the people of Waterford. 

De Cogan, Eichard (fl. 1170), younger brother of preceding, spe- 
cially distinguished himself in the defense (above mentioned) 
of Dublin. He is spoken of as having been appointed to the 
command of a picked body of troops by King Henry II. and sent 
to Ireland to supply the place of his brother Miles. 

De Courcy, Sir John (died about 1219), Earl of Ulster, was one 
of the most valiant of the Anglo-Norman adventurers in the 
invasion of Ireland. An ancestor had accompanied William the 
Conqueror to England and there obtained large estates. Sir 
John de Courcy served Henry II. in his French wars, and after 
Strongbow's death went to Ireland with De Burgh. Dissatisfied 
with the latter 's conduct, he, with Sir Amoric St. Lawrence (his 
sister's husband) and Eobert de le Poer, in 1177, proceeded 
northwards to carve out their fortunes by the sword. Having 
arrived in Downpatrick, De Courcy seized upon the district and 
fortified the town, regardless of the remonstrances of the papal 
legate, Vivian, and of the claims of MacDimlevy, prince of the 
district, who insisted that he had done homage to King 
Henry II. of England for his estates. MacDunlevy, assisted 
by King Eoderic 'Conor of Connaught, collected a force of 
10,000 men to dispossess De Courcy and his followers. After 
many bloody encounters, at the bridge of Ivora and elsewhere, 
the discipline of the Normans prevailed over the numbers of 
the native owners of the soil. De Courcy now parceled out 
Ulidia (Counties Down and Antrim) among his followers. He 
was confirmed in his possessions by Henry II., who created him 
Lord of Connaught and Earl of Ulster. Wills says: "He erected 
many castles, built bridges, made highways, and repaired 
churches, and governed the province peacefully, to the satisfac- 
tion of its inhabitants, until the days of King John's visit to 
Ireland." In 1178 he was obliged to retire for a time to Dublin, 
wounded, after suffering a defeat from one of the northern chief- 
tains. In 1185 he was appointed deputy to Prince John, a post 
he held for four years. De Courcy married Affreca, daughter of 
the King of Man and the Isles. Soon after the accession of 
King John to the English throne he incurred his displeasure by 
speaking of him as a usurper, and Hugh de Lacy the younger 
was appointed lord justice and sent against him, with directions 
to carry him prisoner to London. By Danish and Irish aid, 
however, De Courcy managed to hold possession of Ulidia 
against the viceroy, whom he defeated in a battle at Down 
in 1204. He was eventually captured by some of De Lacy's 
followers as, in the garb of a monk, he was doing penance at 
Downpatrick, one of the many monasteries he had founded. 
He defended himself with the only weapon at hand, the polp 
of a cross, and is said to have killed thirteen before he was 
overpowered. He was committed to the Tower of London, and 


the king granted his lands to De Lacy. We are told that about 
a year after his arrest a quarrel arose between King John of 
England and Philip Augustus of France, concerning the Duchy 
of Normandy. It was referred to single combat, and De Courcy 
was prevailed upon to act as champion for King John. According 
to the chroniclers, his proportions and appearance so terrified 
the French King's champion that the latter fled, and in recogni- 
tion of this service the king restored him to his estates and 
granted him and his successors the privilege of standing covered 
in the royal presence. After this he is stated to have been 
fifteen times prevented by contrary winds from landing in 
Ireland, and he retired to France, where he died about 1219. 
Lords of Kingsale, or Kinsale, who claim to be descendants 
of Sir John de Courcy, asserted their privilege of standing 
covered in the royal presence in the reigns of King William III. 
and some of the Georges. Wills says: "King Henry III. of 
England granted the barony of Kinsale to De Courcy 's successor 
(son or nephew). . . . This title has descended in the posterity 
of the noble warrior for 600 years." Cambrensis describes 
De Courcy as of " large size, muscular, very strong make, power- 
ful, of singular daring, and a bold and brave soldier from his 
very youth. Such was his ardor to mingle in the fight, that even 
when he had the command he was apt to forget his duties, 
exhibiting the virtues of a private soldier, instead of a general, 
and impetuously charge the enemy among the foremost ranks. 
. . . But although he was thus impetuous in war, and was 
more a soldier than a general, in times of peace he was sober 
and modest, paying due reverence to the Church of Christ, was 
exemplary in his devotions and in attending holy worship, . . . 
but also he had an excessive parsimony and inconstancy which 
cast a shadow over his other virtues." 

Degadians, Clanna Deaga, or Clan Deagha. In the first, second, 
and third centuries [our era] were the chief warriors of Munster: 
they were Heremonians, originally from Ulster, but settled in 
Munster in early times. — C. & McD. 

De Ginkell, Godert (1630-1703), first Earl of Athlone, Dutch general, 
born at Utrecht, accompanied William of Orange (afterward King 
William III.) to England in 1688. With his master he crossed over 
to Ireland in 1690 and commanded a body of horse at the battle of 
the Boyne. On the king's return to England, Ginkell was left as 
commander-in-chief in Ireland. He thereupon reduced Ballymore 
and Athlone, defeated St. Kuth at Aughrim, and finally captured 
Limerick. In 1692 he was created Earl of Athlone and Baron of 
Aughrim. In 1695 he commanded the Dutch horse in the army 
of the Elector of Bavaria and played a prominent part at the 
recapture of Namur. He later served under Marlborough in the 
Low Countries. He died at Utrecht in 1703. 

De Lacy, Hugh (died in 1186), fifth Baron Lacy by tenure, and 
first Lord of Meath, one of the most distinguished of the Anglo- 
TSTorman invaders, went to Ireland in the retinue of King 


Henry II., landing at Waterford in October, 1171. The estates 
that fell to his lot were chiefly in Meath and Connaught. He 
was appointed lord justice more than once, and vigorously main- 
tained the English authority, building castles at New Leighlin, 
Timahoe, Castledermot, Tullow, Kilkea, and Narragh. His rising 
power eventually brought him under the suspicion of King 
Henry, and he was twice ordered to England to give account of 
his administration. On the last occasion De Braosa was ap- 
pointed in his stead. The latter displayed great incapacity, and 
De Lacy, reinstated, had to put forth all his energies to amend 
the injuries done to the English interest by the proceedings of 
his predecessor. In 1178 Hugh de Lacy plundered Clonmacnois, 
sparing, however, the churches and the bishop 's house. Prince 
John, during his residence in Ireland, suspected him of using 
his influence to prevent the Irish chieftains from coming in to 
offer submission. De Lacy 's second wife, whom he married 
in 1180, contrary to the wishes of King Henry II., was a daugh- 
ter of Eoderic O 'Conor, the last Milesian monarch of Ireland. 
His sudden and violent death is thus related in the "Annals of 
Ulster": "A. D. 1186, Hugh de Lacy went to Durrow to make 
a castle there, . . . and it was to him the tribute of Con- 
naught was paid, and he it was that won all Ireland for the 
English. Meath from the Shannon to the sea was full of his 
castles and English followers. After the completion of this 
work ... he came out to look at the castle, having three 
Englishmen along with him. There came then one youth of 
the men of Meath up to him, having his battle-axe concealed, 
namely, O'Megey, the foster son of the Fox himself (chief of 
Teffia), and he gave him one blow, so that he cut off his head, 
and he fell, both head and body, into the ditch of the castle." 
O 'Megey, who escaped, was probably actuated by motii'es of 
revenge for seizures of land by De Lacy. This homicide was 
by some considered a judgment of Providence for De Lacy's 
building the castle on land sacred to St. Columba. Hugh de 
Lacy was buried in the Abbey of Bective with his first wife. 
Cambrensis says: "He was very covetous and ambitious, and 
immoderately greedy of honor and reputation." 
De Lacy, Hugh, the younger (died about 1242), first Earl of 
Ulster, second son of preceding, succeeded to his father's posses- 
sions in 1186, and in 1189 was appointed lord deputy in place 
of Sir John de Courcy. He and his brother Walter brought 
about the capture of De Courcy, and (after the latter 's death 
in exile) obtained his Ulster estates. Their power assumed 
dangerous dimensions and they espoused the cause of De Braosa. 
On King John's visit to Ireland the three fled to France, "in 
which country their adventures were of the most romantic 
description." They are said to have obtained situations as 
gardeners at the Abbey of St. Taurin. The abbot discovering 
their identity, and interesting himself in their behalf, they 
were permitted to return to their estates, Hugh paying 4,000 


marks for Ulster and Walter 2,500 for Meath. The De Lacys 
proved their gratitude to this abbot by knighting his nephew 
and investing him with a lordship in Ireland. Both Hugh and 
"Walter died about 1242, leaving only daughters. Hugh 's daugh- 
ter married Walter de Burgh, and Walter's daughter married 
Lord de Verdon and Geoffrey Genneville. 

De le Peer, Roger (died in 1186), one of the original invaders of 
Ireland, took part in the invasion of Ulster in 1177, obtained 
lands in Ossory, and was governor of Leighlin under Hugh de 
Lacy, first lord of Meath. He was killed with many of his fol- 
lowers while fighting in Ossory. Three other Norman knights 
of the same name took part in the invasion of Ireland — Robert, 
William, and Simon de le Poer — and may have been all brothers. 
It is certain that William and Simon were thus connected. 
Robert de le Poer was one of the marshals in the court of 
Henry II. In 1176 he was one of four knights sent to Ireland 
by the king, and was made custodian of Waterford. He was 
seized for ransom by Raymond of Toulouse (1188) while re- 
turning from a pilgrimage to the shrine of St. James of 
Compostella, thereby occasioning the invasion of Toulouse by 
Richard (afterwards Richard I. of England). William de le 
Poer was governor of Waterford about 1180. 

De Montmorris, Hervey (fl. in the latter part of the 12th century), 
one of the most prominent of the Welsh-Norman invaders, was 
sent over to Ireland by his uncle, Strongbow, with the first band 
of adventurers led by Robert FitzStephen in 1169. The name is 
variously written De Marisco, De Montmorency, and De Mount- 
morres. After the victory of the invaders at Wexford, Hervey 
was rewarded with large grants of land on the coast between 
Wexford and Waterford, and afterwards he received additional 
grants in Tipperary and Kerry, "some of which is still vested 
in his brother's descendants, but the greater portion was car- 
ried by intermarriages into the houses of Butler and Fitz- 
Gerald. " Hervey was the rival and opponent of Raymond le 
Gros (FitzGerald). When Strongbow went to the assistance of 
King Henry II. in Normandy in 1173, jealousies broke out be- 
tween Hervey and Raymond, upon their being appointed joint 
governors of Ireland. After the return of Strongbow, Hervey 
was made constable of Leinster, and "probably advised the 
latter 's disastrous expedition into Munster in 1174." De Mont- 
morris married Nesta, daughter of Maurice FitzGerald, in 1175, 
In 1179 he founded Dunbrody Abbey in Wexford. Shortly after 
the death of Strongbow, Hervey returned to England and even- 
tually retired as a monk to Canterbury, where he ended his days. 
He was buried at Dunbrody. He left no descendants. His 
brother Geoffrey was custos, or custodian, of Ireland in 1215, 
1226, and 1230, and ancestor of the Montmorris family. His 
sister Ellinor married Thomas FitzGerald (the son of Maurice 
FitzGerald, one of the original Welsh-Norman invaders), anees- 


tor of the Desmonds. Cambrensis places Hervey 's character in a 
very unfavorable light. 

Denmark, a northern kingdom of Europe, the smallest of the Scan- 
dinavian countries, consists of the peninsula of Jutland and 
several islands in the Baltic Sea. Navigation is always dangerous 
in the sea-waters round the Danish islands and peninsula, owing 
to their shallowness, the swift currents that set between the 
islands, and the sand-banks that run up both sides of Jutland 
and lie athwart the various straits; the coasts (2,500 miles long 
in all) are, however, studded with a great number of lighthouses 
and rescue stations. According to the revised constitution of 
1866, the executive government is vested in a king and seven 
ministers, who form the Council of State, and are responsible 
to the "Eigsdag," or Diet. The Diet is composed of the Upper 
House, or "Landsthing, " and consists of 66 members, 12 life 
members nominated by the crown, and 54 elected indirectly by 
the people for terms of eight years, one half retiring every four 
years. The 102 members of the Lower House, or "Folkething, " 
are chosen by universal suffrage for terms of three years; there 
should be one representative for every 16,000 inhabitants. Den- 
mark is first known as the home of the Cimbri. When the 
Angles and Jutes left it in the 5th century to conquer England, 
their place was taken by the Danes. In their history three 
periods of greatness are clearly marked — (1) the Viking period, 
which culminated in the reign of the great Canute; (2) the time 
of the first two Waldemars (1157-1227), when Denmark was 
mistress of the Baltic; (3) the 14th century, distinguished by 
the duel between Waldemar IV. and the Hanseatic League, and 
the imperial Margaret 's union of all the Scandinavian lands by 
the Treaty of Calmar in 1397. From the early part of the 
Thirty Years' war, Denmark was compelled to yield the first 
place in the Baltic to Sweden, though she retained possession 
of Scania until 1660, of Norway until 1814, and of Schleswig- 
Holstein until 1864. Denmark has an area of 15,360 square 
miles, and a population (1901) of 2,464,770. 

De Prendergast, Maurice (fl. 1170), a Welsh-Norman invader of 
Ireland, was with the first expedition to the Irish shores, landing 
at the Bay of Bannon, in County Wexford, in May, 1169, with 
Eobert FitzStephen, Maurice FitzGerald, and other Welsh- 
Norman knights. "Many of the Irish chroniclers, who are 
otherwise severe on Norman duplicity, relate a story of chivalry, 
worthy of any age and people, in connection with Maurice de 
Prendergast and the Prince of Ossory. Strongbow had deputed 
the former to invite the latter to conference. The Irish prince 
accepted. While the conference was in progress, De Prendergast 
learned that treachery was intended towards his guest. He im- 
mediately rushed into Strongbow 's presence and swore on the 
hilt of his sword, which was a cross, that no man there that day 
should lay hands on the Prince of Ossory. The latter was 
allowed to retire unmolested and De Prendergast and his fol- 


lowers escorted him in safety to his own country. De Prender- 
gast has been known ever since in Irish annals as 'the Faithful 
Norman,' and his fidelity has made him the theme of many a 
bardic song and romantic tale. ' ' 

Derby, Earl of, see Stanley, Edward G. S. 

De Bosen, Count (f. 1689), accompanied King James 11. of Eng- 
land to Ireland in 1689 as chief commander. He was a native of 
Livonia, Kussia, who had in his early youth become a soldier of 
fortune, and had fought his way to distinction. He was placed 
in command of the troops besieging Londonderrj'^ by King James 
H. He afterwards returned to Dublin with the king, but was 
again sent to Londonderry as chief in command. Becoming dis- 
satisfied with the incapacity of King James he obtained his recall 
to France in the spring of 1690. In 1703 he was made a marshal 
of France, 

Derry, see Londonderry. 

Derry, village on Lough Mask, County Galway, eight miles north- 
west of Cong. 

Derry, village. County Tyrone, near Coal Island. Population, 105. 

Derry, branch of River Slaney, Counties Wieklow and Carlow, two 
miles north of Newtownbarry; 15 miles long. 

Derry Island, with castle ruin. Lough Derry, County Tipperary. 

De St. Lawrence, Sir Amoric (died 1189), the progenitor of the 
present Earl of Howth, an Anglo-Norman knight, who, about 
1177, accompanied his brother-in-law and companion, Sir John de 
Courcy, in an expedition to the Irish shores. After a fierce 
battle near Howth he won the district that has ever since 
remained in his family. While Sir Amoric and his men were on 
a march to join De Courcy, in 1189, they were intercepted by 
an overwhelming force under Cathal O 'Conor, King of Con- 
naught, and he and his followers perished, to a man. His eldest 
son. Sir Nicholas, was confirmed in the lordship of Howth by 
King John. Sir Amoric 's sword is said to still hang in the halls 
of the Howth Castle. His original name was Amoric de Tris- 
tram, but he assumed the name of St. Lawrence after defeating 
the Danes near Clontarf on St. Lawrence's day. 

Desies or Decies, a district in County Waterford, gives the title of 
baron to the Beresford family. Desies (in Irish Deise) was an 
ancient territory, comprising the greater portion of Waterford 
with a part of Tipperary and receiving its name from the tribe 
of the Desii. 

Desmond, ancient district. South Munster. It comprised Counties 
Cork, Kerry, and part of Waterford. 

De Solms, or Solmes, Heinrich Maastricht (1636-1693), Count de 
Solms-Braunfels, general in the Dutch service, was born in 1636. 
He was the descendant of an ancient family holding one of the 
early German countships, settled in Schloss Braunfels. He 
entered the Dutch army about 1670 and was promoted to the 
rank of general in 1680. He sailed with William, Prince of 
Orange, for England in October, 1688, and arrived io Ireland in 


1689. He distinguished himself in July at the celebrated battlo 
of the Boyne. When William III. departed for England in 
September, 1690, he left De Solms and De Ginkell in command 
in Ireland. De Solms had directed the first siege of Limerick 
until William's arrival; but he showed little aptitude for the 
business of a siege, and ' ' allowed a large artillery train to be cut 
off by the Irish. ' ' De Solms followed King William to England 
in October, leaving De Ginkell in sole command, and, shortly 
afterwards, sailed for Holland. He died from a cannon-shot 
wound at Neerwinden. 

Despenser, Thomas le (1373-1400), Earl of Gloucester, accompanied 
Richard II. to Ireland in 1399, and led the rear guard of his 
army. He had an interview with Art MacMurrough, but failed 
to bring him to terms, and Eiehard's campaign in Ireland was 
soon interrupted by the news of the landing of Henry of Lan- 
caster in England. Despenser was accused of poisoning the 
Duke of Gloucester and was degraded from his earldom. He 
subsequently joined in a conspiracy and was beheaded in 1400. 

Devereux, Walter (1540?-1576), first Earl of Essex, descended from 
a family of high rank in Normandy, France, was born in 
Caermarthenshire about 1540. About 1562 he married Lettice, 
daughter of Sir Francis Knollys, a leading member of the Puri- 
tan party. The mother of his wife was first cousin to Queen 
Elizabeth. For some time he was known as Lord Ferrers; but 
in 1558 he succeeded to the title of Viscount Hereford. In 1571 
he was created Earl of Essex for his bravery in assisting tc 
suppress a rebellion in the North. In 1573 he was sent to Ire- 
land to subjugate the province of Ulster; large grants of land 
were conferred on him, and he was appointed president of that 
province. He died in Dublin in 1576, "ruined in fortune and 
broken in health, after two years of fruitless endeavor to subdue 
the natives." He was the author of a poem entitled "The Com- 
plaint of a Synner, " printed in Farr's "Select Poetry of the 
Reign of Elizabeth" and in other collections. He was the father 
of Robert Devereux, second Earl of Essex, noticed below. 

Devereux, Robert (1567-1601), second Earl of Essex, was born 
November 10, 1567, in Herefordshire, England. He was edu- 
cated at Cambridge, and, on being introduced at court, became 
a great favorite with Queen Elizabeth. In 1585 he went to the 
Low Countries, and distinguished himself at the battle of Zut- 
phen. He subsequently went on two expeditions against Cadiz, 
the last of which failed, owing mainly to a difference between 
him and Sir Walter Raleigh. On his return home, he was made 
earl marshal of England and master general of the ordnance. 
But he had now attained the height of royal favor, and his fall 
was hastened by repeated acts of indiscretion. The earl was 
sent soon after as lord lieutenant to Ireland, where he made 
peace with Hugh O'Neill, contrary to instructions; and next, to 
complete his ruin, he left the government in Ireland without 
leave. After his arrival in London he created considerable 


alarm by arming his followers and putting his house in a state 
of defense, for which he was summoned to appear at the council 
board, but he refused to attend, on which a conflict ensued, and, 
being soon compelled to surrender, he was sent to the Tower. 
His trial and condemnation soon followed, and he was beheaded, 
February 25, 1601. The earl married the widow of Sir Philip 
Sidney. He was a great patron of men of learning and genius. 
He himself had a taste and talent for poetry and literature. 
His eldest son Eobert, third Earl of Essex, was appointed general 
of the Parliamentary army in the struggle against King Charles I. 
At his death (in 1646) the title became extinct. 

De Vesey, William (1249M297), baron, lord justice of Ireland, was 
born about 1249. He held Gloucester for the barons in 1265; 
and served in Wales, 1277-82. In 1290 he advanced a claim to 
the Scottish crown. The same year he was put into possession 
of estates in Ireland, including the franchise of County Kildare, 
which he had inherited from the Marshals, and in September 
(1290) he was appointed lord justice of Ireland. A fierce quarrel 
arose between De Vesey and John FitzGerald, first Earl of Kil- 
dare, in 1293. They supported rival claimants to the throne of 
Connaught, while the proximity of their estates brought them 
necessarily into antagonism. They were both summoned to 
appear before King Edward I., and, after mutual recrimination, 
FitzGerald challenged De Vesey to single combat. When the 
day came, De Vesey fled to France, and the king declared Fitz- 
Gerald "innocent" and granted him the lands of De Vesey. 
De Vesey died in 1297. 

De Wilton, Baron, see Grey, Arthur. 

Dimma, The Book of. An illuminated Gospel MS., in Trinity 
College, Dublin, written in the 7th or 8th century. — Dr. P. W. 
Joyce. See notes to Chapter I. 

Dingle, seaport town, parish, and railway station (Tralee and 
Dingle railway), County Kerry, on Dingle Harbor, an opening 
off the north side of Dingle Bay, 31 miles southwest of Tralee 
by rail. The parish has an area of 9,097 acres and a population 
of 3,082; the town has a population of 1,786. It has an excellent 
harbor, at one time carried on considerable shipping trade with 
Spain, and is one of the most westerly towns in Ireland. A 
steamer plies between Dingle and Cork. The fisheries are impor- 
tant; the opening of the railway has increased this industry. 
There is a coastguard station. 

Directory, refers to the body of five men — Lepeaux, Letourneur, 
Kewbell, Barras, and Carnot — to whom the executive was in- 
trusted in France after the downfall of the Terrorists, Octo- 
ber 26, 1795, and which lasted until November 9, 1799. Under 
their government France was very successful in war, but they 
did not succeed in quieting internal disturbances, nor did they 
agree among themselves. The Directory was overturned by the 
Abbe Sieyes and Napoleon, who established in its stead the 


Consulate, soon itself to fall before the imperial ambition of the 

Dissenters, a name sometimes given generally to all sectaries 
who, at any period in English history since the establishment 
of Protestantism, have refused to conform to the doctrine and 
practices of the Episcopal or Anglican Church. It is used in a 
restricted sense to denote the clergy who in 1662 — two years 
after the Eestoration — left the Church of England rather than 
submit to the conditions of the Act of Uniformity. In 1727 the 
Presbyterians, Independents, and Baptists received some special 
legal recognition, and became to be known as the Three 

Donegal, maritime county in Ulster province, is bounded west and 
north by the Atlantic Ocean, east by Counties Londonderry and 
Tyrone, and south by Counties Fermanagh and Leitrim and Done- 
gal Bay. Greatest length, northeast and southwest, 84 miles; 
greatest breadth, northwest and southeast, 41 miles; coast-line 
about 166 miles. Donegal has an area of 1,197,153 acres, or 5.7 
per cent, of the total area of Ireland, and a population of 
173,722, of whom 135,029 are Catholics, 19,908 Episcopalians, 
16,212 Presbyterians, and 1,828 Methodists. The coast is bold 
and rugged, and is penetrated with several far-reaching indenta- 
tions. The chief inlets are Loughs Foyle and Swilly, which are 
separated by the Inishowen peninsula, Mulroy Bay, Sheep 
Haven, Gweebarra and Donegal Bays. The boldest headlands 
are Malin, Bloody Foreland, and Malinmore; and of numerous 
islands the largest are Aran, Tory, and Gola Islands. The sur- 
face is mostly barren and mountainous. Mount Errigal, the 
loftiest summit, is 2,460 feet high. There are numerous bogs 
and lakes, the largest lake being Lough Derg. The mountain 
streams are small but numerous, and their estuaries abound in 
salmon and other fish. The river Foyle forms a part of the east 
border, and the Erne flows about 10 miles through the southeast 
corner before entering the sea. Mica, slate and granite are the 
prevailing rocks; limestone and marble are abundant. Agricul- 
ture forms the main industry of the county; oats, flax, and pota- 
toes are the prevailing crops. The inhabitants of the coast and 
islands are chiefly employed in the fisheries and in the making 
of kelp from seaweed. The manufacture of linen, woollens, and 
muslin is carried on in a few of the principal towns. The 
county comprises 51 parishes, and the towns of Ballyshannon 
and Letterkenny. For parliamentary purposes the county is 
divided into four divisions — North, West, East, and South — one 
member for each division. The representation was increased 
two members in 1885. Harbor works have been carried out at 
various places on the coast in order to promote and encourage 
the fisheries. Light railways have also been constructed to 
relieve the congested districts: the principal lines are from 
Londonderry to Stranorlar, Letterkenny, and Carndonagh, from 


Stranorlar to Killybegs, from Stranorlar to Glenties, and from 
Letterkenny to Burtonport. 

Donegal (' ' Fort of Foreigners "), capital of County Donegal, seaport, 
and parish, with railway station (Donegal railway), at mouth of 
the river Eask, on Donegal Bay, 18 miles southwest of Stranorlar 
and 46 miles southwest of Londonderr3\ The parish has an area of 
22,791 acres and a population of 3,690; the town has a population of 
1,214. Grain, butter, and eggs are exported. Vessels of 300 tons can 
discharge their cargoes at the quay, but it is not a port of any 
consequence owing to the number of shoals and the difficulty 
of approach. There are interesting ruins of a castle and a 
monastery. A spa in the neighborhood is frequented for its 
waters, which contain sulphur and iron. 

Dorset, Marquis of, see Grey, Thomas. 

Douay, or Douai, fortified town in the Department of Nerd, 
France, 18 miles south of Lille. It has a university, academy, 
and an English Catholic college, originally founded in 1568, but 
suppressed for a time at the revolution. A university was estab- 
lished at Douay in 1562, and remained until the revolution. 
The Douay Bible, the authorized English version of the Old and 
New Testaments for Catholics, consists of a translation of the 
New Testament which first appeared at Kheims in 1582, and one 
of the Old Testament which appeared at Douay in 1609-10 — 
both from the Vulgate. Douay has a population of about 35,000. 
It is one of the oldest towns in France. 

Dover, the chief of the Cinque Ports, East Kent, on the Strait of 
Dover, 78 miles southeast of London by rail, has a population 
of about 40,000. Dover is a port for the mail and packet service 
from England to the continent, Calais being 22 miles distatit 
and Ostend 68 miles. As the nearest landing place from the 
continent, Dover has from the earliest times been a place of 
considerable importance. It contains Dover Castle, which is still 
maintained as a fortress, and has underground works, a bomb- 
proof magazine, and barracks to accommodate 2,000 men. Here 
also are several other forts and large barracks. The Maison 
Dieu Hall, built by Hubert de Burgh in the first half of the 
13th century, has been restored, and now forms a portion of the 
Town Hall. 

Down, a maritime county of Ulster province, in the northeast of 
Ireland, having County Antrim on the north, County Armagh on 
the west, and the sea on all other sides. Greatest length, northeast 
and southwest, 50 miles; greatest breadth, northwest and south- 
east, 35 miles; coast-line, about 67 miles (or 139 miles, including 
all the inlets). Down has an area of 607,916 acres (2,905 water), 
or 2.9 per cent, of the total area of Ireland, and a population of 
205,889, of whom 64,467 are Catholics, 47,130 Episcopalians, 
80,024 Presbyterians, and 4,390 Methodists. The coast is deeply 
indented by the spacious inlets of Belfast Lough, Strangford 
Lough, Dundrum Bay, and Carlingford Lough. There are nu- 
merous islands in Strangford Lough, and Copeland Island lies 


off the entrance to Belfast Lough. The surface on the whole is 
irregular and hilly. The Mourne mountains occupy the south, 
the highest summit of which is Slieve Donard; altitude, 2,769 
feet. The prevailing rock is clay slate; trap and limestone are 
abundant in the north, and granite occurs among the Mourne 
mountains. Mineral springs are numerous. The county is served 
by the Belfast and County Down railway and by the G. N. R. 
The principal rivers are the Lagan and the Upper Bann. The 
Newry Canal connects with the Ulster Canal by means of the 
Bann and Lough Neagh navigation, with which it unites at 
Portadown in Armagh. Good crops of oats, wheat, flax, and 
potatoes are raised. The manufacture of fine linen fabrics, such 
as muslin, forms a leading industry. There are flax and cotton 
mills, and the manufacture of leather is carried on. The fisheries 
are extensive. The county comprises 62 parishes, and part of 
eight others; the greater part of the parliamentary borough of 
Newry (one member), and part of the parliamentary borough 
of Belfast; and the towns of Banbridge, Bangor, Downpatrick, 
Dromore, Holywood, Newtownards, and Warrenpoint. For par- 
liamentary purposes it is divided into four divisions — North, 
East, West, and South — one member for each division. 

Down, parish in County Down, containing Downpatrick, has an 
area of 11,636 acres, and a population of 5,393. 

Downpatrick, capital of County Down, market town and seaport, 
with railway station (B. & C. D. E.), on river Quoile, near its 
entrance to Lough Strangford, 27 miles southeast of Belfast 
by rail. It is beautifully situated in a valley; has an area of 
278 acres, and a population of 2,993. Downpatrick is an ancient 
town, and is celebrated as the burial place of St. Patrick. It is 
the seat of the diocese of Down, which was united with Connor 
in 1441, and Dromore in 1842. The "Bath" or "Dun" of 
Downpatrick, a great mound from which the town takes its 
name, is in the immediate neighborhood. It is 60 feet in height, 
895 yards broad at the base, and is surrounded by three ram- 
parts. The cathedral, though built of unhewn stone, is a stately 
edifice. The manufacture of sewed muslin gives employment to 
a number of the inhabitants of the town and district; there are 
also manufactories of leather and soap. The port is at Quoile 
Bay, one mile distant, and is reached by vessels of 100 tons; 
larger vessels discharge at the steamboat quay, which is nearer 
Lough Strangford. 

Drogheda ("Ford Bridge"), municipal borough, manufacturing 
and seaport town, with railway station (G. N. I. R.), County 
Louth, on the river Boyne, four miles from the sea, 32 miles 
north of Dublin, and 81 miles south of Belfast by rail. The 
municipal borough has an area of 1,483 acres, and a population 
of 12,760. The river Boyne is here crossed by a railway viaduct 
of 12 arches of 60-foot span on the south side and three similar 
arches on the north side; between is a lattice bridge 90 feet 
above high water, which permits the largest vessels to pass. 


The town was taken by Cromwell in 1649, and the defenders 
mercilessly butchered. The breach by which the parliamentary 
forces entered is still shown. Drogheda carries on a consider- 
able export trade, particularly with Liverpool, in cattle, sheep, 
grain, butter, and eggs. Vessels of 500 tons reach the quay. 
There are linen and cotton factories, flax-spinning mills, salt 
works, breweries, tanneries, iron and soap works. The fisheries 
are increasing in value. At Drogheda harbor entrance, on the 
sandhills to the south side of the river Boyne, are placed, east, 
north, and west, three fixed white lights, each visible six miles. 

Druids. The ancient Irish druids do not appear to have been 
priests in any sense of the word. They were, in popular estima- 
tion, men of knowledge and power — ' ' men of science, ' ' as they 
were often designated; they knew the arts of healing and divina- 
tion; and they were skilled above all in magic. In fact, the 
Irish druids were magicians, neither more nor less; and hence 
the Gaelic word for ' ' drudical ' ' is almost always applied where 
we should use the term "magical" — to spells, incantations, 
metamorphoses, etc. — Dr. P. W. Joyce. 

Drury, Sir William (1527-1579), Marshal of Berwick and lord 
jvistice to the Council in Ireland, was born in Suffolk, England. 
He attached himself as a follower to Lord Eussell, afterwards 
created Earl of Bedford. Accompanying him to France on the 
occasion of the joint invasion of that country by Charles V. and 
Henry VIII. in 1544, he took an active part in the sieges of 
Boulogne and Montreuil. He was knighted in 1570. In 1576 he 
was appointed President of Munster. He signalized his advent 
to office by holding itinerant courts. He was noted for his 
extreme cruelties. In October, 1579, he was defeated, with a loss 
of 300 men, by the Desmonds, near Kilmallock. He died in 
Cork shortly afterwards. 

Dublin, maritime county of Leinster province, is bounded north 
by County Meath, east by the Irish Sea, south by County Wick- 
low, and west by Counties Kildare and Meath. Greatest length, 
north and south, 32 miles; greatest breadth, east and west, 18 
miles; average breadth, 12 miles; coast line, 42 miles. Area, 
218,783 acres (134 water), or 1.1 per cent, of the total area of 
Ireland. Population, 157,568, of whom 110,879 are Catholics, 
37,674 Episcopalians, 3,585 Presbyterians, and 2,322 Methodists. 
Along the coast, which is irregular and generally of great 
beauty, are Dublin Bay, Howth Head, Lambay Island, Ireland's 
Eye, and other islets. There are a few eminences in the north, 
and near the south border the Wicklow mountains rise to an 
altitude of upwards of 2,000 feet; but the surface on the whole 
is flat and very luxuriant. The soil consists of rich clay and 
gravel; limestone is plentiful in the north, and granite occurs 
among the mountains. The Liffey is the only important river. 
The principal crops are wheat, barley, oats, and potatoes; but 
much of the surface is under pasture of remarkable verdure. 
The fisheries, coast and inland, form an important industry. The 


county comprises 66 parishes, and parts of 18 others; and the 
parliamentary and municipal borough of Dublin (four members, 
and Dublin University two members). For parliamentary pur- 
poses it is divided into two divisions — North and South — one 
member for each division. 
Dublin ("Black Pool"), metropolis of Ireland, parliamentary and 
county borough, market town and seaport, with railway stations, 
G. S. & W. (Kingsbridge), M. G. W. (Broadstone), G. N. I. 
(Amiens Street), D. W. & W. (Harcourt Street and Westland 
Eow), L. & N. W. (North Wall), at mouth of river Lififey, on 
Dublin Bay, 113 miles south of Belfast by rail, 127 east of 
Galway, 166 northeast of Cork, and 335 miles northwest of 
London via Holyhead, the port being 121 miles from Liverpool, 
196 from Glasgow, and 232 from Bristol. The parliamentary 
borough has 5,508 acres, and a population of 286,885; the county 
borough has an area of 7,911 acres, and a population of 290,638. 
Dublin was an ancient stronghold of the Danes, who held it 
along with the entire eastern coast of Ireland until defeated 
and broken up by Brian Boru at the battle of Clontarf in 1014. 
No traces of the Danish occupation remain, and the city to-day 
is almost entirely modern. The view of the city and its environs, 
as observed from Dublin Bay, is exceedingly striking and pic- 
turesque. The city is divided into nearly two equal parts by the 
river Liffey, whose banks, for about two and one-half miles from 
the sea, are lined with docks and shipping. The river is crossed 
farther up by ten fine bridges. The principal objects of interest 
are — Dublin Castle, the official residence of the lord-lieutenant 
and his staff, and containing an armory for 80,000 men; the 
Bank of Ireland, formerly the Irish Parliament House, and 
which contains unaltered an oblong room — the Irish House of 
Lords; the University or Trinity College (founded by Queen 
Elizabeth in 1591); the Eoyal University and University Col- 
lege; the City Hall; Sackville Street, the finest street of the 
city; the Custom House; the Courts of Justice or the Four 
Courts; Christ Church Cathedral, restored (1878) at a cost of 
£200,000, and St. Patrick's Cathedral, which has also been 
restored and improved. Dublin has numerous medical and sur- 
gical hospitals, eleven of which receive parliamentary grants, 
and are placed under a board of superintendence. The Vartry 
waterworks provide the city supply; the reservoir at Eound- 
wood, 24 miles south, has a holding capacity of two and one-half 
million gallons. Leinster Lawn, or the Duke's Lawn, contains 
the National Gallery Museum, and Public Library. Phoenix 
Park, situated on the western confines of the city, is seven miles 
in circuit, and has an area of 1,753 acres. It contains the vice- 
roy's lodge and the official seat of the chief secretary for 
Ireland, an obelisk (205 feet high) in honor of the Duke of 
Wellington, the People's Gardens (artificially laid out pleasure 
grounds), and the Zoological Gardens. St. Stephen's Green 
(20 acres), on the south side of the city, was restored and 


opened to the public in 1880. The city is encompassed by the 
Circular Eoad, which measures about nine miles. There are 
several extensive military and constabulary barracks. The brew- 
ing of porter is extensively carried on, and whiskey distilling. 
There are manufactures of mineral waters, poplins, hats, agri- 
cultural implements; also ironfounding and ship building. The 
docks and wharfage are now very extensive and commodious. 
The exports are provisions, live stock, wood manufactures, 
leather, porter, and whiskey. The Eoyal and Grand Canals 
extend from Dublin across the county to the river Shannon. 
Dublin returns four members to parliament — College Green, 
Dublin Harbor, St. Stephen 's Green, and St. Patrick 's — one 
member for each division. Dublin University also returns two 

Dublin Bay, on the coast of County Dublin, six miles by seven 
miles, with about 16 miles of coast which is exceedingly pic- 
turesque; has light-vessel at Kish Bank, with revolving light 
seen 10 miles, and lighthouses at Kingstown pierheads, north 
and south Bull Wall, north side of channel, east end of City 
Wall, edge of North Bank, Howth Peninsula, and Howth pier- 

Dublin, University of. The first university of Dublin was estab- 
lished in connection with St. Patrick's Cathedral in 1320. The 
existing university, with a single college, Trinity, was founded 
in 1591. Queen Elizabeth provided the charter, the corporation 
of Dublin bestowed the ground and ruins of the suppressed 
monastery of All Hallows, and the Irish gentry supplied by 
subscription the funds necessary for the erection of the build- 
ings. James I. gave additional endowments. By Queen Eliza- 
beth's charter, the governing body of Trinity College was to 
consist of a provost, three fellows, and three scholars. The new 
statutes of Archbishop Laud, definitively published in 1637, are 
in the main still in force. In 1613 King James I. conferred on 
the university the right of sending two members to the Irish 
parliament. One of these was taken away at the Union in 1800, 
but was again restored by the Eeform bill of 1832. The electors 
were formerly the provost, fellows, and scholars of Trinity Col- 
lege; but in 1832 the privilege was extended to masters of arts 
and those of higher degree. The last Eeform bill has left the 
representation of the university unchanged. The provost and 
senior fellows form the board of management of the college; and 
by letters-patent of 1874, a council was established to co-operate 
with the board in the regulation of the studies of the university, 
and in the appointment and regulation of the tenure of office 
and duties of professors. This council consists of seventeen 
members. The government and working of the university are 
in the hands of the chancellor, vice-chancellor, the provost of 
Trinity College, two proctors (one chosen from the senior and 
one from the junior fellows), a senior lecturer (who regulates the 
public examinations), two deans, and a censor, a librarian, regis- 


trar, auditor, professors, and examiners. The chancellor (or, in 
his absence, the vice-chaneellor or pro vice-chancellor), all masters 
of arts, and doctors of the three faculties, whose names are on 
the college books, form the senate of the university. The senate 
elects the chancellor, and confers degrees. The provost of 
Trinity College, who is appointed by the Crown, may be a lay- 
man, and of any religious denomination. There is a very com- 
plete staff of professors in divinity, natural philosophy, mathe- 
matics, law, and medicine; there are also professors of ancient, 
oriental, and modern languages, including Irish; moral philos- 
ophy, oratory, and English literature, modern history, political 
economy, natural history, botany, geology, mineralogy, and civil 
engineering. Fellowships were fomierl}- tenable only by mem- 
bers of the Episcopal Church, but by the recent act all religious 
restrictions were abolished. The teaching staff is numerous, and 
in the actual work of tuition the tutorial and professorial 
elements are more largely combined than in any other British 
college or university. Many distinguished men are counted 
among the alumni of Trinity. The names of Ussher, and 
Berkeley; of Tate, Brady, Toplady; of Cairns; and of Burke, 
Congreve, Earquhar, Curran, Swift, Goldsmith, Moore, Lever, 
and a host of others celebrated in politics, science, and in litera- 
ture, are sufficient to indicate the success which has attended her 

Dunboy Castle, seat, southwest County Cork, two miles from 
Castletown, Bearhaven. 

Danboyne, parish and village, with railway station (M. G. W. E.), 
County Meath, 10 miles northwest of Dublin. The parish has an 
area of 13,685 acres, and a population of 1,266; the village has a 
population of 262. 

Duncan, Adam (1731-1804), British admiral, was born at Dundee, 
Scotland, and entered the navy in 1746. He gained a brilliant 
victory over the Dutch at Camperdown, October 11, 1797. He 
was rewarded with a pension of £2,000 and the title of Viscount 
Duncan of Camperdown. 

Duncannon, village in St. James and Dunbrody parish, County 
Wexford, on east side of Waterford Harbor, nine miles south- 
east of Waterford city, has a population of 411. In Duncannon 
Fort (originally a castle) are two fixed lights, one of which is 
visible 10 miles; one-half mile north of the fort is a white fixed 
light visible 16 miles. 

Dun Cow, The Book of. This book is now in the Eoyal Irish 
Academy, Dublin. It was written (copied from older books) by 
Mailmurry Mac Kelleher, a learned scribe, who died at Clonmac- 
nois in 1106'. It consists of only 134 large vellum pages, a mere 
fragment of the original work. It contains 65 pieces of various 
kinds, several of which are imperfect on account of missing 
leaves. There are a number of romantic tales in prose; and, 
besides, other important pieces, a copy of the celebrated Elegy 


on St. Columkille, composer, about 592. — Dr. P. W. Joyce. See 
notes to Chapter I. 

Dundalk ("Delga's Fort"), capital of county, seaport town, 
parish, and urban district, with railway station (G. N. I. and 
L. & N.W. E.), County Louth, in east of Upper Dundalk barony, 
on river Castletown, near Dundalk Bay, 54 miles north of Dublin 
and 58 south of Belfast by rail. The parish has an area of 
6,332 acres, and a population of 14,732; the town has 1,386 
acres, and a population of 13,076. Dundalk is a well-built, 
thriving town and important railway center. Here the G. N. E. 
has locomotive works. The Catholic Cathedral is one of the 
finest in Ireland. Other public buildings are the Court House, 
Market House, and Town Hall. There are also public parks, 
and cavalry barracks. It carries on an active export trade with 
Liverpool and other ports; and by a branch line of railway to 
Greenore Harbor, 10 miles to the east on Carlingford Lough, it 
maintains regular communication by steamer with Holyhead, 
the sea passage being 79 miles. The exports are grain, provi- 
sions, and live stock. The harbor has been rendered safe by the 
removal of a shoal of sunken rocks at its entrance. Tanning, 
ironfounding, flax-spinning, tobacco manufacture, and ship- 
building are carried on. There is a distillery, and also manu- 
factories of salt, soap, candles, and leather. At the entrance of 
the channel is a lighthouse, with flashing light seen nine miles. 

Dungannon, urban district, and market town, with railway station 
(G. N. I. E.), County Tyrone, 14 miles south of Cookstown and 
40 miles west of Belfast by rail, near Lough Neagh. The urban 
district has 232 acres, and a population of 3,694. Dungannon 
is a well-built and flourishing town, with important trade in 
grain, flax, and provisions; also manufactures of linen, muslin, 
leather and earthenware. There is a Catholic convent and 
school. Dungannon returned one member to parliament until 
1885. Dungannon Park is the seat of the Earl of Eanfurly. 

Dungarvan or Dungarven, market town, seaport, parish, and urban 
district, with railway station (G. S. & W. E.), County Waterford, 
on river Colligan and Dungarven Harbor, 28 miles southwest of 
Waterford, and 139 miles southwest of Dublin by rail. The 
parish has an area of 9,413 acres, and a population of 5,553; the 
urban district has 1,374 acres, and a population of 4,850. The 
town is divided into two parts by the Colligan. Its trade 
depends almost entirely on agricultural produce; grain, cattle, 
and provisions are exported. The harbor is about three miles in 
length and breadth. Dungarven returned one member to parlia- 
ment until 1885. 

Dungarvan, parish and village. County Kilkenny, three miles south 
of Gowran. The parish has an area of 5,881 acres, and a 
population of 647. 

Duniary, The Great Book of. The Speckled Book of Mac Egan, 
also called the Great Book of Duniary, is in the Eoyal Irish 
Academy, Dublin. It is a large folio volume of 280 pages (origi- 


nally containing many more), written in a small, uniform, beau- 
tiful hand. The text contains 226 pieces, with numbers of mar- 
ginal and interlined entries, generally explanatory or illustrative 
of the text. The book was copied from various older books, most 
of them now lost. All, both text and notes, with a few excep- 
tions, are on religious subjects. There is a good deal of Latin 
mixed with the Irish. From the traditional titles of the book it 
is probable that it was written towards the end of the 14th 
century by one or more of the Mac Egans, a literary family who 
for many generations kept schools of law, poetry and literature 
at Duniary in County Donegal, and also Bally-Mac-Egan, in the 
north of Tipperary. — Dr. P. W. Joyce. See Chapter I. 

Durrow, Monastery of, is situated in King's County, near the 
town of Tullamore. It was founded by St. Columba in 553, and 
considered to be the greatest of his Irish establishments. Like 
other early Irish seats of learning, Durrow was frequently 
ravaged by the Danes, and was finally completely devastated by 
Hugh de Lacy (died in 1186), who was killed there by one of 
the men of Meath while erecting a castle on the site. A church- 
yard and other remains still mark the ancient site of Durrow. 

Edgecomb, Sir Eichard (died in 1489), was knighted by King 
Henry VII. for valor at the battle of Bosworth Field. He was 
sent by Henry to administer the oath of allegiance in Ireland 
in 1488. He died at Morlaix. 

Edward IL (1284-1327), King of England, son of Edward I., was 
born in Wales in 1284, and in 1301 was created Prince of Wales, 
the first English heir-apparent who bore that title. On the 
death of his father in 1307 he became king. In 1314 Edward 
invaded Scotland with an army of 100,000 men. At Bannock- 
burn, on the 24th of June, he was defeated with great slaughter 
by Eobert Bruce, who thus secured the final independence of his 
kingdom, and who, by the capture of Berwick in 1318, undid 
every trace of the conquest of Edward I. This disaster was 
followed by risings in Wales and Ireland, and two seasons of 
famine and pestilence. A dispute arose between Edward and 
Charles IV. of France, brother of his wife, in regard to the 
former's territories in that country, and on their seizure by 
Charles, Edward sent Isabella to effect an amicable arrangement. 
She despised her husband, hated his favorites, the Despensers, 
and, having obtained possession of the young Prince Edward, 
she landed with a large body of malcontents on the coast of 
Suffolk, September 24, 1326. Edward fled, but was taken 
prisoner in Glamorganshire. The Despensers were executed, and 
the monarch was compelled to resign the crown. He was mur- 
dered in Berkeley Castle, September 21, 1327. 

Edward III. (1312-1377), King of England, was born at Windsor, 
England, and was crowned in 1327. He was the eldest son of 
Edward H. and Isabella of France. He married Philippa of 
Hainault in 1328. His reign was filled with numerous battles 
against the Scots and French, but in spite of all the brilliant 


victories achieved by his eldest son (Edward the Black Prince), 
Edward III. was unsuccessful. Affairs at home were no less 
satisfactory in his last year, and public finance drifted hope- 
lessly into ruin. He quarreled with his parliaments and saw 
public discontent sap loyalty and let the government slip into 
the hands of his third son, John of Gaunt. He died in June, 1377. 

Edward VI. (1537-1553), King of England, born at Hampton 
Court, was the sou of King Henry VIII. by his third queen, 
Jane Seymour. January 21, 1547, he succeeded his father to the 
throne. His uncle, Edward Seymour, Earl of Hertford (after- 
wards Duke of Somerset), acted as regent, with the title of lord 
protector. Indifferent in matters of religion (though he died a 
professed Catholic), he, too, let the Reformation take its course 
under Cramner. He died at Greenwich, July 6, 1553, probably 
from the effect of quack nostrums on a consumptive frame. 

Edward VII. (1841-1910), King of England, was the eldest son of 
Queen Victoria and her consort Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg 
Gotha. He was born at Buckingham Palace, November 9, 1841; 
inherited a variety of titles from the moment of his birth (as 
the eldest son of the sovereign), and in the following December 
he was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester. In March, 
1863, he married Princess Alexandra, daughter of Christian IX. 
of Denmark. On the death of Queen Victoria (January 21, 1901), 
he succeeded to the throne as Edward VII. He died May 6, 1910, 
and was succeeded by his second son, George V., who entered the 
direct line of succession only after the death of his elder brother, 
the Duke of Clarence, in 1892. 

Edward or Edward III. (died in 1066), called The Confessor, and 
sometimes Saint Edward, the last Anglo-Saxon king of the "old 
English stock" or royal line, was born at Islip in Oxfordshire, 
England, the eldest son of Ethelred the Unready, by his marriage 
in 1002 with Emma, daughter of Richard the Fearless, Duke of 
the Normans. On the death of Ethelred in 1016, Canute the Dane 
obtained possession of the English throne, and next year married 
the widowed Queen Emma, by whom he had two sons, Harold 
and Hardicanute. Until the death of Canute in 1035, Edward 
lived in Normandy, but was invited to his court in England by 
his half-brother Hardicanute in 1041, and next year succeeded 
him as king. This was brought about mainly by the great Earl 
Godwin, whose only daughter, Edith (or Editha), Edward mar- 
ried in 1045. Wars with the Welsh, and an unsuccessful revolt 
of the Northumbrians, were the chief events in the later years 
of his reign. He died January 5, 1066. Edward was canonized 
by Pope Alexander III. in 1161, and enshrined as a saint in his 
abbey-church at Westminster. With him the old English or 
Anglo-Saxon monarchy perished, save only for its spasm of dying 
energy in the few months' reign of King Harold II., who fell in 
the decisive battle of Hastings (the Saxons' Waterloo), October 
14, 1066 — "thus shattering for all time the supposed 'invinci- 
bility' of the Anglo-Saxon race." 


Edward the Black Prince (1330-1376). Eldest son of Edward III. 
and Philippa, was born at "Woodstock, England. He was created 
Earl of Chester in 1333, Duke of Cornwall in 1337, and Prince 
of Wales in 1343. Knighted by his father at La Hogue in 1345, 
he the next month, mere boy though he was, fought bravely at 
Crecy, France, and is said to have won from his black armor 
his popular title — a title, however, first cited in the 16th century. 
In 1355-56 he undertook two marauding expeditions in France, 
the second signalized by the great victory of Poitiers, where 
King John of France and his son Philip were taken prisoners. 
In 1361 he married his cousin, Joan, the "Fair Maid of Kent," 
who bore him two sons, Edward and the future Eichard II. 
In 1362 his father created him Prince of Aquitaine, and next 
year he departed to take possession of his principality. In 1367 
he espoused the cause of Pedro the Cruel, and at Navarrete won 
his third great victory, taking Du Guesclin prisoner. In 1370, 
worn out by sickness, he sacked Limoges with merciless severity. 
He died at Westminster, July 8, 1376. 

Egypt, the most northeastern country of Africa, composed of 
Lower Egypt (Bahari), Middle Egypt (Vostani), and Upper 
Egypt (Said); moreover, a part of the Mudirieh of Dongola in 
Nubia, the district of Kaseir on the Eed Sea, el-Arish in Syria, 
and the Isthmus of Suez, and the oases of the Libyan desert. 
North of Cairo commences the delta of the Nile, which has an 
area of about 8,500 square miless. The Nile is the only river of 
Egypt. Nominally the government of Egypt is in the hands of 
the Khedive and of a ministry which is formed after European 
model. But since Arabi 's rebellion the Khedive and his minis- 
ters are supported in all administrative matters by British 
advisers, and the reorganization of the army has been put in the 
hands of British officers. As regards history, the ancient history 
of Egypt is beyond the limits of this article. In 638 A.D. 
Egypt — which was at that time a province of the Byzantine 
Empire — was conquered by the Mohammedans. From 970 to 1171 
the dynasty of the Fatimides, and from 1171 to 1250 that of the 
Eyubites flourished. These were followed by the Mamelukes 
(Memluks), who ruled over Egypt till 1517, when Sultan Selim I. 
made the country a Turkish province. Ismail (1863-1879), during 
whose reign the Suez Canal was completed, made himself almost 
independent of the Porte. His son Tewfik succeeded him in 
1879. Under his reign, in 1882, the rebellion of Arabi took 
place. Alexandria was bombarded by the British fleet (July, 
1882), and Arabi was finally defeated by a British force at 
Tel-el-Kebir (September 13, 1882). Since that time Egypt has 
been under British influence. The Sudan provinces of Egypt 
were lost by the Mahdi rebellion and the fall of Khartum 
(January 26, 1885). Tewfik died in 1892, and was succeeded 
by his son Abbas. Total area of Egypt, 394,240 square miles, 
but the cultivated and settled area amounts to only 12,976 square 


miles. Population (1892), 6,817,265; of these, 245,779 are 
nomads, and 90,886 foreigners. 

Eire, one of the ancient names of Ireland. See Ireland, Ancient 
Names of. See Chapter I. 

Election of Kings, Princes, and Chiefs. Under the laws of Tanistry 
the kings, princes, lords, and chiefs [of ancient Erin] were elec- 
tive, and it appears that the elective system and government by 
chiefs and clans prevailed amongst all the Celtic nations, as the 
Gauls, Britons, Irish, etc., while the principle of hereditary suc- 
cession, and law of primogeniture, prevailed amongst the Teutonic 
nations, as the Germans, Franks, Saxons, and Scandinavians. On 
the death of their kings and nobles, the eldest son or heir gen- 
erally succeeded, thus preserving the crown and honors of nobility 
in one direct line, which gave greater permanency to their insti- 
tutions. Some of the Slavonic nations, as, for example, the Poles, 
adopted, like the Celts, the elective principle in the choice of 
their kings, which led to ruinous contests for the crown on the 
death of each sovereign, and ultimately caused the downfall of 
Poland. Ireland was divided into five kingdoms, and each of the 
kings of the Pentarchy was considered eligible to the crown, and 
to become Ardrigh (ard-ree), or monarch, and though the throne 
was occupied exclusively for a period of 600 years, from the 5th 
to the 11th century, by the different branches of the Hy Niall, 
namely, the ancestors of the O'Neills and O'Donnells of Ulster, 
and of the O'Melaghlins of Meath, who agreed to an alternative 
succession amongst themselves, yet, not fulfilling these terms, 
they had many fierce contests for the monarchy. The five royal 
families afterwards acknowledged as heirs to the throne were the 
O'Neills, Kings of Ulster, the O'Melaghlins, Kings of Meath, 
the 'Conors, Kings of Connaught, the O'Briens, Kings t 
Munster, and the MacMurroughs, Kings of Leinster. All these 
provincial kings during the 11th and 12th centuries carried on 
fierce contests for the crown, which was continued even long 
after the English (Anglo-Norman) invasion. On the death of a 
king, prince, or chief, his son sometimes succeeded, provided he 
was of age, for minors were not eligible, but in general a brother, 
uncle, or some other senior head of the family or clan, or some- 
times a nephew, was chosen, and not the son of the deceased. 
The legitimate successor was often set aside by other competitors, 
and the candidate who had most influence, popularity, or military 
force to support him, carried his election by strong hand, and 
assumed authority by the right of the sword. The law of alter- 
nate succession amongst the different chiefs of a clan was often 
adopted, each taking the lordship in turn, but when this peace- 
able compact was not fulfilled, the country was laid waste by 
contending princes and chiefs, and two rulers were often elected 
in opposition to each other by the Irish themselves, and a rival 
candidate was often set up and supported by the influence of the 
English. These circumstances led to endless anarchy, confusion, 
and conflicts throughout the country, and the kings, princea, and 


chiefs, being almost always in contention with each other as to 
their election, the entire country presented a scene of incessant 
discord. The election and inauguration of kings, princes, and 
chiefs took place in the open air, on hills, raths, and remarkable 
localities, at great assemblies, attended by the chiefs, clans, 
clergy, bards, and brehons. The senior and worthiest candidate, 
when there was no contest, was generally preferred, and the 
Tanist (heir apparent), or Roydamna, peaceably succeeded, unless 
disqualified by age, infirmity, or some moral or physical defect. 
In the choice of their kings the Irish were very exact, for the 
candidate, if lame, blind of an eye, or laboring under any other 
particular physical defect, was rejected. — C, & McD. See notes 
to Chapter II. 

Elizabeth (1437-1492), Queen of Edward IV. of England, daughter 
of Sir Richard Woodville, afterwards Earl Rivers. She married 
first Sir John Grey, who fell at the second battle of St. Albans 
in 1461. In 1464 she was privately married to King Edward IV. 
On the latter 's flight in 1470 she withdrew into sanctuary at 
Westminster. She died in the Abbey of Bermondsey, June 8, 
1492. Her eldest daughter, Elizabeth (1465-1503), married King 
Henry VII, of England in 1486. 

Elizabeth (1533-1603), Queen of England, was born at Greenwich, 
near London, September 7, 1533. She was the daughter of King 
Henry VIII. and Anne Boleyn, w^hose secret marriage had been 
celebrated in the previous January. Three days after her birth 
she was baptized in the Church of the Grey Friars at Greenwich. 
"The ritual was that of the Catholic Church." When she was 
three years old her mother was declared guilty of adultery and 
was executed. During the reign of Queen Mary (her half- 
sister), Elizabeth conformed to the Catholic faith, as a matter 
of policy. Proclaimed queen in succession to Mary, on the 
latter 's death in 1558, she was crowned by Owen Oglethorpe, 
Bishop of Carlisle, in 1559. Determined to restore the "re- 
formed religion," she promulgated the "Thirty-nine Articles" 
and extended the range of the "Oath of Supremacy." She 
grudgingly thanked Sir Henry Sidney for his services against 
the Irish chieftain, Shane O'Neill, in 1567. In 1568 and 1569 
she imprisoned her relative, Mary Queen of Scots. In 1570 she 
was excommunicated by Pope Pius V., who issued a bull which 
denounced her as a depraved woman and absolved her subjects 
from their allegiance. Fearing the moral condemnation of the 
world, she refrained from signing the death warrant of Queen 
Mary, but ultimately consented, after having ineffectually sug- 
gested to Mary's warders the desirability of a secret assassina- 
tion. In 1598 her marshal in Ireland, Sir Henry Bagnall, with 
a large force, was totally defeated by Hugh O'Neill at the cele- 
brated battle of the Yellow Ford. She appointed the Earl of 
Essex lieutenant and governor-general of Ireland, in which post 
he failed signally, and soon after his return to England the 
queen sent him to the scaffold. On questions of religion the 


authority of Elizabeth, like that of her father, was virtually 
final — the authority of the state on spiritual matters was 
deemed infallible. During her reign the celebrated Spanish 
invading fleet called the "Invincible Armada" was totally 
defeated, from which event dates the decline of Spain as a 
great nation. Elizabeth died at Kichmond, March 24, 1603, and 
was buried at Westminster Abbey. Though she was a woman 
of uncommon ability and courage, and her reign was exception- 
ally successful, her personal character, like that of her father, 
was heartless, selfish, and immoral. 

Emerald. Isle is a poetical name appropriately applied to Ireland 
in modern times by many writers, from its exquisite verdure, in 
which it surpasses most other countries; this designation was 
first given to it in the year 1795, by the celebrated Dr. William 
Drennan, of Belfast, in one of his beautiful poems entitled 
"Erin."— C. & McD. 

Emly, parish and village, with railway station (G. S. & W. E.), 
County Tipperary, about four miles from Knocklong. The 
parish has an area of 9,183 acres, and a population of 1,753; 
the village has a population of 268. 

England, the largest and most populous country of Great Britain, 
is separated from Scotland by the Solway Firth, the Cheviot 
Hills, and the Tweed. It comprises the whole of Great Britain 
south of that boundary and east of the mountainous peninsula 
of Wales. Wales was conquered by England in 1265-84, but for 
long after that retained its own system of law and administra- 
tion. Since the time of Henry VIII., however, it has been fully 
incorporated with England. The inhabitants of the island when 
conquered by the Eomans were of Celtic origin. England has 
for hundreds of years been one of the greatest moving forces 
of the world. The situation of the country has been shown to 
be in the very center of the land-masses of the globe, a very 
great advantage for commerce and navigati.on. In shape Eng- 
land forms an irregular triangle, of which the eastern side 
measures in a straight line 350 miles, the southern 325 miles, the 
western 425 miles; but its shores are so deeply indented by bays 
and estuaries as to make the coast-line longer in proportion to 
the size of the land than in any other country but Scotland and 
Greece. England without Wales has an area of 51,000 square 
miles, and a population (1901) of 30,807,243. England with 
Wales has an area of 58,000 square miles, and a population 
(1901) of 32,527,843. 

Enniscorthy, town and urban district, with railway station 
(D. W. & W. E.), in St. Mary's and Templeshannon parishe*^^ 
County Wexford, on both banks of the river Slaney, 77 miles 
south of Dublin, has an area of 251 acres, and a population of 
5,458. A great trade in provisions, corn, and flour is carried on. 
There are tanneries and a brewery. The old castle, in the center 
of the town, is the property of the Earl of Portsmouth. Vinegar 
Hill, in the immediate vicinity, was the scene of a battle in the 


insurrection of 1798. The Slaney ie navigable for barges, and 
abounds in salmon and trout. 

Enniskillen, county town, and urban district, with railway sta- 
tion (G, N. I. and Sligo, Leitrim and Northern Counties rail- 
ways) ; County Fermanagh, 62 miles northwest of Dundalk and 
116 miles northwest of Dublin by rail, has an area of 318 acres, 
and a population of 5,412. Enniskillen is beautifully situated on 
an island in the northwest part of Lough Erne, and has several 
steam saw-mills and a brewery. There are infantry and artillery 
barracks at Enniskillen; the town gives its name to a regiment 
of dragoons and to one of fusiliers. A wooded hill near the 
railway station is surmounted by a monument to Sir Lowry Cole. 
Enniskillen returned one member to parliament until 1885. 
Enniskillen parish, containing part of the above town, has an 
area of 26,059 acres, and a population of 9,204. 

Unnel, Lough, in County West Meath, two miles southwest of 
Mullingar. It is five miles long and two miles wide. 

Eric. Under the Brehon Laws, various crimes were compounded for 
by a fine termed Eric, and this mostly consisted of cattle; and 
these Erics varied from three to 300, and sometimes even a 
thousand cows or more, exacted as an Eric for homicides, rob- 
beries, and other crimes. The practice of paying only a certain 
fine for murder, manslaughter, and other crimes also prevailed 
among various ancient nations, as the Greeks, Eomans, Gauls, 
Germans, Franks, iSaxons, and ancient Britons, as well as among 
the Irish, and it appears that the criminals did not always get off 
on paying an Eric, for instances are recorded in various parts of 
these annals of malefactors being mutilated, hanged, and be- 
headed by order of the Irish chiefs, for murder, sacrilege, and 
other crimes. — C. & McD. See notes to Chapter II. 

Erue, a river rising in Lough Gowna, County Longford, flows 72 
miles northwest through Lough Oughter, County Cavan, and 
Lough Erne, County Fermanagh, into Donegal Bay below Bally- 
shannon. Lough Erne, consisting of two parts (Upper and 
Lower), joined by a strait (the river Erne) 10 miles long, is 
one of the finest lakes in Ireland. Its entire length is about 40 
miles, with an average breadth of five miles. The upper lough is 
about 10 miles long, with maximum width at the northwest end 
of three and one-half miles; the lower lough is about 18 miles 
long by six miles wide. Its greatest depth is 200 feet, and the 
height above sea-level is 150 feet. The lough is studded with 
many beautiful islands and abounds in fish. Small steamers 
ply on it in summer. 

Erne, Lough, five miles southwest of Hillsborough, County Down. 
Here is the source of the river Ballynahinch. 

Essex, Earl of, see Cromwell, Thomas; also see Devereux, Robert 
and Walter. 

Eugene, Francis (1663-1736), Prince of Savoy, was born at Paris. 
He was the youngest son of Eugene Maurice, general of the 
Swiss, Governor of Champagne, and Earl of Soissons, and a 


nephew of Cardinal Mazarin. After his father's death (1673), 
his mother's banishment from court by King Louis XIV. of 
France, and the latter 's refusal to give him a commission, he 
renounced his country, and at twenty entered the service of 
the Emperor Leopold of Austria. He displayed extraordinary 
courage and talent at the siege of Vienna in 1683, and rose 
rapidly. In the war against Louis XIV. in Italy he covered him- 
self with glory. He was created a field marshal in 1693, and 
defeated the Turks in 1697, putting an end to their power in 
Hungary. The Spanish "War of Succession recalled him to the 
army of Italy, but although he inflicted several defeats upon 
the French, he was bafHed by a superior force and the skill of 
the Due de Vendome at Luzzara in 1702. In command of the 
Imperial army he helped the Duke of Marlborough at Blenheim; 
was checked at Cassano by Vendome, but afterwards crushed 
the French in a defeat which closed their career in Italy. He 
shared with Marlborough the glory of the victories of Oudenarde 
and Malplaquet, but, crippled by the withdrawal of Holland and 
England, was unable to withstand the enemy of the Ehine, and 
his defeat by Villars at Denain was followed by other disasters, 
until the peace of Kastadt ended the war in 1714. On the 
renewal of the war with the Turks in 1716, Eugene defeated an 
army of 150,000 men at Peterwardein, and in 1717, after a 
desperate battle, carried Belgrade. In a new war with France 
over the crown of Poland, Eugene was only able to keep the 
enemy out of Bavaria. After the peace he returned to Vienna, 
where he died April 21, 1736. His rapidity and decision raised 
the prestige of the Austrian arms to great eminence. 

Eugenians. Eugene the Great, King of Munster, by the Spanish 
princess Beara, left a son, Oilioll Ollum, who married Saba, 
daughter of Conn of the Hundred Battles. Oilioll divided his 
kingdom (Munster) between two of his sons. To one of these 
sons, Eugene, fell South Munster; this was called the kingdom 
of Desmond and its people Eugenians; it embraced the present 
counties of Cork, Kerry, and at one time part of Waterford. 
North Munster, or the kingdom of Thomond (included the pres- 
ent counties of Limerick, Clare, and at first part of Tipperary), 
was given to Cormac Cas, the other son; its inhabitants were 
called Dalcassians. It was arranged that these two lines should 
alternately give a king to the whole province of Munster. See 
Dalcassians, and also see Chapter V. 

Europe, the smallest of the continents (apart from Australia), is 
physically a peninsula of Asia, and for certain purposes it is 
convenient to view the entire land-mass composed of Europe and 
Asia as one, to which the name of "Eurasia" has been given. 
The European races mainly belong to the various branches of the 
great Aryan stock. Generally speaking, Celtic blood is most 
largely found in France, Great Britain and Ireland. Teutonic 
peoples occupy Germany, Switzerland, the Netherlands, part of 
Belgium, part of Austria, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Iceland, 


and Great Britain. Slavonic races are found in Austria, Prus- 
sia, tlie Balkan peninsula, and Eussia. Komanic language and 
blood are prominent in Italy, France, Spain, Portugal, and 
Eoumania. In this article it seems desirable to give a sketch 
of some of the most notable changes in the political distribution 
and national divisions in the European area since the fall of 
the Eoman Empire. On the death of the Emperor Theodosius 
(395), the Eoman Empire was finally divided into two parts — 
the Latin Empire, or Empire of the West, the capital of which 
was Eome; and the Greek Empire, or Empire of the East, the 
capital of which was Constantinople. In the latter part of the 
8th century the Frankish empire of Charlemagne extended from 
the Ebro to the Elbe, and from the North Sea to Eome, the 
Franks having conquered both the Goths of France and the 
Burgundians. The chief changes on the map of Europe since 
the middle of the 19th century have been the consolidation of 
Germany as an empire, under the headship of Prussia, and the 
restitution to it of Alsace-Lorraine; the retirement of Austria 
out of Germany, and her reorganization as the Austro-Hungarian 
monarchy; the unification of Italy as a kingdom; and the gradual 
diminution of Turkish territory by the recognition of the inde- 
pendence of Eoumania, Servia, and Montenegro, and of the 
autonomy of Bulgaria. Europe has a total population of about 
350,000,000, and an area (not including the islands) of 3,800,000 
square miles. 

Exchequer. A court formed out of the Curia Eegis to deal with 
questions of finance. It was established by Eoger of Salisbury, 
in the reign of King Henry I. of England. 

Feni or Fenians. The Fenians are mentioned by the Four Masters 
under the name of Fene, or Feine [Feni], which signifies the 
Phenicians of Ireland, as Feine signifies Phenicians; and they 
were probably so called from the tradition that the Phenicians 
came to Ireland in the early ages. They were also called by the 
Irish Clann-Ua-Baoisgine [Clan Baskin], and so named from 
Baoisgine, who was chief commander of these warriors, and 
ancestor of the famous hero Fionn [Finn], the son of Cumhall 
[Cool]. The Fenian warriors were a famous military force, 
forming the standing national militia, and instituted in Ireland 
in the early ages, long before the Christian era, but brought to 
the greatest perfection in the reign of the celebrated Cormac, 
monarch of Ireland in the 3rd century. None were admitted 
into this military body but select men of the greatest activity, 
strength, stature, perfect form, and valor, and, when the force 
was complete, it consisted of seven battalions or legions, each 
battalion containing 3,000 men, making 21,000 for each of the 
five provinces, or about 100,000 fighting men in the time of war 
for the entire kingdom. The Ardrigh [ard-ree], or head King 
of Ireland, had, for the time being, chief control over these 
forces, but they often resisted his authority. A commander was 
aDDointed over every 1,000 of these troops, and the entire force 


was completely armed and admirably disciplined, and each 
battalion had their band of musicians and bards to animate them 
in battle, and celebrate their feats of arms. In the reign of the 
monarch Cormac, the celebrated Fionn MacCumhaill [Finn 
MaeCool], who was descended from the Heremonian kings of 
Leinster, was the chief commander of the Fenian warriors, and 
his great actions, strength, and valor are celebrated in the 
Ossianic poems, and various other productions of the ancient 
Bards; he is called Fingal in MacPherson's poems of Ossian; 
but it is to be observed that these are not the real poems of 
Ossian, but mostly fictitious fabrications by MacPherson himself, 
and containing some passages from tlie ancient poems. Fionn 
had his chief residence and fortress at Almhuinn [Allen], now 
either the Hill of Allen, near Kildare, or Ailinn, near Old 
KilcuUen, where a great rath still remains, which was a resi- 
dence of the ancient kings of Leinster. The Fenians were the 
chief troops of Leinster, and were Milesians of the race of 
Heremon; and their renowned commander Fionn, according to 
the Four Masters, was slain by the cast of a javelin, or, accord- 
ing to others, by the shot of an arrow, at a place called Ath 
Brea, on the river Boyne, A. D. 283, the year before the battle 
of Gaura, by the Lugnians of Tara, a tribe who possessed the 
territory now called the barony of Lune, near Tara in Meath; 
and the place mentioned as Ath Brea, or the Ford of Brea, was 
situated somewhere on the Boyne, between Trim and Navan. — 
C. & McD. See Chapter V. 
Fermanagh ("Men of Monach," a Leinster clan), inland county 
of Ulster province, is surrounded by Counties Donegal, Tyrone, 
Monaghan, Cavan, and Leitrim. Greatest length, northwest and 
southeast, 45 miles; greatest breadth, northeast and southwest, 
27 miles. Fermanagh has area of 457,369 acres (46,431 water), 
or 2.2 per cent, of the total area of Ireland, and a population 
of 65,432, of whom 36,198 are Catholics, 23,099 Episcopalians, 
1,280 Presbyterians, and 4,744 Methodists. The surface rises 
into numerous abrupt eminences of no great elevation; the chief 
summit is Belmore mountain, with an altitude of 1,312 feet. 
Cuilcagh, on the extreme border of Fermanagh and Cavan, has 
an altitude of 2,188 feet. The great feature of the county is 
Lough Erne, which (with the river Erne joining its lower and 
upper parts) bisects the county throughout its entire length. The 
salmon fisheries of the Erne are important. The loughs are 
studded with verdant islands, and the whole scenery Is pic- 
turesque. There is abundance of sandstone and limestone; iron 
occurs. The soil is only of middling quality, and there is much 
bog. The county is served by the G. N. I. E., Sligo, Leitrim, and 
Northern Counties railway, and the Clogher Valley railway. 
The manufacture of coarse linens is carried on. The county com- 
prises 14 parishes and parts of nine others; and the towns of 
Enniskillen, Lisnaskea and Maguire 's Bridge. For parliamentary 


purposes it is divided into two divisions — North Fermanagh and 
South Fermanagh — one member for each division. 

rermoy, The Book of. See notes to Chapter I. 

Ferns ("alder-trees"), parish and town, with railway station 
(D. W. & W. E.), County Wexford, on river Bann, eight miles 
north of Enniscorthy, and 70 miles south of Dublin. The parish 
has an area of 10,411 acres, and a population of 1,531; the village 
has a population of 495. Ferns Castle (in ruins) was a fortress 
overlooking the town. 

Fethard, town and parish, with railway station (G. S. & W. E.), 
County Tipperary, nine miles north of Clonmel. The town has 
173 acres, and a population of 1,498; the parish has an area of 
1,530 acres, and a population of 1,604. Fethard is a very old 
town, with considerable remains of walls built under a charter of 
Edward III. 

Fethard, coast parish and village. County Wexford, on Fethard 
Bay, 16 miles southeast of Waterford. The parish has an area of 
3,929 acres, and a population of 1,045; the village has a popula- 
tion of 218. The village is resorted to for sea-bathing. 

Feudal System, the system of polity which prevailed in Europe 
during the Middle Ages, and which was based on the relation of 
superior and vassal arising out of the holding of land in feud. 
In a broad sense it may be taken to mean a social organization 
based on the ownership of land, and personal relations created by 
the ownership of land — a state of things in which public relations 
are dependent on private relations, where political rights depend 
on landed rights, and the land is concentrated in the hands of a 
few. See Hallam's "Middle Ages" (1818); Stubbs' "The Con- 
stitutional History of England" (1874-78); and Seebohm's 
"English Village Community" (1883). 

Field of the Cloth of Gold, a place near Guisnes, France, where 
King Henry VIII. of England and King Francis I. of France met 
in 1520, amid a blaze of grandeur that sorely drained the purses 
of both nations. Guisnes was then within the English dominion 
in France. In spite of the splendors of the Field of the Cloth of 
Gold, the French King failed to secure Henry VIII. for an ally, 
who afterwards joined the Pope and the Emperor Charles V. of 

Finland, Archduchy of, a part of the Eussian empire, bounded 
north by Lapland, east by the Eussian governments of Arch- 
angel and Olonets, south by the Gulf of Finland, and west by the 
Bothnia and Sweden. It was ceded to Eussia by Sweden in 
1809, and has preserved, by special grant of Czar Alexander I. 
of Eussia, the chief features of its ancient constitution. The 
executive is in the hands of a Senate, which sits at Helsingfors 
(the capital), and is composed of members nominated by the 
Crown, under the presidency of a governor-general. It is com- 
posed of two departments — Justice and Finance. The military 
department and the foreign affairs are under Eussian ministers. 


and the posts and telegraphs have also been brought under the 
supervision of the Eussian authorities. None but Finnish citi- 
zens can be employed in the civil service of the country. Finland 
has also its own army (eight battalions of riflemen), and its 
own money and custom tariffs. The country is divided into eight 
provinces. Area, 144,254 square miles; population (1890), 

Finn MacCool, Fortress of. Finn [Fionn] had his chief residence 
in the fortress of Almhuin, now the Hill of Allen, in Kildare, 
and this fortress appears to have been of great extent, and 
surrounded with many other habitations, as the residence of the 
Fenian troops under his command; and the place is highly 
celebrated in the Ossianic poems, and other productions of the 
ancient Bards. The destruction of the fortress of Almhuin, 
which it appears was burned in the 3rd century by a champion 
named Garaidh, son of Morna, who was chief of the Firbolg 
warriors of Connaught, forms the subject of one of the Ossianic 
poems. — C. & McD. See Feni or Fenians. 

Firbolgs or Bagmen. Before coming to Ireland, the Firbolgs were 
kept in bondage and compelled to carry heavy burdens in bags 
of leather, hence they were called Firbolgs, which in Irish means 
leathern bags. "The Firbolgs," says Martin Haverty, "are 
frequently mentioned in what all admit to be authentic periods 
of our history, and their monuments and even their race still 
exist among us." "The Fir-Bolg or Belgians," say Connellan 
& McDermott, "according to some accounts, were Scythians, and 
came from Greece, but are more correctly considered a Celtic 
race from Belgic Gaul [or Germany], and came to Ireland about 
1,300 years before the Christian era; they were located in Meath 
and Leinster, but chiefly in Connaught, where the Firbolg kings 
ruled for more than a thousand years." See Chapters I. and II. 

Fitton, Sir Edward (1527-1579), the elder (born likely in England), 
was knighted by Sir Henry Sidney in 1566, and on the estab- 
lishment of provincial governments in Connaught and Munster 
he was, in 1569, appointed first lord president of Connaught and 
Thomond. This office he held until 1572. In 1573 he was made 
vice-treasurer of Ireland. He escorted the Earl of Kildare and 
his sons to England in 1575. He died in 1579. His son, Sir 
Edward Fitton (1548-1606), the younger, was knighted by Sir 
William Pelham, and granted a part of the Desmond estates. He 
died in 1606. 

FitzGerald, Gerald (died about 1205), first Baron of Offaly, son of 
Maurice FitzGerald (one of the original Welsh-Norman invaders 
of Ireland), was with his father at the siege of Dublin in 1171, 
and distinguished himself by his bravery at the sortie. After 
his father's death in 1176, he was induced to exchange with 
FitzAdelm de Burgh his castle of Wicklow for that of Ferns. 
In 1205 he sat in the Irish Parliament as Baron Offaly, and died 
the same year. Gerald was often known as FitzMaurice, or son 
of Maurice. His wife was Catherine, a daughter of Hamo de 


Valois, who was Lord-Justice of Ireland in 1194. He received 
property in Kildare from Strongbow, built Maynooth, and was an 
ancestor of the Earls of Kildare. He died in 1176, according to 
the "Dictionary of National Biography." 
FitzGerald, Maurice (died in 1176), one of the leading Welsh- 
Norman invaders of Ireland, was a son of Nesta, a Welsh 
princess, and Gerald FitzWalter, grandson of Lord Otho, an 
honorary baron of England, said to have been descended from the 
Gherardini of Florence, Italy. His descendants are consequently 
styled Geraldines, as well as FitzGeralds. When Dermot Mac- 
Murrough, King of Leinster, was returning home, after having 
arranged with Strongbow for a descent on Ireland, he was hos- 
pitably received by David FitzGerald, Bishop of St. David's, in 
Wales. The bishop proposed to Dermot that his brother Maurice 
and his half-brother FitzStephen should join him with a body of 
troops in the spring, and gain a footing in the country, while 
Strongbow was bringing his larger armament together. Dermot 
gladly accepted the offer, and agreed to give them two cantreds 
(or districts) of land, and the town of Wexford. In May, 1169, 
FitzStephen landed at Bagenbun with 400 archers and men-at- 
arms, and marched against Wexford, which he took by assault. 
Soon after FitzGerald arrived at Wexford with two ships, having 
on board ten knights, thirty men-at-arms, and about 100 archers. 
Dermot, having vested his allies with the lordship of the town, 
marched to attack Dublin with FitzGerald, while FitzStephen 
remained to build a castle at Ferrycarrick, near Wexford. After 
exacting hostages from the Danish King of Dublin, Dermot, 
thinking Strongbow had given up his projected expedition, 
offered his daughter Eva in marriage to FitzGerald or FitzStephen, 
if they would bring over a force suificient to subdue the island; 
but they being married declined the offer, and on Strongbow 's 
arrival at Waterford, Eva was married to him. In 1171 Maurice 
and Strongbow were in Dublin, when it was besieged by King 
Eoderick O 'Conor at the head of 30,000 men, and the harbor 
blocked by a Manx fleet. FitzStephen was at the same time be- 
sieged by the Irish at Ferrycarrick. At a council of war, Giraldus 
Cambrensis represents Maurice as making the following speech: 
"We have not come so far, comrades, for pleasure and rest, but 
to try the chances of fortune, and under peril of our heads to 
meet the forces of the enemy. For such is the mutability of 
human affairs, that as the setting of the sun follows its rising, 
and the light in the east dispels the darkness of the west, so we, 
on whom fortune has hitherto conferred glory and plenty, are now 
beleaguered by land and sea, and are even in want of provision; 
for neither the sea brings succor, nor would the hostile fleets 
permit it to reach us. FitzStephen, also, whose courage and noble 
daring opened to us the way into this island, is now with his 
small force besieged by a hostile nation. What should we, there- 
fore, wait for? Though English to the Irish, we are as Irish to 
the English; for this island does not show us greater hatred than 


that. So away with delays and inactivity, for fortune favors the 
bold, and the fear of scarcity will give strength to our men. Let 
us attack the enemy manfully; though fewin number, we are brave, 
well-armed, and accustomed to hardship and to victory, and will 
terrify the ill-armed and unwarlike multitude. ' ' This advice was 
adopted. Next morning at daybreak the Welsh-Normans attacked 
the headquarters of Koderic O 'Conor at Finglas, routed him and 
his forces and then marched to the relief of FitzStephen, — too 
late, however, to prevent his falling into the hands of the Irish. 
In April, 1172, King Henry II. of England on his departure for 
England, appointed FitzGerald and FitzStephen Wardens of 
Dublin, under Hugh De Lacy. It was FitzGerald who saved De 
Lacy's life in the encounter with O'Rourke at the Hill of Ward. 
On the recall of De Lacy in 1173, FitzGerald retired to Wales, in 
consequence of misunderstandings with Strongbow. In 1176 
matters were arranged between them, and he was made a grant 
of the barony of Offaly, and the territory of Offelan, comprising 
the present towns of Maynooth and Naas. He was given the 
castle of Wicklow in return for his share of Wexford, appropri- 
ated with other towns by King Henry. In 1176 he died at Wex- 
ford, and was buried in the Abbey of Grey Friars, outside the 
walls of the town. One of his sons, Thomas, was ancestor of the 
Desmond FitzGeralds. Another son, Gerald, was ancestor of the 
earls of Kildare and dukes of Leinster. John, a grandson, was 
the ancestor of Clan Gibbon, the knights of Glin, the knights 
of Kerry, FitzGeralds of Clane, and Seneschals of Imokelly. 
Cambrensis says: "Maurice was honorable and modest, with 
a sun-burnt face and good looking, of middle height — a man 
of innate goodness ... a man of few words, but full 
of weight, with more wisdom than eloquence. ... In 
military affairs valiant, active, not impetuous nor rash; cir- 
cumspect in attack and resolute in defense; sober, chaste, 
trusty and faithful. ' ' See chapters XL, XII., XIII., XIV. and XV. 
FitzGerald, Raymond (died in 1182), surnamed le Gros, was grand- 
son of Gerald of Windsor, in Wales, nephew of Maurice Fitz- 
Gerald (ancestor of the Earls of Desmond and Kildare), and son 
of William FitzGerald. Raymond was one of the bravest, ablest 
and most adventurous of the Welsh-Norman invaders of Ireland. 
Strongbow sent him forward to Ireland with ten men-at-arms 
and seventy archers. May 1, 1170. Shortly after his arrival he 
was joined by Hervey de Montmorris, who had come with Fitz- 
Stephen the previous summer. When Strongbow arrived in 
August, they placed themselves under his command, took part in 
his campaigns against Waterford and Dublin, and when Strong- 
bow left for England, Raymond was associated with De Mont- 
morris in the government. On the return of Strongbow, Raymond 
asked for his sister Basilia in marriage, but Strongbow rejected 
his suit, and Raymond returned to Wales in high displeasure. 
The perilous position in which the invaders found themselves 
before long compelled Strongbow to recall him, and consent to 


the marriage, giving him at the same time a large dowry of 
land and the post of constable and standardbearer of Leinster. 
The nuptials were immediately celebrated in Wexford, and the 
next day Eaymond marched north to repel an incursion of Rod- 
eric O 'Conor into Meath. He was too late to prevent the 
destruction of the castle of Trim. He then turned westward, and 
besieged and took Limerick, displaying remarkable bravery in 
fording the Shannon and leading his troops to the assault. De 
Montmorris forwarded alarming reports to King Henry II. of 
the rising power of Strongbow and Raymond, and commissioners 
were sent over to watch the one and recall the other. Limerick 
was soon besieged by O'Brien, Prince of Thomond, and as the 
soldiers would march only under Raymond, the commissioners had 
to invest him with the command, or permit the place again to 
fall into the hands of the Irish and Northmen. Raymond entered 
into a successful treaty with O 'Brien, brought even Roderic to 
terms, and secured considerable possessions in Desmond from 
the MacCarthys. In the midst of these successes, he heard from 
his wife of the death of Strongbow, and, confiding Limerick to 
O'Brien (who immediately reestablished his own authority), 
marched to Dublin, where the council chose him Strongbow 's 
successor. The King, still jealous of his influence, had already 
appointed FitzAdelm de Burgh to the post. This ended Ray- 
mond's public career; he appears to have lived the remainder of 
his life as quietly as the times permitted on his estates at Wex- 
ford, — seeing occasional service, as when he went to the succor 
of his uncle FitzStephen in Cork. He died in 1182. Raymond le 
Gros was the ancestor of the FitzMaurices, Earls of Kerry, the 
Marquises of Lansdowne, and the Graces of Wexford. Cam- 
brensis says: "Raymond was very stout, and a little above the 
middle height; his hair was yellow and curly, and he had large, 
gray, round eyes. His nose was rather prominent, his coun- 
tenance high colored, cheerful, and pleasant; although he was 
somewhat corpulent, he was very lusty and active. . . . Such 
was his care of his troops that he passed whole nights without 
sleep, going the rounds of his guards himself to keep them on 
the alert. . . . He was prudent and temperate, not effemi- 
nate in either his food or his dress. He was a liberal, kind, and 
circumspect man; and although a daring soldier and consummate 
general, even in military affairs, prudence was his highest 
quality." For further details, see c'lapters XIII., XIV. and XV. 
FitzHenry, Miler (died in 1220), grandson of King Henry I. of 
England by the Welsh princess Nesta, was one of the leading 
Welsh-Norman invaders of Ireland. In 1199 he was appointed 
lord-justice by King John. This post he held until 1203, and 
again from 1205 to 1208. By his wars in Connaught he dis- 
possessed the native chieftains, and obtained large tracts of 
country. He lowered the power of De Burgh, and deprived him 
of the government of Limerick. On FitzHenry 's death, in 1220, 
he was interred in the Abbey of Great Connell, County Kildare, 


which he had built. He married a niece of Hugh de Lacy. 
Cambrensis says: "FitzHenry was an intrepid and adventurous 
soldier, who never shrank from any enterprise . . . the first 
in the onset and the last in retreat. . . . Very ambitious of 
worldly honors, he had little reverence to the church, nor con- 
tributed for religious uses. ' ' 

Fitz James, James (1670-1734), Duke of Berwick and marshal of 
France, natural son of King James II. of England when Duke of 
York by Arabella Churchill, sister of the celebrated Duke of 
Marlborough. He was born in Moulins, France, in 1670, educated 
in that country, and entered early into the Austrian service. At 
the age of fifteen he was wounded at the siege of Buda, and in 
1687 he was created Duke of Berwick. In 1688 he was sent to 
Ireland to serve against William III., where he distinguished 
himself at the siege of Londonderry and the battle of the Boyne. 
He was afterwards employed in various services, for which he 
was rewarded with the rank of marshal. After the ruin of his 
father's cause he entered the service of France and acquired a 
high reputation for courage and skill in the Spanish War of 
Succession. He gained the decisive victory of Almanza over ttie 
English and their allies, which fixed Philip V. on the throne of 
Spain. For his great services he was created a Duke and Spanish 
grandee. He was killed by a cannon ball at the siege of Philips- 
burgh, on the Ehine, June 12, 1734. Marshal Berwick was dis- 
tinguished for his courage, prudence, and was universally con- 
sidered one of the most able generals of his time. The dukes of 
Liria, in Spain, and the dukes of FitzJames, in France, are 
descended from him. 

FitzStephen, Robert (died in 1182), son of Nesta, Princess of South 
Wales, and Stephen (constable of Cardigan), was the first Welsh- 
Norman invader of Ireland in the twelfth century. He was one 
of those who with Strongbow entered into the plans of Dermot 
MacMurrough (King of Leinster) after the latter had been 
driven out of Ireland. FitzStephen had been confined in prison 
by Ehys ap Griffen, a feudatory of King Henry II., and was 
released so as to be able to join in the invasion of Ireland, on the 
intercession of his half-brothers, the Bishop of St. David 's and 
Maurice FitzGerald. Dermot agreed to grant him and Maurice 
FitzGerald the town of Wexford and two adjacent cantreds (or 
districts) of land. Accordingly, while Earl Strongbow made 
his preparations for invasion on a more extensive scale, in May, 
1169, FitzStephen embarked at Milford thirty men-at-arms, sixty 
men in half armor, and 300 archers and foot soldiers, in three 
ships, and after a favorable passage landed on the south coast 
of Wexford. He was accompanied by his nephews, Miler Fitz- 
Henry and Miles of St. David's, and by Hervey de Montmorris, 
his son-in-law. Maurice de Prendergast joined them next day 
with two ships containing ten men-at-arms and a body of 
archers. They were immediately waited on by Dermot 's son, 
Donald, with 500 spearmen. Dermot followed himself with a 


large force, and the united armies immediately marched to the 
assault of Wexford. The town was bravely defended, and 
did not surrender until it had sustained an assault for seven 
hours and the citizens had been advised to submit by two 
bishops. FitzStephen and FitzGerald were immediately put in 
possession of the town, and De Montmorris was given two 
cantreds lying between Wexford and Waterford. Eoderic 
O 'Conor, monarch of Ireland, now led a large force against 
the W^elsh-Normans and their allies, and the latter were 
obliged to entrench themselves near Ferns. Terms were ulti- 
mately agreed to: Dermot acknowledged Eoderic paramount 
king and monarch of Ireland, and Eoderic confirmed Dermot in 
the sovereignty of Leinster. FitzStephen appears now to have 
applied himself to the settlement of his newly acquired terri- 
tory, and to have brought over his wife and children, and, the 
next year, while Strongbow and FitzGerald were engaged at 
Dublin, he built a fort, upon a steep rock, commonly called 
Karrec (Ferrycarrick), situated about two miles from Wexford. 
There he was shortly beleagured by the people of Wexford, who 
had thrown off his authority and had been joined by the men 
of Kinsale, to the number of 3,000. The castle was only in 
process of construction, and he and the garrison were obliged 
to surrender to their assailants. Upon the arrival of Strong- 
bow with troops from Dublin, Wexford was given to the flames, 
and the Irish retreated with their captives to an island in W^ex- 
ford harbor. FitzStephen must have been detained prisoner 
nearly a year by the Irish, for we are told by Cambrensis that, 
on the arrival of King Henry II., "the men of Wexford, to 
court his favor, brought to him in fetters their prisoner Fitz- 
Stephen, excusing themselves because he had been the first to 
invade Ireland without the royal license, and had set others 
a bad example. The king, having loudly rated him and 
threatened him with his indignation for his rash enterprise, at 
last sent him back, loaded with fetters and chained to another 
prisoner, to be kept in safe custody in Eeginald 's tower. ' ' 
After King Henry's return from Lismore, FitzStephen "was 
again brought before him, and being touched with compassion 
for a brave man, who had been so often exposed to so great 
perils, and pitying his case, at the intercession of some persons 
of rank about his court, he heartily forgave and pardoned him, 
and freely restored him to his former state and liberty, reserving 
to himself only the town of Wexford, with the lands adjoining. ' ' 
On the departure of King Henry for England, in April, 1172, 
FitzStephen was appointed joint warden of Dublin with Fitz- 
Gerald. The king granted him and Milo (or Miles) de Cogan 
the southern part of Munster, west of Lismore, excepting the 
city of Cork. Having taken possession of this district, they 
proceeded north with De Braosa, to put him in occupation of 
Limerick and the surrounding country. FitzStephen 's latter 
days were clouded by misfortunes. His son and many of his 


bravest companions fell in battle with the Irish; he was him- 
self beleaguered in Cork, and when the siege was raised by his 
nephew, Eaymond FitzGerald, it was found that the first and 
one of the bravest of the little band of Welsh-Norman adven- 
turers had been deprived of reason. He died shortly afterwards, 
in 1182. Cambrensis says: "FitzStephen was the true pattern 
of singular courage and unparalleled enterprise . . . He 
was stout in person, handsome, and stature above the middle 
height; he was bountiful, generous and pleasant, but too fond 
of wine and women. ' ' 

FitzWilliam, Sir William (1526-1599), lord deputy of Ireland, was 
born at Milton, England. He was vice-treasurer in Ireland, 
1559-73, assisted Sussex against Shane O 'Neill in 1561, and was 
lord justice in 1571. He was lord deputy, 1572-75, and reduced 
Desmond to submission. Eeappointed in 1588, he made an expe- 
dition into Connaught, and suppressed Maguire in Cavan. He 
was governor of Fotheringay Castle when Mary Queen of Scots 
was executed, and was given by her a portrait of her son James. 

FitzWiUiam, William Wentworth (1748-1833), second Earl Fitz- 
William, nephew and heir of Charles Wentworth, Marquis of 
Eockingham, born in England, was educated at Eton and Cam- 
bridge. He took his seat in the House of Lords in 1769. He 
became president of the council, and in 1795 was sent to Ireland 
as lord-lieutenant, but was recalled within a short time, owing 
to his sympathy with the demand for Catholic Emancipation. 
His duel with John Beresford was interrupted by a peace offi- 
cer whom he had endeavored to dismiss from the commissioner- 
ship of the customs. He became lord-lieutenant of the West 
Eiding of Yorkshire. He lost this office on account of his 
censure of the Pehrtoo "massacre." 

Flanders, the former name of an extensive country of Europe, 
comprised between the Lower Scheldt, the North Sea, Artois, 
Hainaut, and Brabant. It was long governed by the counts 
of Flanders, and in 1369 passed by marriage to the House of 
Burgundy, and then, in 1477, to that of Habsburg. Louis XIV, 
of France, conquered part of it, and it now forms the provinces 
of East and West Flanders in Belgium, part of the province of 
Zeeland in the Netherlands, and the greater part of the Depart- 
ment of Nord, in France. The people are called, in English, 
Flemings, and their language (nearly akin to Dutch), Flemish. 
This territory was also called the Low Countries. 

Flann, The Synchronisms of. This Flann was a layman, principal 
of the School of Monasterboice; died in 1056. He compares the 
chronology of Ireland with that of other countries and gives the 
names of the monarchs that reigned in Assyria, Persia, Greece 
and Eome, from the most remote period, together with most 
careful lists of the Irish kings who reigned contemperaneously 
with them. Copies of this tract (but imperfect) are preserved in 
the Books of Lecan and Ballymote.— Dr. P. W. Joyce. See notes 
to Chapter I. 


Fleetwood, Charles (died in 1692), son of Sir William Fleetwood, 
parliamentarian soldier in the civil wars, was born in Eng- 
land. Becoming a zealous Puritan, in 1644 he was made colonel 
of horse and governor of Bristol. He was afterwards raised 
to the rank of lieutenant-general, and had a share in the 
defeat of King Charles II., at the decisive battle of Worcester. 
On the death of Ireton, in 1651, Fleetwood married the former's 
widow (daughter of Oliver Cromwell), and he was appointed 
commander-in-chief of the army in Ireland, with the rank of 
lieutenant-general. In 1654 he was also made lord-deputy, and 
continued to hold that title until superseded by Henry Cromwell 
(younger son of Oliver, the Lord Protector), in November, 
1657. The chief work of Fleetwood 's government in Ireland 
was the transplantation of the condemned Irish landholders to 
Connaught. He remained in Ireland from 1652 until 1655, 
returning to England in the latter year. He was a member 
of Oliver Cromwell 's council in 1654, major-general of the East- 
ern district, 1655, and a member of Cromwell's House of Lords 
in 1656. He was favorable to the Kestoration, but, failing to 
make terms with General Monk, the "King Maker," at the 
Eestoration, he was disqualified for life from holding office. 
He died in 1692. 

Fola, one of the ancient names of Ireland. See Ireland, Ancient 
Names of. See Chapter I. 

Fomorians. These fierce, war-like people are often mentioned in 
early Irish history. Their memory is still preserved in the Irish 
name of the celebrated Giant's Causeway, which, in English, 
means the causeway, or stepping stones of the Fomorians. They 
are considered by some writers to be the original colonists of 
Ireland. "The Fomorians," according to Connellan & McDer- 
mott, "were African pirates, of the race of Ham, and considered 
to be Canaanites or Phenicians, who were expelled from their 
country by Joshua, were located along the coasts of Ulster and 
Connaught, mostly in Antrim, Derry, Donegal, Leitrim, Sligo and 
Mayo, and had their chief fortress, called Tor Conaing (or 
Conang's Tower on Tor Inis, or the island of the Tower, now 
Tory Island), off the coast of Donegal; and another at the 
Giant's Causeway, which was called Clochan-na-Fomoraigh, 
according to O 'Brien, in his Dictionary, signifying the Causeway 
of the Fomorians, as it was supposed to have been constructed by 
these people, who are represented as a race of giants. These 
three colonies came to Ireland at different times, about 1,600 to 
1,500 years before the birth of Christ, and had many fierce 
contests with each other." "The Fomorians of Irish history," 
says Dr. P. W. Joyce, "were sea-robbers, who infested the coasts 
and indeed the interior of Ireland for a long series of years, and 
at one time fortified themselves in Tory Island. They are stated 
to have come to Ireland from the country round the shores of 
the Baltic; but they were originally from Africa, being, accord- 


ing to the legend, the descendants of Ham the son of Noah." 
!See Chapter I. 

Fontenoy, battle of (war of the Austrian Succession), was fought 
May 11, 1745, near the village of Fontenoy, in Belgium, between 
50,000 British, Dutch and Austrian troops, under the Duke of 
Cumberland, and the French, under Marshal Saxe. The duke 
endeavored to relieve Tournay, which the French were besieg- 
ing, and the British troops captured the heights on which the 
French were posted. The Prince of Waldeck, however, who 
commanded the Dutch, failed to support Cumberland, and the 
French being reinforced, the trenches were retaken and the 
British beaten back, Tournay fell shortly afterwards. T. D. 
McGee says: "The decisive battle of Fontenoy, in which the 
Franco-Irish troops bore so decisive a part, was fought May 11, 
1745. The French army, commanded by Saxe, and accompanied 
by King Louis, leaving 18,000 men to besiege Namur, and 6,000 
to guard the Scheldt, took a position between that river and 
the allies, having their center at the village of Fontenoy. The 
British and Dutch, under the king's favorite son, the Duke of 
Cumberland, were 55,000 strong; the French, 45,000. After 
a hard day's fighting, victory seemed to decfcire so clearly 
against France that King Louis, who was present, prepared 
for flight. At this moment. Marshal Saxe ordered a final 
charge by the seven Irish regiments under Counts Dillon and 
Thomond. The tide was turned, beyond expectation, to the cry 
of 'Eemember Limerick!' France was delivered, England 
checked, and Holland reduced from a first to a second-rate 
power upon that memorable day. But the victory was dearly 
bought. One-fourth of all the Irish officers, including Count 
Dillon, were killed, and one-third of all the men. The whole 
number slain on the side of France was set down at 7,000 by 
the English accounts, while they admitted for themselves alone, 
4,000 British and 3,300 Hanoverians and Dutch. 'Foremost of 
all!' says the just-minded Lord Mahon, 'were the gallant bri- 
gade of Irish exiles.' It was this defeat of his favorite son 
which wrung from George II. the oft-quoted malediction on the 
laws which deprived him of such subjects." The battle of 
Fontenoy is the subject of one of T. O. Davis' most stirring 

Forbes, Charles (1810-1870), Count de Montalembert, statesman, 
orator and political writer, of French extraction, born in London, 
England, in 1810, was the eldest son of Count de Montalembert, 
French soldier and diplomat, who died in 1831. His family name, 
Charles Forbes, was taken from that of his mother, Miss Forbes, 
a Scottish lady. He studied in Paris, and in 1830 became asso- 
ciated with Lamennais and Lacordaire as editor of L'Avenir, in 
which post he was conspicuous as an eloquent champion of 
Democracy and the Catholic Church. "One of the doctrines of 
the new school was the liberation of the French church from 
state control, and, when this claim failed, it was sought to free 


public instruction from government interference." The govern- 
ment closed a public school, which Montalembert and others had 
opened in Paris, and the Pope condemned the teachings of 
L'Avenir, which accordingly ceased to appear. He entered the 
Chamber of Peers in 1831, and married in 1843, Mademoiselle de 
Merode, a Belgian lady. Devoted to the liberal Catholic party, 
of which "he was considered the most eminent leader," he was 
an able advocate of religious toleration, popular rights and gen 
eral education. He was a member of the Constituent Assembly 
in 1848, and in 1849 was elected to the Legislative Assembly, in 
which he opposed Victor Hugo in several brilliant efforts of 
orator}', notably, during the debate on the revision of the con- 
stitution, in June, 1851. He was elected to the French Academy 
in 1852, and was a member of the legislative body from 1852 to 
1857, during which period he represented the opposition to Louis 
Napoleon almost alone. In 1858 he was condemned to a fine and 
imprisonment for six months for a political essay, but the 
penalties were not actually enforced. "By the expression of his 
sympathies for Ireland and Poland, he preserved connection with 
the Democratic party, and on all social questions he advocated 
the cause of the people." He published, among other works, a 
"History of Saint Elizabeth of Hungary," 1836; "On Vandal- 
ism and Catholicism in Art," in 1839; "The Political Future of 
England," 1855; "The Monks of the West, from Saint Benedict 
to Saint Bernard," 1860; "The Free Church in the Free State," 
186'3. He sympathized with the U. S. government in the Amer- 
ican Civil War. In a letter to a friend, dated December, 1869, 
he wrote: "Temporal despotism has faded away in a most 
unexpected manner; and I sincerely hope spiritual despotism 
will follow, sooner or later. I am more convinced than ever that 
freedom in the sphere of religion, still more than that of politics, 
is the vital condition of truth." A sensation was produced by 
his letter, dated February 28, 1870, in which he protested against 
the doctrine of papal infallibility. He died in March, 1870. 

Fort Erie, village and port of entry, Ontario, Canada, at the east 
end of Lake Erie, three and one-half miles northwest of Buffalo, 
N. Y. Population (1891), 1,500. 

Fort George, a fortress in Inverness-shire, Scotland, at the east 
of the mouth of Inner Moray Firth, with a station three miles 
to the southeast. 

Four Masters, Annals of the. The Annals of Ireland, generally 
known as the Annals of the Four Masters, or simply the Four 
Masters, compiled chiefly by the celebrated O'Clerys of Donegal, 
Ireland, is one of the most important works ever written on 
Irish history. It comprises the Annals of Ireland from the 
earliest ages to the early part of the 17th century of our era. 
See notes to Chapter XXXI. 

Fox, Charles James (1748-1806), was the son of Henry, first Lord 
Holland, an eminent statesman. Educated at Eton and Oxford, 
in 1768 he waa elected a member of Parliament, for Midhurst, 


as a Tory. In 1770 he was appointed a commissioner of the 
Admiralty, which place he resigned in 1772, and soon after- 
wards obtained a seat at the Treasury board. Some differences 
arising between him and Lord North, he was dismissed in 1774> 
and from that time took a leading part in the opposition, among 
the Whigs, or liberals. In 1780 he was elected for Westminster, 
wiihich city he continued, with a slight interruption, to repre- 
sent until his death. When the Eockingham party came into 
power. Fox was appointed secsetary of state for foreign affairs. 
On the dissolution of this administration by the death of the 
chief, a coalition was formed between Fox and Lord North, who, 
with their respective adherents, came again into office, till the 
introduction of the India bill occasioned their final dismissal 
(1784). In 1788 Fox went abroad; but while in Italy he was 
recalled in consequence of the king's illness. On this occasion 
he maintained that the Prince of Wales had the right to resume 
the regency, which was opposed by William Pitt, who was sup- 
ported by parliament and the nation. The next event in the 
public life of Fox was the part he took in regard to the French 
Kevolution. That great event he hailed as a blessing, while 
Burke denounced it as a curse; and this difference of sentiment 
produced a schism in the party, which was never repaired. On 
the death of his great political rival, William Pitt, in 1806, Fox 
came again into office, as secretary of state, but within a few 
months he followed his rival to the grave. His remains are 
interred in Westminster Abbey. He was much addicted, in the 
early part of his career, to the fashionable dissipation of the 
times. Horace Walpole describes him in these years as lead- 
ing a life of racing, gambling, drinking and debauchery. He 
was a man of penetrating sagacity, a great lover of justice 
and benevolent character, famous as an orator, a liberal, and 
a great Whig statesman. "As an orator, the reputation of 
Fox is preeminent for close reasoning, rapid declamation, indig- 
nant sarcasm and manly invective. We may doubt whether any 
of his contemporaries equalled him as a successful debater in 
the House of Commons." 

Foyle, Lough, sea-inlet, between Counties Donegal and London- 
derry. It is 15 miles long, 10 miles in extreme breadth, and one 
mile across the entrance. Its navigation is much impeded by 

France, a republic in the west of Europe, situated mainly between 
Spain and Belgium, with a coast-line on the southeast on the 
Mediterranean Sea, in the west on the Atlantic Ocean, and in 
the northwest on the English Channel and, to a small extent, 
on the North Sea, but including also the island of Corsica. 
The country is divided into the eighty-six departments together 
with the territory of Belfort. The southeast of ancient France, 
or Gallia, was made a Eoman province in 121 B. C, and the 
remainder was conquered by Julius Caesar in 58-50 B. C. In the 
4th century, when the Eoman Empire was falling to pieces, vari- 


ous Teutonic tribes poured into Gallia, or Gaul, founding the 
Burgundian kingdom in the southeast, and the kingdom of the 
Visigoths in the south, on both sides of the Pyrenees, with 
Toulouse as the capital. The Franks, a confederation of Ger- 
manic tribes, established themselves in northern Gallia and Ger- 
many, and were distinguished as the West and the East Franks; 
the former became the dominant people in Gallia, and eventually 
gave their name to the country. The history of modern France, 
however, begins in the 9th century, after the breaking up of 
the Great Western Empire, over which Charlemagne ruled. The 
addition of Savoy and Nice, in 1860, and the cession of Elsass 
(except Belfort) and part of Lorraine to Germany, in 1871, 
constitute the principal changes which have been made in the 
map of France during the present century. The temporary 
extension of French influence under the first Napoleon caused 
no permanent alteration in the limits of the country. France 
has a population (1906) of 39,252,245, and an area of 207,129 
square miles. 

Franciscans, a religious order of the Catholic Church, founded in 
1208 by St. Francis of Assisi. Some idea of the extraordinary 
extension of this remarkable institute may be formed from the 
startling statement that, in the dreadful plague of the Black 
Death in the following century, no fewer than 124,000 Fran- 
ciscans fell victims to their zeal for the care of the sick and 
for the spiritual ministration of the dying. Its great funda- 
mental was poverty, which St. Francis proposed to render in 
his order not only more perfect theoretically, but more sys- 
tematic in its practice, than in any of the contemporary insti- 
tutes. The first Franciscans reached England in 1220, and 
founded monasteries at Canterbury and Northampton. They 
made rapid progress. At the dissolution by Henry VIII. there 
were sixty-five Franciscan monasteries in England. The order 
was restored by the foundation of the English convent at Douay, 
in 1617, and now (1901) there are five houses in Great Britain 
and fourteen in Ireland, besides seven Capuchin houses in Eng- 
lanfl and three in Ireland. 

Franks, the name applied, about the middle of the 3rd century, 
to a confederation of Germanic tribes dwelling on the Middle 
and Lower Ehine. In the 3rd and 4th centuries hordes of them 
began to move southwards and westwards, into Gaul. They 
became divided into two principal groups — the Salians and the 
Eipuarians. In 358 the Emperor Julian, although he defeated 
the invaders, allowed the Franks to establish themselves perma- 
nently in Toxandria, the country between the Meuse and the 
Scheldt. From this time, Frankish chiefs and warriors fre- 
quently served in the Roman armies. Under Hlodowig or Clovis, 
their king (481-511), the Franks were converted to Christianity, 
while by his conquests in central Gaul, and by his subjugation 
of the Alemanni and the Ripuarian Franks, he not only ex- 
tended his dominions as far as the Loire, in the one direction, 


and the Maine in the other, but he laid the foundations of what 
subsequently developed into the kingdom of France. We learn 
that the Franks were a stalwart race of warriors, distinguished 
by their free, martial bearing, their general aspect of fierceness, 
their long flowing hair, their blue eyes, and largeness of limb. 

Galicia, a kingdom of Galician Spain, was founded by the Suevi in 
the 5th century. In the 16th century Galicia was made a prov- 
ince of Castile, the capital of which was alternately Santiago, 
Corunna, and Orense. From 1789 to 1833 Galicia was divided 
into seven provinces; since 1833 into four. The country forms a 
square at the northwest angle of the Iberian Peninsula, on the 
west extremity of the Pyrenean Mountains. Galicia is one of 
the dampest regions in Spain and Europe. 

Gallowglasses were the heavy armed foot soldiers of the Irish. 
They wore iron helmets, and coats of mail, studded with iron 
nails and rings; had long swords by their sides and bore in their 
right hands broad battle-axes with very keen edges, by a single 
blow of which they often clove the scull of a warrior through the 
helmet. It appears that the Scots also had troops called gallow- 
glasses and kerns, as in Shakespeare 's Macbeth mention is made 
of "the merciless MacDonnell, from the Western Isles, with his 
kerns and gallowglasses." — C. & McD. See Kerns. 

Galtee (or Galty Mountains), a range extending about fifteen miles 
east and west through Counties Tipperary and Limerick, and 
rising 3,015 feet in Galtymore. 

Galway, maritime county of Connaught province, and second 
largest in Ireland, is bounded on the north by County Mayo, 
on the northeast by County Roscommon, on the east by the 
river Shannon (which separates it from King's County and 
County Tipperary), on the south by County Clare, and on the 
west by the Atlantic Ocean. Greatest length, east and west, 
96 miles; greatest breadth, northeast and southwest, 53 miles. 
Galway has an area of 1,519,699 acres (69,661 water), or 7.3 
per cent of the total area of Ireland, and a population of 192,- 
549, of whom 187,220 are Catholics, 4,402 Episcopalians, 616 
Presbyterians, and 187 Methodists. Galway is served by the 
M. G. W. E. and G. S. & W. E. railways. The coast, along 
which are numerous creeks, bays, and islands, measures about 
217 miles. The county is naturally divided into two sections 
by Lough Corrib, on which vessels can ply from Cong, and 
proceed by a canal to Galway Bay, a distance of about 30 miles. 
The principal islands on the west coast include the Aran group, 
Gorumna and Lettermore. The chief rivers are the Shannon, its 
tributary the Suck, and the Clare. The bays include Galway 
Bay, Kilkieran, Bertraghboy, Mannin, Ballynakill, and Little 
Killary Bays. The western section (the three divisions of 
which are known as lar Connaught, Connemara, and Joyce's 
country) is barren and mountainous. The chief summit is Ben- 
baun ^'2,395 feet), in the group named the Twelve Pins. A 
striking peculiarity is the multiplicity of small loughs, espe- 


cially in Connemara and lar Connaught. The region abounds 
in wild and beautiful scenery, and is frequented by great num- 
bers of tourists. The eastern section is nearly flat. The soil 
generally consists of a light limestone gravel. Numerous flocks 
of sheep and herds of black cattle are reared. Iron, lead, and 
copper occur, but limestone and marble are the chief minerals. 
The fisheries are very important. Coarse linens and woolens 
are manufactured; kelp is made from seaweed. The county com- 
prises 97 parishes, and parts of seven others; Galway parlia- 
mentary borough (one member), and Ballinasloe (part), Lough- 
rea, and Tuam, towns. It returns four members to parliament — 
four divisions — Connemara, North, East, and South. 

Galway, county town of Galway, parliamentary borough, seaport, 
urban district, and county of itself, with railway station (M. 
G. W. E.), at the influx of Eiver Corrib into Galway Bay, 129 
miles by rail west of Dublin, 65 miles northwest of Limerick, 
and 20 miles south of Tuam by road. The urban district has 
an area of 5,368 acres, and a population of 13,426; the parlia- 
mentary borough has 22,532 acres and a population of 16,257. 
Galway is an ancient town. A map made by the Marquis of 
Clanricarde, in 1651, depicts it as a walled town, with 14 
towers and as many gates. No trace of the fortifications re- 
main, beyond an archway and a fragment near the quay. The 
town has considerable trade, and exports agricultural produce 
and black marble. The haven is considered to be one of the 
best and safest on the Irish coast. A floating dock, having 
an area of five acres, admits ships of 500 tons burden. A canal 
connects Lough Corrib with the harbor. There are several flour 
mills, iron foundries, brush factories, and yards for the cutting 
and polishing of marble; also a distillery. The extensive 
herring and other fisheries give employment to a large popu- 
lation living chiefly in the suburb of Claddagh. Galway is the 
seat of one of the queen's Colleges of Ireland, and of a Catho- 
lic diocese. The borough returns one member to parliament 
(two members until 1885). 

Galway Bay, between County Clare and County Galway, is 30 
miles long, and 23 miles wide across the entrance, where the 
chain of the Aran Islands forms a natural breakwater. 

Galway, Earl of, see Kuvigny, Henry. 

Genealogies, Book of. Many of the ancient genealogies are pre- 
served in the Books of Leinster, Lecan, Ballymote, etc. But the 
most important collection of all is in the Book of Genealogies, 
compiled in 1650 to 1666 in the College of St. Nicholas (in 
Galway), by Duald MacFirbis, the last and most accomplished 
native master of the history, laws and language of Ireland. — 
Dr. P. W. Joyce. See notes to Chapter I. 

Geashill, parish and village, with railway station (G. S. & W. E.), 
King's County, nine miles northwest of Portarllngton. The 
parish contains 43,309 acres and 3,892 inhabitants. The village 


numbers 151 inhabitants. Here is Geashill Castle, seat of Lord 

Geneva, a city of Switzerland, and capital of the canton of the 
same name. It is beautifully situated on Lake Geneva, 1,240 
feet above sea level. It affords a fine view of Mont Blanc, the 
snow-clad giant of the Alps, which is about 40 miles distant. 
It has a population of 114,547. The climate is mild. Geneva 
is noted as an educational center. It possesses a large num- 
ber of technical schools, as well as private schools for boys and 
girls, largely patronized by foreigners. There are many associa- 
tions for the advancement of science and art. The municipal 
hospital is one of the best in Europe. Geneva is an important 
industrial and commercial center. Its chief manufactures are 
watches and parts of watches. It also produces jewelry, musical 
instruments, and scientific and electrical apparatus. Diamond 
cutting, enameling and the testing of chronometers are promi- 
nent industries. Geneva has played an important part in his- 
tory from the time of Julius Ceesar. The city changed hands 
many times. It was also the cradle of the Calvinist movement. 

Genlis, Stephanie Felicite Ducrest De St. Aubin, Comtesse De 
(1746-1830), was born in Burgundy. At the age of sixteen 
she was married to the Comte de Genlis. On the breaking out 
of the French revolution, Madame de Genlis took the liberal 
side, but was ultimately compelled to seek refuge (1793) in 
Switzerland and Germany. Died at Paris. Madame de Genlis' 
writings amount to about ninety volumes. The Duke of Orleans 
appointed her governess of the young princes, one of whom — 
Louis Phillipe — afterwards became king of the French. 

Genoa, a fortified seaport city of the kingdom of Italy, at the 
head of the Gulf of Genoa, on the Mediterranean Sea, 79 miles 
southeast of Turin. From the 11th down to the 18th century 
Genoa was, with some interruption, the capital of a commercial 
republic, which planted numerous colonies in the Levant and 
on the shores of the Black Sea. It was taken by the French 
in 1797, and ceded to the king of Sardinia in 1815. 

George II. (1683-1760), King of Great Britain, was born in Han- 
over, Germany, son of King George I. of England. After the 
death of Queen Anne (August 1, 1714), he accompanied his 
father to England, and was created Prince of Wales in Septem- 
ber, 1714. February 16, 1716, he was elected chancellor of 
Trinity College, Dublin. He succeeded to the English throne in 
1727. He overcame the pacific policy of Walpole, the prime 
minister, and declared war against Spain. He concluded a 
treaty with Maria Theresa, Empress of Austria, when Europe 
was thrown into a general war over the Austrian succession. 
At the date of his death the French had been driven out of 
Canada, checked in Europe, and successfully attacked in India, 
Africa and the West Indies, while the Dutch were ousted from 
Bengal. He died in Kensington. In state affairs he was much 


guided by Queen Caroline. He was succeeded by his grandson, 
George III. 

George III. (George William Frederick) (1738-1820), Elector of 
Hanover, King of England, eldest son of Frederick Louis, 
Prince of Wales, and Augusta, daughter of Frederick II., Duke 
of Saxe-Gotha, and grandson of George II., was born in London, 
England. He was created Prince of Wales in 1751, and ascended 
the throne in 1760. He supported the policy which led to the 
outbreak of the war with the American colonies; and as the 
war continued, he approved of every means of conquering them. 
He caused the resignation of William Pitt by his declaration 
against the revival of Catholic Emancipation in 1801. He 
became blind in 1810, and, after 1811, permanently deranged. 
Died January 29, 1820. "He was simple and affable in his 
demeanor, but narrow-minded and bigoted in religious matters." 

George, Prince of Denmark (1653-1708), son of Frederick III., 
King of Denmark. In 1683 he married Anne, daughter of the 
Duke of York, who was afterwards James II., King of England. 
Prince George soon deserted his father-in-law, and embraced the 
cause of William, Prince of Orange (afterwards King William 
III. of England), who on coming to the English throne created 
him Duke of Cumberland. On his wife's succession to the 
English throne in 1702, Prince George was created lord high 
admiral of England, but he took no part in public affairs, and 
died at Kensington Palace, October 28, 1708. 

Germany, an empire of central Europe, extending from France to 
Eussia, comprising 25 states and the Imperial Territory, in 
which the German race and language prevail. It has an area 
of 208,830 square miles and a population of 60,641,278 (1905). 
The present empire dates from 1871. The supreme direction 
of the military and political affairs of the empire is vested in 
the King of Prussia, under the title of "Deutscher Kaiser," 
or German Emperor. The legislative functions are vested in the 
Bundesrat, selected by the states, and the Eeichstag, elected 
by the people. Military service is compulsory and universal. 
T'he army numbers about 600,000 on a peace footing, and about 
4,330,000 on a war footing. The navy consists of 233 war 
vessels, with a total tonnage of 820,692 tons, and is second only 
to that of England. Education in Germany is free and com- 
pulsory, and the number of illiterates is almost negligible. Ger- 
many virtually supports nine-tenths of her population by her 
own agricultural produce. But the empire is becoming more 
and more a manufacturing country, and two-thirds of her peo- 
ple are now engaged in commerce. The empire has nearly 
35,000,000 acres of forest. There are 38,000 miles of railways, 
90 per cent of which are owned or operated by the states. The 
unit of value is the mark, worth 23.8 cents. The territory of 
the present German Empire, together with Austria and the 
other central states of Europe, formed the East Frankish em- 
pire of Charlemagne in 843. Under Otho the Great, in 962, it 


became the Holy Eoman Empire of the German Nation, which 
endured, with various changes of territory and dynasty, till 
1806, when the power of Napoleon brought it to an end. In 
1815 the states of the old empire formed the German Confedera- 
tion, which lasted till 1866. This union terminated with the 
war of 1866, which was really a struggle between Prussia and 
Austria for leadership in the Confederation, and led to the 
definite withdrawal of Austria. Thus the way was prepared 
for the new German Empire, under the leadership of Prussia, 
which was founded after the united forces of the German states 
defeated the French attack in 1870. 

Gettysburg, town in Adams County, Pa., 35 miles southwest of 
Harrisburg. Gettysburg is famous for the battle fought there 
July 1, 2 and 3, 1863, in which the Confederates, under General 
Lee, were defeated by the Union army, under General George 
G. Meade. 

Giant's Causeway, promontory of columnar basalt, on north coast 
of County Antrim, about three miles northeast of Bushmills, 
presents three natural platforms, known as the Little, Middle, 
and Honeycomb Causeways, and consisting of about 40,000 
curiously formed basaltic columns closely piled together, and 
projecting from the base of a lofty cliff into the sea. It is 
annually visited by great numbers of tourists, and there is a 
hotel near it. Since 1898 the Causeway has been railed in and a 
charge made for admission. An electric tramway, the first of its 
kind in Great Britain, extends between Giant's Causeway and 

Gibraltar, Strait of, a channel between the south of Spain and 
the north of Africa, forming the entrance to the Mediterranean 
Sea from the Atlantic Ocean. Its width at the narrowest part, 
near the eastern entrance, between the "Pillars of Hercules," 
is eight and a half miles; average depth, about 950 feet; 
greatest depth, 6,000 feet. Through this strait a powerful cen- 
tral current, running at the rate of from three to six miles an 
hour, sets constantly from the Atlantic into the Mediterranean. 
Beneath this there is a counter current setting in the opposite 
direction. The "Pillars of Hercules" are now called Ape's 
Hill and the Eock of Gibraltar. In very early ages they were 
regarded by the people living east of them as the western 
boundary of the world. The Eock of Gibraltar came into pos- 
session of the English, by conquest, in 1704. It is now a 
strongly fortified naval fortress, with a garrison of 5,007. The 
town has about 18,000 inhabitants. 

Gilbert, Sir Humphrey (1539?-1583), navigator, born in Devonshire, 
England, educated at Eton and Oxford, served in a military 
character under Sir Henry Sidney in Ireland, and was given 
charge of Munster in 1569, and in 1570 was knighted. He pub- 
lished, in 1576, a discourse to prove the practicability of a 
northwest passage to China. In 1578 he sailed on a voyage of 
discovery to the coast of North America. On his second voy- 


age, in 1583, he landed in the harbor of St. John, Newfound- 
land (August 5, 1583), and there founded the first British col- 
ony in North America. After a voyage of discovery he sailed 
for England, but was lost in a storm off the Southern Azores. 
He was a half-brother of the famous Sir Walter Ealeigh, his 
mother being also the mother of Sir Walter. He was a good 
mathematician and an original, enterprising genius. 
Giraldus Cambrensis (1146?-1220"?), the usual literary name of the 
historian and ecclesiastic, Gerald de Barry, or Gerald of Wales, 
who flourished in the 12th and 13th centuries, and was born 
about 1146 in Pembrokeshire, Wales, son of a Norman noble, 
who had married into a princely Welsh family. He was brought 
up by his uncle, David FitzGerald, Bishop of St. David's, and 
was sent to the University of Paris in his twentieth year, and 
after his return entered into holy orders, in 1172, and was 
appointed archdeacon of St. David's. He was, from the first, a 
zealous churchman, strenuous in the enforcement of discipline, 
and was the chief agent in establishing the payment of tithes 
within the principality. On the death of his uncle, the Chap- 
ter of St. David's elected him bishop, but, as the election was 
made without the royal license, Gerald renounced it. King 
Henry II. of England directed a new election, and, on the 
Chapter's persisting in their choice of Gerald, the king refused 
to confirm the selection, and another bishop was appointed. 
Gerald withdrew for a time to the University of Paris, and 
on his return was required by the Archbishop of Canterbury to 
take the administration of the diocese of St. David's, which 
had utterly failed in the hands of the bishop. He held it for 
four years. In 1184 he was invited to court by Henry II., and 
became one of his chaplains. Next year he accompanied Prince 
John in his expedition to Ireland. He employed much of his 
time there in collecting materials for his "Topography of 
Ireland" and "History of the Conquest of Ireland." In 1187 
he returned to Wales, and the year following accompanied Arch- 
bishop Baldwin in a journey through the principality, to preach 
in favor of the crusade to the Holy Land. In 1198 he was 
again chosen Bishop of St. David 's, but though he took three 
journeys to Eome, he could not procure the papal confirma- 
tion. Soon after this he retired from the world and his name 
disappears from the pages of history. He died about 1220. He 
was the author of many religious and political tracts. All his 
works were in Latin. He was the originator of the political 
and ecclesiastical pamphlet. His works were edited by J. S. 
Brewer and J. F. Dimock, under the direction of the Master of 
the Boles, three volumes, 1861. Several of his works are on 
Irish history and topography. He is considered one of the most 
distinguished writers of his own time. Ambitious, energetic, 
but occasionally violent, he was, nevertheless, independent, hon- 
est and pure in morals and practices. There is much in his 
works on Ireland to be censured as unjust to the Irish, hurtful 


to their feelings, and contrary to facts. These errors have been 
partially refuted by Ussher and O 'Sullivan, and fully exposed 
by the learned Dr. John Lynch in his celebrated work, "Cam- 
brensis Eversus, " published in 1662. 
Gladstone, William Ewart (1809-1898), eminent British statesman, 
orator, financier and author, was born in Liverpool, England, 
December 29, 1809. He was the son of Sir John Gladstone, an 
eminent Brtish merchant, and was educated at Eton and Oxford. 
He was elected to parliament in 1832 as a Conservative or Tory, 
and made his first important speech in 1833, favoring "gradual 
emancipation of slaves. ' ' In 1834 he became Lord of the 
Treasury. He became secretary of state for the colonies in 
1846, and in 1865, after almost twenty years of faithful service 
in almost numberless positions, he became leader of the House 
of Commons. Gladstone, who had gradually changed from a 
Conservative into a Liberal, was prime minister for the first 
time in 1868, and the next year introduced and passed the Irish 
Church Disestablishment bill. In 1870 he passed the first Irish 
Land bill, and in 1873 introduced the Irish University bill, pro- 
posing a foundation for an undenominational university in 
Ireland, and resigned, on its rejection at second reading, but 
resumed office on Disraeli's refusal to form a ministry. He 
again became prime minister in 1880, and the same year sup- 
ported the Irish Compensation for Disturbance bill; succeeded 
in passing the Irish Coercion bill, in 1881; introduced and passed 
the second Irish Land bill, proposing to institute a land court 
for fixing judicial rents, and in 1882 introduced and passed 
the Irish Arrears bill, proposing to wipe out arrears of rent in 
Ireland altogether, where tenants were unable to pay them. 
In 1886 he was once more made prime minister and, April 8th 
of that year, brought forward a Home Kule bill for Ireland, 
proposing to create a legislative body, to sit at Dublin, for 
dealing with affairs exclusively Irish, but reserved to the Brit- 
ish government certain powers affecting the crown, army, navy, 
and foreign and colonial relations. He alsc introduced the 
Irish Land Purchase bill, which passed only first reading 
on April 16th. Gladstone's Home Eule bill was rejected on 
second reading June 7, 1886, and after the general election 
had declared against the measure he resigned office, with the 
rest of the cabinet. He continued to advocate his Irish policy 
in the sessions of 1887-92, and in the latter year became prime 
minister for the fourth and last time. February 13, 1893, he 
introduced a second Home Eule bill, which, after passing the 
House of Commons, was rejected by 419 to 41 in the House of 
Lords, September 8, 1893. He resigned office as prime minis- 
ter March 3, 1894. Gladstone died at Hawarden, May 19, 1898, 
and was buried in "Westminster Abbey. "In combined breadth 
and subtlety of intellect no statesman of his own age surpassed 
him. He clearly showed that his opinions forced him to become 
a Home-Euler when five-sixths of the Irish people were so, and 


Home Eule could be given to Ireland without endangering the 
unity of the British empire. " As an orator, Gladstone 's only 
contemporary rivals in England were John Bright and Disraeli. 
As a financier he can only be compared with Walpole, Pitt, and 
Peel. He was more successful in his home policy than in his 
foreign policy. 

Glendalough, electoral division, in county and 10 miles from 
Wicklow, in the barony of Ballincor, and eight miles from 
Kathdrum station. It takes its name from the vale of Glenda- 
lough ("glen of the two lakes"), a valley about two miles 
long and three-fourths of a mile wide, renowned for its pic- 
turesque and romantic scenery, and containing scattering ruins 
of an ancient city, which was the see of a bishop from the 6th 
century to 1214, when the bishopric was united to that of 
Dublin. The chief ruins are those of "Seven Churches" (a 
name sometimes given to the valley), which are noted for their 
simple but beautiful architecture. One of them was the old 
cathedral. In the side of a precipice overhanging one of the 
two lakes of the valley is a small recess, known as the bed of 
St. Kevin, the founder of the first Christian church in the valley, 
at the close of the 5th century. 

Glenmalure, mountain vale, six miles northwest of Kathdrum, 
County Wicklow. It is traversed by the Avonberg. 

Gloucester, Earl of, see Despenser, Thomas le. 

Goodacre, Hugh (died 1553), Anglican primate of Ireland, pre- 
viously vicar of Shalfleet, Isle of Wight, and chaplain to Bishop 
Poynet, of Winchester. When Archbishop George Dowdall, who 
was opposed to the Eeformation, retired from Armagh, Ireland, 
in 1552, Cranmer recommended Goodacre to King Edward VI. 
of England for the vacant see, and he was appointed in 1552. 
He died in Dublin, May 1, 1553. 

Gordon, George Hamilton (1784-1860), fourth Earl of Aberdeen, 
British statesman, was born in Edinburg, Scotland. In Decem- 
ber, 1852, on the resignation of Lord Derby, he was entrusted 
with the formation of a new administration, and was appointed 
Erst lord of the treasury. He resigned in 1855, after the carry- 
ing of Eoebuck 's vote of censure of the ministry 's conduct of 
the Crimean war. 

Gorey, market town and parish with railway station (D. W. & 
W. E.), northeast county Wexford, 10 miles southwest of Ark- 
low. The parish has an area of 5,314 acres and a population 
of 2,914. The town has an area of 423 acres and a population 
of 2,178. 

Gorey, village. County Donegal, three miles east of Carndonagh. 
Gorey is also known as Cashel. 

Great Britain was so called to distinguish it from Britannia Minor, 
or Brittany in France. The name was a poetical or rhetorical 
expression till in 1604. James I. styled himself King of Great 
Britain, although the term was proposed in 1559 by the Scottish 
Lords of the Congregation. 


Greece, a kingdom in the southeast of Europe, in the east of the 
Mediterranean Sea, comprising a peninsular portion, with the 
Ionian Islands on the west, and the Eubcea, the Cyclades, and 
other islands on the east, in the -.Egean Sea. The government 
is a constitutional, hereditary monarchy. The executive author- 
ity is vested in the king and his ministers, the heads of seven 
departments, and the legislative in a single Chamber of Repre- 
sentatives, called the "Voule. " Deputies (since 1886, 150 in 
number) are elected by manhood suffrage for a term of four 
years; they receive payment. The Voule must meet annually 
for not less than three, nor more than six, months. The popu- 
lation of Greece is of very mixed origin. Anciently, the whole 
country was occupied by Hellenes, but from the 3rd century 
onwards, Goths, Heruli, and Slavs formed settlements of greater 
or less extent. Slavs, along with Avars, settled in great num- 
bers towards the end of the 6th century. A still more important 
admixture is that of the Albanians, whose settlements date 
principally from the 13th and 14th centuries, when Greece was 
in a large measure depopulated by misrule and pestilence (the 
black death in 1348). There is a considerable Italian element 
in the Ionian Islands. The prevailing religion is that of the 
Greek Orthodox Church, but complete toleration and liberty of 
worship prevails. Greece, as a single state, is entirely a crea- 
tion of modern times. The kingdom dates from 1830, when a 
rebellion of the Greeks against the Turks resulted, through the 
intervention of the great powers, in the establishment of Greek 
independence. An area of about 5,200 square miles, with a 
population of nearly 300,000, was added to the kingdom by the 
Treaty of Berlin, in 1878. Athens, the capital, has a population 
of about 115,000; the towns next in size being Patras, Piraeus, 
and Trikhala, all above 20,000. Greece has an area of 24,970 
square miles, and a population (1899) of 2,433,806. 

Greenland, a Danish colony, and, after Australia, the largest island 
in the world. The area is variously estimated at from 500,000 
to 800,000 square miles. The colonized area, extending along 
the west coast from about 60° to 72° north latitude, is esti- 
mated at 46,740 square miles, and its population (1901) at 11,895. 
The trade is a government monopoly. The total imports from 
Denmark in 1907 amounted to $300,000, and the exports to Den- 
mark to $131,856. Greenland is throughout most of its extent 
a mountainous country, with elevations rising from 2,000 to 
8,000 feet above the sea. Petermann Peak, on the east coast, 
rises to 11,000 feet. There is a low strip 60 to 100 miles in 
width along parts of the coast. All the inhabitants live on 
these lowlands by the sea. The deep mountain valleys in the 
interior have been obliterated by the accumulation, through ages, 
of drifting and fallen snow, so that the eye sees only a vast 
and uniform ice-cap, sweeping and undulating between the ele- 
vations of 4,000 and 8,000 feet. This great inland ice feeds 
Greenland 's thousands of glaciers, many of which are among 


tie largest in the world. The southwest coast is the birthplace 
of most of the icebergs that cross the track of Atlantic steamers 
during the summer months. During the summer months the 
coast strip is free from snow, and vegetation, mostly Arctic, is 
profuse. The extremes of climate are well accentuated. In the 
south the mean winter temperature is 7 to 20 degrees below 
zero, Fahrenheit; in the north it is 60 to 70 degrees below zero. 
The principal animals are hare, fox, polar bear, reindeer and 
musk-ox. Walrus and seal are the largest food source of the 
natives. There are extensive fisheries of cod and haddock on 
the west coast. The Norwegian, Erik the Eed, and his followers 
were the first Europeans to set foot in Greenland, in 985, and 
soon after a little colony was established there. Davis redis- 
covered Greenland in 1585-87, but the old Norse colonists had 
disappeared, and only a few traces of their towns remain. The 
Danes obtained a footing on the west coast in 1721, and shortly 
afterwards a number of mission stations were established. 
Greenland has been explored recently by Nordenskjold, Koldewy, 
Greely, Nansen, Nathorst, Eyder and Peary. 

Granville, George Nugent-Temple (1753-1813), first Marquis of 
Buckingham, born probably in England, succeeded his uncle as 
second Earl Temple, in 1779. July 31, 1782, he was appointed 
lord-lieutenant of Ireland, in place of the Duke of Portland. 
This office he held, 1782-83 and 1787-89. In February, 1783, he 
was authorized to cause letters of patent to be passed, under 
the Great Seal of Ireland, for the creation of the new Order of 
St. Patrick. In December, 1784, he was created Marquis of 
Buckingham; and on the death of his father-in-law, in October, 
1788, he succeeded to the Irish earldom of Nugent. In order 
to strengthen his administration (1787-89) he resorted to a 
system of wholesale corruption. He resigned his office Septem- 
ber 30, 1798, and returned to England, where he died in 1813. 

Grey or Gray, Arthur (1536-1593), fourteenth Baron Grey de Wilton, 
was born in the English Pale in France. He landed in Dublin in 
August, 1580, as lord deputy, to succeed Sir William Pelham. 
He resolved to attack James Eustace and others, who had 
secured themselves in Glenmalure. Entering the defile, August 
25, 1580, he occupied an eminence in the entrance of the valley 
with a reserve, while the rest of his army advanced up the 
valley. His army was totally defeated, and Lord Grey beat 
a hasty retreat to Dublin. On the news of the Spanish landing 
at Smerwick, he hastened to the front and obliged the defenders 
to capitulate. The Spanish officers were reserved for ransom, 
and next day the garrison, about 800 men, were put to death in 
cold blood. Sir Walter Raleigh was one of the officers com- 
manding the -party who carried the deputy's orders into exe- 
cution. Further particulars of the war in Munster during his 
tenure of office, will be found in Chapter XXVII. He was one 
of the commissioners that sat in judgment on Mary Queen of 


Scots, and one of the council of war for the defense of England 
against the Spanish Armada. 

Grey or Gray, Elizabeth, see Elizabeth (1437-1492). 

Grey or Gray, Lord Leonard (died in 1541), Viscount Grane of 
Ireland, son of the Marquis of Dorset and brother-in-law to 
Gerald FitzGerald, 9th Earl of Kildare, was appointed lord 
justice of Ireland in January, 1535. He had previously been a 
marshal in the army, and it was to him that Thomas FitzGerald 
"Silken Thomas," as he was called, 10th Earl of Kildare, had 
surrendered. In August, 1537, he involved the Pale in a some- 
what fruitless expedition into Offaly (now King's and Queen's 
Counties). Next year he ceased to hold communications with 
his council, and selected a private circle of advisers from the 
partisans and relatives of the late Earl of Kildare. He returned 
to England in 1540, leaving Sir William Brereton as lord justice, 
and was almost immediately sent to the Tower on charges of 
high treason. He was executed July 28, 1541. 

Grey or Gray, Thomas (1451-1501), first marquis of Dorset, was 
the eldest son of Sir John Grey, by Elizabeth Woodville, after- 
wards queen of King Edward IV. of England. He succeeded his 
father as ninth Baron Ferrers of Groby, in 1461. Born, probably, 
in England. 

Grouchy, Emmanuel (1766-1847), Marquis de, French general, was 
born at Paris, France. After being nominated second to 
Hoche for the expedition to Ireland, though Grouchy did 
enter Bantry Bay, he proceeded to join Joubert, in Italy, in 
1798. Under Moreau, he distinguished himself in Piedmont, 
and at Novi was taken prisoner, but subsequently exchanged 
(1799). He fought with conspicuous gallantry in the Eussian 
campaign of 1812, being appointed during the memorable re- 
treat, leader of the "sacred" bodyguard of Napoleon. Amongst 
the first to welcome Napoleon after his escape from Elba, 
Grouchy destroyed the Bourbon opposition in the south of 
France, and then, hastening north, routed Blucher at Ligny. 
After the defeat at Waterloo and the second abdication of 
Napoleon, Grouchy, appointed by the provisional government 
commander-in-chief of the broken armies of France, led them 
skilfully back towards the capital; then, resigning, he betook 
himself to the United States. He returned to France in 1819, 
and died at St. Etienne, May 29, 1847. 

Guilford, Earl of, see North, Frederick. 

Hague, The, town in Netherlands, capital of province of South 
Holland, the usual residence of the court, and the seat of the 
States-General, though Amsterdam still retains the nominal title 
of capital of the Netherlands. It is situated on a branch of the 
Leyden and Eotterdam Canal, 14 miles northwest of Eotterdam, 
and 33 miles southwest of Amsterdam. Population, 218,000. 

Hamburg, a free Hanseatic territory and city in northwest Ger- 
many, near the mouth of the Elbe. A territory of 158 square 
miles, belongs to Hamburg, comprising the town of Hamburg 


and its surroundings, several islands situated in the Elbe, the 
district of Eitzebuttel, and several small enclaves. The Ham- 
burg territory is one of the states of the German Empire. The 
town of Hamburg is the most important commercial center of 
Germany and, next to Berlin, the largest city of the empire. 

tiampden, John (1594-1643), born in London, England, was edu- 
cated at Magdalen College, Oxford, from which he removed to 
one of the Inns of Court, to study law. A man of remarkable 
patriotism and courage, he obtained a seat in the second parlia- 
ment of King Charles I., but made no great impression until 
1636, when his resistance to the tax called ship-money drew 
upon him the attention of the public, and he became the able 
leader of the disaffected. He was one of the first who took up 
arms against King Charles, and fell in the same field where he 
mustered the militia, near Brill, in June, 1643. 

Hanmer, Sir John (died in 1701), uncle of Sir Thomas Hanmer, 
speaker of the British House of Commons, was a member of 
parliament for County Flint, England, and Colonel of a regi- 
ment under King "William III. of England at the celebrated 
battle of the Boyne. He attained the rank of major-general. 
Died without issue in 1701. 

Harcourt, Simon (1714-1777), first Earl Harcourt, was born in 
England in 1714. He was appointed lord-lieutenant of Ireland in 
October, 1772, in place of Lord Townshend. He recommended 
the imposition of a tax of 10 per cent (i. e., two shillings in 
the pound) on the rents of absentee landlords. This measure, 
however, was rejected by the Irish Parliament. The system of 
corruption which he found in Ireland was not diminished during 
his rule. In order to secure a majority for the government at 
the general election, no less than eighteen Irish peers were 
created, and seven barons and five viscounts raised a step in 
the peerage of Ireland. He resigned in January, 1777, and died 
September 6, of the same year. 

Hastings or Senlac, battle of. Hastings, celebrated in history as 
the spot near which was fought the decisive battle between the 
Normans and English or Anglo-Saxons, is a town on the coast 
of England in Sussex County, and is pleasantly situated in a vale, 
surrounded on all sides, except the sea, by romantic hills and 
cliffs. Towards the end of September, 1066, "William, Duke of 
Normandy, in France, arrived at Hastings with an army of 
60,000 disciplined veterans, and laid claim to the English crown. 
No sooner had he landed in England than he sent back his fleet to 
Normandy, in order that there could be no retreat. The Anglo- 
Saxon King Harold was resolved to defend his right to the 
crown, which he had received from the English people. His army 
was composed of active and valiant troops in high spirits, 
strongly attached to their king and eager for battle. "William's 
troops, on the other hand, consisted of the flower of the Con- 
tinent, and had been long accustomed to danger. Normandy and 
all France were voluntarily united under his command. England 


never before saw two such great armies drawn up to dispute its 
crown. The day before the battle, William sent a challenge to 
Harold to decide the quarrel between them by single combat, and 
thus to spare the blood of thousands; but Harold refused, and 
said he would leave it to the God of Battles to decide. The next 
morning at seven o'clock Duke "William called together his chief 
officers and made them a stirring speech. He next divided his 
army into three lines: the first consisted of archers and light 
armed infantry; the second was composed of his bravest bat- 
talions, heavy armed and ranged in close order; his cavalry, at 
whose head he placed himself, formed the third line, and were 
so disposed that they stretched beyond the infantry, and flanked 
each wing of the army. Along the higher ground that leads from 
Hastings (about 30 miles southeast of Dover), William the 
Norman led his men in the dim dawn of an October morning to 
the Mound of Telham. It was from this point that the Normans 
saw the English army (about 50,000 men) gathered thickly 
behind a rough trench and a stockade on the height of Senlac 
near Hastings. Marshy ground covered their right; on the left, 
the most exposed part of the position, the body-guard of King 
Harold (picked men in full armor and wielding huge axes) were 
grouped around the Golden Dragon of Wessex and the standard 
of Harold. The rest of the ground was covered by the thick 
masses of half -armed rustics who had flocked at Harold's sum- 
mons to fight against the Norman stranger. It was against the 
center of this formidable position that Duke William arrayed 
his Norman knights, while the mercenary forces he had gathered 
in France and elsewhere were ordered to attack its flanks. A 
general charge of the Norman foot opened the battle; in front 
rode a Norman minstrel, tossing his sword in the air and catch- 
ing it again while he chaunted the war-song of Eoland. He was 
the first of the host who struck a blow, and he was the first to 
fall. The charge broke vainly on the strong stockade, behind 
which the English soldiers plied battle-axe and javelin with 
fierce cries of defiance, and the repulse of the Norman footmen 
was followed by the repulse of the Norman horse. Again and 
again the Duke rallied and led his men to the English stockade. 
All the savage fury of fight that glowed in his warlike blood, all 
the headlong valor that had spurred him over the plains of 
France in many a stubborn fight, mingled that day with the 
coolness of head, the dogged perseverance, the inexhaustible 
faculty of resource which won for him the name of Conqueror. 
His Breton troops, entangled in the marshy ground on his left, 
broke in disorder, and a cry arose, as the panic spread through 
the army, that the Duke was slain. "I live," shouted William, 
as he tore off his helmet, "and by God's help will conquer yet! " 
Maddened by repulse, the Duke spurred right at the English 
royal standard; though unhorsed, his terrible mace struck down 
Gyrth, Harold's brother, and stretched Leofwine, the king's 
second brother, beside him. Again dismounted, a blow from 


William's hand hurled to the ground a refractory rider who 
would not lend him his steed. Amidst the roar and tumult of 
battle William turned the flight he had arrested into the means 
of victory. Broken as the English stockade was by William's 
desperate onset, yet the shield-wall of the soldiers behind it still 
held the Normans at bay, when William, by a pretended flight 
drew a part of the English force from their strong position. 
Turning on his disorderly pursuers, the Duke cut them to pieces, 
broke through the weakened stockade, and was master of the 
central plateau, while French and Bretons made good their 
attack on either flank. At three in the afternoon the hill of 
Senlac seemed won, but at six the fight still raged around the 
royal standard, where Harold's body-guard stood gallantly at 
bay on the spot marked afterwards by the high altar of the 
celebrated Battle Abbey. An order from the Duke now brought 
his archers to the front, and their arrow-flight told heavily on 
the dense masses crowded around King Harold. As the sun went 
down, an arrow pierced Harold's right eye; he fell between the 
royal ensigns, and the battle closed with a desperate melee over 
his corpse. While night covered the flight of the vanquished 
English, William the Conqueror pitched his tent on the very spot 
where his rival had fallen, and "sate down to eat and drink 
among the dead." After Harold's death all courage seemed to 
forsake the English, who gave way on every side, and were 
pursued with great slaughter by the victorious Normans. Thus 
after a desperate struggle, fought from early morning till sunset, 
the invaders proved successful, and the English crown became 
William the Conqueror's reward. Fifteen thousand Normans 
were slain in this decisive battle; but the English loss was even 
greater, besides the death of their king and his two brothers. 
The Normans gave thanks to heaven in the most solemn manner, 
for their victory. William, after refreshing his troops, prepared 
to push to the utmost his advantage against the divided, dis- 
mayed and disheartened English. This famous action ("the 
grave of English valor, the Saxons' Waterloo") was fought 
October 14, 1066, and ended the Anglo-Saxon monarchy in 
England, "which had continued for more than 600 years." 
England, by the defeat and death of King Harold, became sub- 
ject to the Norman yoke. After his victory, a list was taken of 
William's chiefs (over 600), called the "Battle Eoll," and, 
among these leaders, the lands of the followers of the slain King 
Harold were distributed. This battle and its -results shattered 
for all time the supposed invincibility of the Anglo-Saxon race. 
Hebrides, The (or Western Islands), the collective name of the 
islands on the west coast of Scotland. About 100 of them are 
inhabited. The principal towns are Stornoway, in Lewis; Tober- 
mory, in Mull; Bowmore, in Islay; and Portree, in Skye. The 
Hebrides are the "Hebrides" of Pliny, and the "Sudneys" or 
Southern islands, of the Norwegians, by whom they were held 
from the ninth century till 1266, when they were transferred to 


Scotland. In 1346 they fell under the sway of the "Lords of 
the Isles," who for nearly 200 years affected independent sov- 
ereignty; and they continued to be a scene of turbulence till the 
abolition of heritable jurisdictions in 1748. The humid climate 
of the Hebrides is unsuitable for corn crops and only a com- 
paratively small portion of the soil is arable. The principal 
crops are oats, barley and potatoes. The raising of cattle and 
sheep, and distilling are the chief industries. The exports include 
live stock, wool, limestone, and slate. The Hebrides are visited 
by great numbers of tourists. 

Henry II. (1133-1189), King of England, founder of the Plantagenet 
dynasty, was the eldest child of Matilda, daughter of King 
Henry I. of England and Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, 
and was born at Le Mans, France. Geoffrey represented a family 
which in two centuries had grown from the defenders of the 
Angevin border, in France, against Bretons and Northmen into 
the lords of three important counties, — Anjou, Touraine, and 
Maine. For the purpose of providing England and Normandy 
(after the death of King Henry I. of England) with a sovereign 
in whom the blood of the hitherto hostile races should be united, 
Matilda was married to the Angevin count in 1128. Henry II. 
succeeded King Stephen of England in 1154. After landing at 
Waterford, Ireland, in 1171, to secure the conquest of parts of 
Ireland, he left orders both in Normandy and in England that 
the ports should be closed to all clerks, and that no man should 
follow him unless specially summoned, but more effectual than 
these precautions was the stormy wind of the Western sea, which 
for nearly six months severed all communication between Ireland 
and the rest of the world. After compelling Strongbow and his 
fellow Welsh-Norman adventurers to resign their possessions in 
Ireland to him he left Dublin in April, 1172. He was asked to 
liberate the Holy Land in 1185, but was engaged in war with 
his sons, and afterwards with Philip Augustus of France. He 
died at Chinon, near Tours, in France. King Henry 11. was a 
great builder; he constructed many palaces, the Embankment of 
the Loire and the Grand Pont at Angers. He was succeeded on 
the throne by his son Eichard I. See chapters XIII. and XIV. 

Henry IV. (1367-1413), King of England, son of John of Gaunt, 
Duke of Lancaster, who was fourth son of King Edward III., 
was born at his father's Castle of Bolingbroke, in Lincolnshire. 
He was often spoken of as Henry of Lancaster. In 1398 he was 
exiled for life by his cousin, King Eichard II., but secretly left 
France for England in 1399, and with a large army marched to 
Bristol, met King Eichard, who had been deserted by his army, 
and returned with him to London, where Eichard resigned the 
crown, September 29, 1399. King Henry founded the Order of 
the Bath. He was a nephew of the celebrated Edward the Black 
Prince; died in Jerusalem Chamber. Westminster, and was suc- 
ceeded by his son, King Henry V. 


Henry V. (1387-1422), King of England, eldest son of King Henry 
IV. and Mary de Bohun, daughter of the last Earl of Wexford, 
was born at Monmouth, England, and succeeded to the throne in 
1413. He then laid claim to the French throne, and left England 
to make war on France in 1415. He routed the French army at 
the decisive battle of Agincourt, October 25, 1415. In June, 
1420, he married Catherine, the eldest daughter of King Charles 
VI. of France, demanding, as a condition of his marriage, the 
restoration of French territories, including the Norman and 
Angevin lands in France. He entered Paris in triumph the 
following December. He died at Bois de Vincennes, France, and, 
after a funeral procession through that country, his body was 
buried in Westminster Abbey, London. He was known as an 
able diplomat and the greatest military genius of his time. 

Henry VII. (1457-1509), King of England, founder of the Tudor 
dynasty, became head of the House of Lancaster on the death of 
King Henry VI. in 1471. He was son of Edmond Tudor, Earl of 
Eichmond, and Margaret Beaufort, and was born in Pembroke 
Castle, in Wales. His predecessor, King Eichard III., was 
defeated and slain at Bosworth Field in 1485. This decisive 
battle terminated the long conflict between the rival houses of 
York and Lancaster, or Wars of the Eoses. The Plantagenets 
made way for the Tudor dynasty and Henry was crowned King 
of England. By his marriage to the Princess Elizabeth of York, 
daughter and heiress of King Edward IV., the rival claims of 
the houses of York and Lancaster were united and settled. Henry 
defeated and captured the Yorkish pretenders, Lambert Simnel 
and Perkin Warbeck, His eldest daughter, Margaret, married 
King James IV. of Scotland, an alliance which produced, long 
afterwards the union of the two crowns. In 1494 he sent Sir 
Edward Poynings to Ireland as Chief Governor. Poynings sum- 
moned a parliament at Drogheda at which was passed the 
famous Poynings' Act which deprived the Pale (or Anglo-Irish 
settlement) of all claim to independent government. Henry 
authorized Cabot to discover and take possession of hitherto 
unknown countries in the name of the King. In 1497 Cabot 
discovered the mainland of America, 14 months before Columbus. 
Henry died in 1509 and was succeeded by his son Henry VIII. 
Henry VII. was considered one of the wisest princes of his time 
and was a great promoter of commerce and learning. He is 
regarded as the founder of the British navy. He lived in the 
days when America was discovered and printing was invented. 
The passion of avarice ruled him more and more strongly as he 
grew older. He ranks among the most absolute of English 
monarchs. Under Henry the power of the turbulent nobility was 
finally curbed. "He was a subtle, dark, politic sovereign, per- 
haps to be respected as a legislator, but scarcely to be admired 
as a king, and certainly not to be loved as a man." See chap- 
ter XXI. 


Henry VIII. (1491-1547), King of England, second son of Henry 
VIL, was born in Greenwich, England. He was created Prince of 
Wales in 1503, and succeeded to the throne in 1509. Although 
for a time popular, he soon, by his arbitrary and capricious 
conduct, proved himself a tyrant. He obtained from the Holy 
See the title of "Defender of the Faith" (still held by the 
English sovereigns), in consequence of his having written a 
work against the stand or teaching of Luther; but he afterwards 
quarreled with the Pope, who refused to divorce him from his 
wife, Catherine of Aragon. Henry now declared himself to be 
the head of the Church, and thus introduced the Keformation 
into England. He was excommunicated in 1533, and by Act of 
Parliament the English Church and people were declared inde- 
pendent of Eome. He was six times married — to Catherine of 
Aragon, Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, Anne of Cleves, Catherine 
Howard, and Catherine Parr. Two of his wives (Anne Boleyn 
and Catherine Howard) perished on the scaffold, while two others 
were divorced — Catherine of Aragon and Anne of Cleves. This 
monarch, who must always be detested for his tyranny and 
oppression, died in 1547. Henry VIII. was the first English 
sovereign who called himself "King of Ireland." 

Hercules, Pillars of, the name given by the ancients to two rocks 
flanking the entrance to the Mediterranean Sea at the Strait of 
Gibraltar. According to one version of the legend, they had 
once been united, but the celebrated Grecian hero, Hercules, tore 
them asunder to admit the ocean into the Mediterranean; 
another version represents him as causing them to unite tem- 
porarily in order to form a bridge. They seem to have been 
first visited by Phenicians about 1100 B. C. Calpe, one of them, 
is now identified with Gibraltar, and Abyla, the other, with 
Ceuta, Africa. 

Hermann, Frederick Armand (1616-1690), Duke of Schomberg, 
soldier, was born at Heidelberg, Germany. He fought in the 
Swedish army against the Imperialists in the Thirty Years' war; 
served successively in the armies of the Netherlands, France, 
and Portugal, and for the French conducted a successful cam- 
paign in Spain (1650); and, though a Protestant, obtained the 
rank of Marshal of France in 1675. After the revocation of the 
Edict of Nantes in 1685 he was driven from France, and accom- 
panied William of Orange to England in 1688. King William 
III. of England appointed him commander of the forces in 
Ireland in 1689. He fell at the celebrated battle of the Boyne 
the next year, and was buried in St. Patrick 's Cathedral, Dublin. 
"He was generally esteemed," says Lord Macaulay, "the 
greatest living master of the art of war. . . . Though a 
Protestant, he had been during many years in the service of 
King Louis XIV. of France, , . . extorted from his em- 
ployer, by a series of great actions, the staff of Marshal of 
France." His third son, Meinhart (1641-1719), distinguished 


himself at the battle of the Boyne, and was made Duke of 
Leinster. See Chapters XLIII. and XLIV. 

Hessians, a body of German troops, mercenaries of Great Britain, 
who fought in Ireland and in the American war of independence. 

Hihemla, the ancient name of Ireland by the Eomans. See Ireland, 
Ancient Names of. 

Hoadly, John (1678-1746), Anglican archbishop, was born in Tot- 
tenham, England, the youngest son of Rev. Samuel Hoadly and 
brother to Benjamin Hoadly, Anglican Bishop of Winchester, In 
1727 he was advanced to the see of Leighlin and Ferns, in Ire- 
land, and was transferred to Dublin, 1729-30. In 1742 he suc- 
ceeded to the primatial see of Armagh. He published a volume 
in defense of Bishop Burnet's exposition of the Thirty-nine 

Hoche, Lazare (1768-1797), French Republican general, was born 
June 25, 1768, at Montreuil, near Paris. Enlistirg at sixteen, he 
defended Dunkirk, near Calais, France, in 1793 against the Eng- 
lish Duke of York, and drove the Austrians out of Alsace, 
France. He put an end to the civil war in La Vendee (1795), 
and was appointed to command the expedition to Ireland in 
1796, but his ships were scattered by storms and he was com- 
pelled to return to France. In 1797 he crossed the Ehine and 
defeated the Austrians in several battles, when an armistice was 
concluded. He died at Wetzlar, September 18, 1797. He was 
one of the noblest spirits and able generals that the French 
Eevolution produced. 

Holland, North and South, two adjoining provinces of the Nether- 
lands, on the west coast, between the Zuider Zee and the most 
southern mouth of the Maas river. The surface is everywhere 
flat and generally below sea-level, intersected by numerous dykes. 
Amsterdam and Haarlem are the chief cities in North Holland; 
Rotterdam, The Hague, and Leyden, in South Holland. North 
Holland has an area of 1,069 square miles, and a population 
(1889) of 829,500; South Holland has an area of 1,167 square 
miles and a population (1889) of 949,600. The Netherlands has 
an area of 12,648 square miles and a population (1889) of 
5,104,137. The territory of the modern Netherlands, after being 
ruled by the Romans and Franks, became (870) part of the 
duchy of Lorraine, and therefore of the German empire. In 
the 15th century they were subject to Burgundy, and in the 16th 
to Austria, and subsequently Spain. Against Spain, however, 
they revolted and constituted themselves a republic. Napoleon 
in 1806 created the Kingdom of Holland. In 1814 the Nether- 
lands were united with Belgium, but were separated again in 

Holyhead, seaport town, on north side of Holyhead Island, Anglesey, 
Wales, 60 miles east of Dublin and 263 miles from London. It 
has a population of 10,079. The port possesses a fine harbor of 
refuge for ships of all sizes, which is protected by a breakwater. 
Its prosperity is due to the extensive railway and steamboat 


traffic, and it is the starting point for the L. & N. W. Ey. 
steamers for Dublin and Greenore and for the mail service to 
Kingston, County Dublin. There is a wireless telegraph station. 
The passage to Dublin takes about four hours. At the outer end 
of the breakwater is a flashing light 70 feet high and seen 14 

Howard, Thomas (1473-1554), Earl of Surrey and third Duke of 
Norfolk, warrior and statesman, eldest son of Thomas Howard, 
was born in England. In 1513 he was made lord admiral, and, 
in co-operation with his father, defeated the Scotch at the battle 
of Flodden. For this service he was created Earl of Surrey, 
while his father was made Duke of Norfolk. In politics he 
joined with his father in opposing Cardinal Wolsey. In 1520 he 
was appointed lord-lieutenant of Ireland; but at the end of 1521 
he was recalled from Ireland to take command of the English 
fleet in naval operations against France. In 1523 he became lord 
high treasurer, and the next year succeeded his father as Duke 
of Norfolk. His devotion to the Catholic religion made him 
hostile to Anne Boleyn, though she was his own niece. After 
King Henry VIII. had married Catherine Howard, her uncle, the 
Duke of Norfolk, had much influence in the royal councils and 
used it for the benefit of the Catholics. In 1547 he was arrested 
on a charge of high treason, and ordered for execution; but 
before the fatal day arrived King Henry VIII. died. He remained 
in the Tower of London until the accession of Queen Mary 
(1553), when he was released and restored. He died in 1554. 
His son, the Earl of Surrey, a celebrated poet (executed in 1547), 
addressed many of his effusions to the "Fair Geraldine, " Lady 
Elizabeth FitzGerald. 

Howth, Hill of, a promontory or eminence, 560 feet high, on the 
north side of the entrance to Dublin Bay, and said to be th8 
oldest geological formation in Ireland. At its foot is situated 
the seaport village of Howth, County Dublin. George IV. landed 
here in 1821. Howth Castle, seat of the Earl of Howth, is on 
the west side of the hill. There is also an abbey ruin 
dating from the 13th century. 

Huguenots, the name formerly given in France (about 1560) to 
the adherents of the Eeformation, which movement commenced 
almost simultaneously in France and Germany. 

Humbert, Joseph Amable (1755-1823), a French general, born at 
Rouveroye, France, in 1767. After taking part in the Vendean 
war, he made a descent upon Ireland, landing in Killala Bay, 
August, 1798. On the 8th of September, having shortly before 
had the glory of dispersing two regiments under the command of 
General Lake, Humbert and the remnant of his army, 850 men in 
all, surrendered to an overwhelming force under Lord Cornwallis 
at Ballynamuck. On being exchanged, Humbert joined the army 
of the Danube and fought under Marshal Massena. In 1802 he 
was sent to St. Domingo, whence he returned the following year 
in company with Napoleon's sister Pauline. The scandals to 


which this voyage gave rise, furnished the First Consul (Napo- 
leon) with an excuse for sending into honorable exile the too 
Eepublican general. From Britanny, whither he was sent, Hum- 
bert retired to this country, where he lived in obscurity until 
the revolt of the Spanish colonies, when he once more engaged 
in war. In Mexico, where he had sometimes a large number of 
men under his command, he met with some successes and many 
reverses. He died at New Orleans, La., in 1823. 

Hyde, Henry (1638-1709), second Earl of Clarendon, eldest son of 
Edward Hyde, Lord Clarendon, statesman and historian, was 
born in 1638. After the Kestoration, he was appointed chamber- 
lain to the queen, but his resentment at the harsh and unjust 
treatment which his father had received from the court made 
him join the opposition party. He took an active part, however, 
against the exclusion bill, and was in consequence taken again 
into favor, and made a privy counsellor in 1680. On the acces- 
sion of King James IL, who had married his sister. Clarendon 
was first made lord privy seal, and then, in 1686, lord-lieutenant 
of Ireland. But he had little real power in the government, 
which was chiefly directed by a faction in London; and after 
undergoing innumerable slights and mortifications, and abasing 
himself before the king in the most abject manner, he was at 
length dismissed from his oflfice of lord-lieutenant (January, 
1687), on account of his attachment to the Protestant religion, 
to make room for Eichard Talbot, Catholic Earl of Tirconnell. 
Lord Arundel, another Catholic, soon after superseded him in his 
office of privy seal. When the Prince of Orange (afterward 
King William III.) landed in England Clarendon joined him at 
Salisbury, but he was coldly received, and his advice slighted; 
and when the crown was settled upon William and Mary, he 
refused to take the oath of allegiance to the new sovereigns. In 
spite of a warning given him by the king, he took an active part 
in the Jacobite schemes of insurrection, and was in consequence 
committed to the Tower in 1690. He was soon released; but, 
having again engaged in a Jacobite conspiracy (1691), he was 
once more sent to the Tower, where he lay about six months. His 
guilt was fully established, but his life was saved by the inter- 
cession of the queen and the entreaties of his brother Eochester. 
He spent the remainder of his days in retirement, and died in 
1709. His State Letters and Diary were published in 1763. He 
also wrote the "History of the Irish Eebellion." 

Hymns, The Book of. This is one of the MSS. in Trinity College, 
Dublin, copied not later than the 9th or 10th century. It con- 
sists of a number of hymns (some in Latin, some in Irish) com- 
posed by the primitive saints of Ireland, with prefaces, glosses 
and commentaries, mostly in Irish by ancient copyists and 
editors. It has been translated and published in English. — Dr. 
P. W. Joyce. See notes to Chapter I. 

Iceland, an island and Danish colony in the North Atlantic, on the 
Arctic circle in west longitude 13° 23' to 24° 35'. It is 600 miles 


from Norway and 250 from Greenland. Its area is 40,456 square 
miles, of which only about two-fifths are habitable. The popula- 
tion, 1900, is 78,470. There are about a hundred volcanoes, of 
which 20 have been in eruption in modern times. About 75 
severe earthquakes have occurred in the past century. The win- 
ter is long and damp, the summer short and cool. About five- 
sixths of the inhabitants live by horse, cattle and sheep-raising. 
Woods have never existed since the glacial period. Potatoes, 
cabbages and rhubarb thrive well. The chief exports are dried 
fish, wool, live sheep and horses, eider-down, salted meat, oil and 
whalebone. The first known visitors to Iceland were the Irish 
monks in the eighth century. Norsemen discovered it in 870, 
and soon thereafter permanent settlements were made, among 
them the present capital, Eeykjavik. The settlements were 
united in 927. Christianity was introduced in the year 1000. 
In 1262, Iceland joined Norway, and in 1380 came under the 
crown of Denmark. During the Napoleonic wars England cap- 
tured it, but gave it back to Denmark in 1815. 

lerne, or lernis. By various Greek writers Ireland was called lerne 
and lernis, and in a Greek poem written at Athens, more than 
500 years before the Christian era by Orpheus of Crotona, Ireland 
is mentioned under the name lernis: thus Ireland was mentioned 
by the Greek writers more than 3,400 years ago. In a work on 
the universe, ascribed to Aristotle, more than three centuries 
before the Christian era, Ireland is mentioned as lerne. In the 
century before the Christian era, Ireland is mentioned by 
Diodorus Siculus under the Greek name Iris or Irin; and the 
celebrated Greek geographer Strabo, in the beginning of the 
first century, calls Ireland lerne. — C. & McD. See Ireland, 
Ancient Names of. 

Inis Fail, see Ireland, Ancient Names of. 

Inisfallen, Annals of. This work was written by the learned monks 
of the abbey of Inisfallen, which was founded by St. Finian, in 
the 6th century, on an island in the Lakes of Killarney, and was 
long celebrated as a seat of learning and religion, and the 
importance of this venerable sanctuary is shown by some inter- 
esting ruins, which still remain. These annals give some sketches 
of ancient history, but commence principally at A. D. 252, and 
terminate at A. D. 1320; thus giving a history of Ireland from 
the 3rd to the 14th century, but more particularly relating to the 
history of Munster. Among the authors of these annals was 
Mai S. O 'Carroll, Lord of Lough Lein, and one of the monks of 
Inisfallen, who died A. D. 1009, and is styled by the Four 
Masters one of the most learned men of the western world; and 
G. P. O'Huidhir, monk of Inisfallen, a famous poet and his- 
torian. The original of these annals is in the Bodlein library at 
Oxford, and copies of them are in the Duke of Buckingham's 
library at Stowe, in the library of Trinity College, Dublin, in 
that of the Royal Irish Academy, and an excellent copy in the 
library of Sir William Betham. These annals are also called the 


Annals of Munster, as relating chiefly to the history of Munster, 
and have been translated into Latin. — C. & McD. See notes to 
Chapter I. 

Inis Mac Nerinn, Annals of. See notes to this Dictionary and also 
see notes to Chapter I. 

lona, Island of, is separated from the southwest coast of Mull by 
the Sound of lona, about one mile wide. It is three and a half 
miles long and one and a half wide. It has 213 inhabitants. 
There is a village on the east side of the island, six miles west of 
Bunessan, on Mull Island. The inhabitants are engaged in croft- 
ing and fishing. lona is also called "Icolmkill" (island of the 
church of Columba) or simply "I." It derives its interest 
wholly from its ancient ecclesiastical remains, popularly attrib- 
uted to St. Columba, who landed at lona in 563, and erected a 
monastery. From 795 to 986 the settlement was exposed to the 
ravages of the Danes. A new monastery and a nunnery were 
founded by the Benedictines in 1203, and the remains are chiefly 
of that date. They consist of the cathedral of St. Mary, the 
nunnery, several small chapels, a building called the Bishop's 
House, and two fine crosses. The chapel of St. Oran is supposed 
to date from the eleventh century. The burying ground attached 
to it, said to contain the remains of many Scottish, four Irish, 
and eight Norwegian kings, possesses a great number of monu- 
mental stones. On the west side of the island are remains of a 
building known as the Cell of the Culdees; the latter was the 
name given to the disciples of Columba. 

Ireland, Ancient Names of. (1) The Noble Isle; (2) The Woody 
Island; (3) The Final, or most remote country; (4) Inis-Fail, or 
the Island of Destiny; (5) Fola; (6) Banba; (7) Eire, Eri, Eirin, 
and Erin, supposed to signify the Western Isle. These were the 
Irish names of Ireland. (8) lerne, lerna, lernis. Iris, and Irin; 
(9) Ivernia, Ibernia, Hibernia, Juvernia, louernia, Hiberia, 
Hiberione, and Verna; (10) The Sacred Isle; (11) Ogygia, or the 
most ancient land. These were all names given by the Greeks 
and Eomans. (12) Scotia, or the Land of the Scots; (13) The 
Island of Saints, were the names applied by various Latin writers 
and ecclesiastical historians. (14) Eire-land, or Ireland, by the 
Anglo-Saxons; (15) by the Danes, Irlandi and Irar; (16) by the 
Anglo-Normans, Irelande. — C. and McD. 

Ireland, Ancient Territories, see table, page 817. 

Ireton, Henry (1611-1651), was born at Attenton, England. He 
became a commoner of Trinity College, Oxford, from where he 
removed to the Middle Temple; but when the civil war broke out, 
he joined the Parliament, and was at the decisive battle of 
Naseby in 1645. Having married Bridget, the daughter of Oliver 
Cromwell, he soon rose to preferments, and became commissary- 
general. He sat in judgment npon King Charles I., and in 1649 
went with Cromwell as second in command of the army in Ire- 
land, where he died in November, 1651. His body was brought 
to England, and buried in Westminster Abbey, where it remained 


till the Eestoration, when it was taken up, suspended on the 
gallows, and then thrown into a pit with those of Cromwell and 
Bradshaw. See chapter XXXIX. 

Irish History. Irish history has been obliterated, misrepresented 
or left unwritten. In the unbroken lines of nationalities there 
are few if any longer than that of Ireland. By ethnology, phi- 
lology, geography, history, by the beauty and wealth of the 
country and the sentiment and character of its people, Ireland 
must be ranked with the best defined nationalities. Irish 
antiquities have been doubted and belittled. The national 
resources of the land have been left unused and underrated. 
The ancient history of Ireland has been set down as unreliable, 
mythical, — a story born of Celtic pride, imagination and passion. 
Yet the student who turns to the history of Ireland finds at a 
glance that he has entered an original and authentic region on a 
study not only national but racial. He finds a distinct expres- 
sion of architecture in the archaic round towers and other Celtic 
remains; of law in the revered and beautiful Brehon Code; of 
music in the marvelously sweet and simple strains coming down 
from prehistoric times and still sung by the peasant girls and 
played by the wandering minstrels; of decorative art in the 
fantastic tracings of Gaelic stones and manuscripts; of language 
and literature in the ancient and eloquent Irish tongue which is 
as complex and as perfect as classic Greek, and as old as primi- 
tive Sanscrit; of religion in the nature-worship of the Magi or 
Druid, with its Baaltane ceremonies coming down clearly to the 
time of St. Patrick, — a comparatively modern period in Irish 
history, though separated from us by fourteen centuries. — John 
Boyle O'Eeilly. 

Irish Language. We shall briefly notice the two most remarkable 
characteristics of the Irish language. The first is its expressive- 
ness. One word is often a definition and conveys a very com- 
plete idea; indeed, the terms in which the language abounds are 
so ideal, suggesting such vivid and beautiful images, that it may 
be termed one of the most picturesque languages in existence. 
As an example of this, we may mention the ancient names of 
places, whose etymons often not only call up delightful pictures 
of the localities, but also mark some important circumstance in 
the early history. Another characteristic of the language is its 
admirable adaptation for lyrical composition, and indeed for 
many other specimens of poetry. This arises (in addition to the 
quality already referred to) from the number of diphthongs, 
triphthongs, and quiescent consonants, with which it abounds; 
and the Bards have availed themselves of these peculiarities with 
such art as to render their numbers exceedingly smooth and 
harmonious. They have consequently brought their prosody to a 
perfection equal to that of any other language. — A. M. Hall. 

Irish Surnames. Surnames were partially adopted by various tribes 
as early as the 9th and 10th centuries, as may be seen in the 
Four Masters, and other annalists; but hereditary and permanent 


surnames were not established until the 11th and 12th centuries. 
Brian Boru made an ordinance that every family and clan should 
adopt a particular surname, in order to preserve correctly the 
history and genealogy of the different tribes, and his own 
descendants took from himself the name of O 'Brien. It appears 
that surnames were not arbitrarily assumed, but each family or 
clan were at liberty to adopt a surname from some particular 
ancestor, and generally took their names from some chief. — 
C. & McD. 

Irving, Washington (1783-1859), one of the greatest of American 
authors, was born in New York City. His father was a prosper- 
ous Scotch merchant in that city; his mother was English. He 
was the author of ''The Life of Columbus," "The Conquest of 
Granada," "The Conquest of Spain," "The Sketch Book," 
"The Alhambra, " and many other works. He was the United 
States Minister to Spain from 1842 to 1845. Between the years 
1848-50 he superintended a collective edition of his works in 15 
volumes. His last literary enterprise, "The Life of "Washing- 
ton," was compiled in 1859. He died at Sunnyside, his estate 
on the Hudson, 25 miles from New York City. Irving was the 
first American author who received recognition in Europe. Some 
of his works are among the most graceful in the language. His 
life was singularly pure, honorable and happy. He never was 
married. See a biography by his nephew, P. M. Irving. 

Island of Saints and Scholars. One of the names often applied to 
Ireland on account of her distinguished position in religion and 
learning during many centuries after her conversion to Chris- 
tianity by St. Patrick. "The Island of Saints, and the Island 
of the Learned," say Connellan and McDermott, "are names 
which have been applied to Ireland since the introduction of 
Christianity, by various Latin writers, in consequence of the 
many saints and sages celebrated as missionaries, eminent 
ecclesiastics, learned men, and distinguished professors, who, 
from the 5th to the 12th century, went from Ireland to various 
countries of Europe as preachers of the Gospel, and founders of 
churches, abbeys, colleges, and schools, in France, Spain, Italy, 
and Belgium," 

Italy, a country in the south of Europe, composed of the peninsula 
traversed by the Apennines, the valley of the Po between the 
Alps and the Apennines, a number of Alpine valleys on the north 
and northwest, and the islands of Sicily and Sardinia, besides a 
number of small islands off the coast. It is divided into great 
divisions and provinces. Until 49 B. C. the name "Italy" was 
given to that little narrow strip in the extreme south between the 
Gulfs of Eufemia and Squillaee. Although of the original 
inhabitants of Italy the Etruscans have left vestiges of an 
advanced civilization, its authentic history begins with that of 
Eome, some 300 years B. C. A century later the Romans had 
conquered all within the Alps and what is now called Italy, and 
it continued under Eoman rule up to the fall of the Western 


Empire in 476 A. D., when it was replaced by that of the 
Ostrogoths until their conquest by the Western Empire in 554. 
James II. (1633-1701), King of England, second son of King 
Charles I., was born in London in 1633, in which year he was 
created Duke of York. He was taken prisoner by the Parlia- 
mentarians during the Civil War in 1646. He escaped to Holland 
in 1648, and the next year went to Paris. He probably became a 
Catholic soon after the treaty of Dover (1670), and ascended the 
English throne, on the death of his brother, Charles II., February 
6, 1685. King James fled to France in 1688 and the next year was 
declared to have abdicated the government. Soon after, his 
daughter Mary and her husband, William Prince of Orange, were 
crowned as William III. and Queen Mary. James was befriended 
by King Louis XIV. of France and furnished with a fleet of 
fifteen sail, carrying a contingent of about 2,500 men under com- 
mand of De Rosen. He landed at Kinsale, Ireland, March 12, 
1689. James' religion, which was one of the original causes 
of the breach with his English subjects, made him specially 
acceptable to the majority of the inhabitants of Ireland, while 
the Irish Protestants bitterly resented the changed circumstances 
in which they found themselves under his rule. They alone 
had been allowed to carry arms; in many cases they were now, 
as possible enemies of the king, deprived of the privilege. The 
free exercise of the Catholic religion was permitted; yet, with 
the exception of Christ Church Cathedral in Dublin, retained 
by James as a royal chapel for his own use, and a few churches 
in remote parts of the country, the Protestants were left in 
peaceable possession of the ecclesiastical buildings. Most of 
the hardships of which the Prostestants complained were the 
inevitable consequences of the great change from a policy based 
on Protestant ascendancy to one of professedly general tolera- 
tion, and of the abrogation of the Cromwellian settlement made 
thirty-six years previously, and the restoration of their lands to 
the original Catholic proprietors. After the battle of the 
Boyne, James was the first to convey the news of his own defeat 
to Dublin. Lady Tirconnell met him on the castle steps. 
"Madame," he is reported to have said, "your countrymen can 
run well." "If so," replied the high spirited lady, "I see your 
majesty has won the race." He immediately left Ireland and 
reached Brest, in France, July 31, 1690. He spent the remainder 
of his life at St. Germains, a pensioner of King Louis XIV., and 
died September 6, 1701. James had by his first wife, Anne 
Hyde, eight children — by his second, Mary of Modena, he had 
six. By Arabella Churchill (a sister of the Duke of Marl- 
borough), he had four natural children, and one by Catherine 
Sedley. One of the former, James Fitz,James (afterwards Duke of 
Berwick), gained a leading place in European history as one of 
the ablest soldiers of his time. See Chapters XLIL, XLIII. and 


James VI. (1566-1625), King of Scotland, afterwards James I., 
King of England, son of Mary Queen of Scots and Henry Stuart, 
Lord Darnley, was born in Edinburgh Castle, Scotland, and the 
year following (1567) was proclaimed king of Scotland on the 
forced resignation of his mother. He claimed the English throne 
in right of his descent from Margaret, sister of King Henry 
VIII. of England. On the death of Queen Elizabeth in 1603, 
he became King of England. He carried out the plantation of 
Ulster, Ireland, with English and Scotch settlers. He prose- 
cuted the Puritans as well as the Catholics. A new trans- 
lation of the Bible into English was made during his reign, 
commonly called King James' version. James was possessed 
of considerable shrewdness and literary talent; his tastes 
and habits were vulgar. He became an accomplished scholar 
though a great pedant. "He was timorous, insincere and 
treacherous, slothful and sensual, much addicted to drinking, 
buffoonery and profanity; and his egregious vanity, pedantry 
and cowardice, and total want of dignity, made him contemptible 
even in the eyes of his courtiers and worthless favorites. He 
had high notions of his prerogative, prided himself on his king- 
craft, and yet was constantly worsted in his quarrels with his 
parliaments, and by his unconstitutional and arbitrary proceed- 
ings sowed the seeds of that great civil contest which overthrew 
the monarchy in the following reign." 

Japhet, a patriarch, according to the Hebrew record, the second of 
the three sons of Noah (or Noe), whose descendants peopled first 
the north and west of Asia, after which they proceeded to 
occupy the "isles of the Gentiles." He is the supposed ancestor 
of the Caucasian race. 

John (1167?-1216), King of England, Lord of Ireland, was born at 
Oxford, England, about 1167. He was the youngest son of 
King Henry II., and was called Lackland in boyhood by his 
father, who made him Lord of Ireland in 1177. He went to 
Ireland as viceroy in 1185, and it is said to have been King 
Henry's intention to have him crowned King of Ireland. The 
prince was accompanied by the ecclesiastic and author of the 
"Conquest of Ireland", Giraldus Cambrensis (Gerald of 
Wales, or Gerald de Barry), as tutor and secretary, and was 
attended by a numerous retinue comprising many ecclesiastics, 
300 knights, a large body of cavalry, archers, and men-at-arms — 
all in sixty ships. Sailing from Milford Haven, the fleet reached 
Waterford Easter Thursday, 1185. In a series of unsuccessful 
engagements with the Irish he lost almost his entire army, in- 
cluding some of his most valiant knights, and several of the 
newly erected castles were sacked by the native princes. After 
a sojourn of about eight months in Ireland, John was recalled 
and the government was committed to Sir John de Courcy. On 
the death of his brother King Richard I., in 1199, John was 
crowned King of England in M;iy of that year. In 1200 he 
obtained a divorce from his wife and married Isabella, a famous 


beauty of France, daughter of the Count of Angouleme. King 
John again visited Ireland in 1210 to establish the English 
supremacy, and to overthrow the power of the De Laeys and 
revenge himself on William de Braosa and other lords then 
in revolt against his authority. His fleet consisted of 700 
vessels. He landed in Waterford on the 20th of June. Eein- 
forced by O'Brien, King of Thomond, and Cathal O'Connor, 
King of Connaught, he marched against Hugh de Lacy, one of the 
Norman lords of Meath. Passing through Dundalk, Carlingford, 
and Downpatrick, he arrived at Carrickfergus, which stronghold 
he besieged and captured, making prisoners of De Lacy's bravest 
soldiers. William de Braosa 's wife and relatives were captured 
in Galloway. The king liberated them on guarantee of a pay- 
ment of 50,000 marks ransom. The Anglo-Norman lords were 
compelled to swear obedience to the laws of England. John 
divided the territories under his sway into twelve counties — 
Dublin, Kildare, Meath, UWel (or Louth), Catherlagh (or Car- 
low), Kilkenny, Wexford, Cork, Limerick, Kerry, and Tipperary, 
and arrangements were made for the government of the country. 
He granted a charter to the King of Connaught, who sur- 
rendered to John the Castle of Athlone, and consented to hold 
his territories from the king for a subsidy of 5,000 marks, and 
an annual payment in Dublin of 300 marks. The first sterling 
money was coined in Ireland under his directions. After remain- 
ing sixty days in Ireland he landed in Wales on the 26th of 
August. In 1213 John surrendered his kingdom of England and 
Lordship of Ireland to Pope Innocent III., and received them 
back, swearing fealty and promising to pay yearly 700 marks to 
the English Church, and 300 marks to the Irish; and October 
28, 1214, the Pope issued a bull commanding the archbishops, 
bishops, abbots, prelates, princes, earls, barons, knights, and 
people of Ireland, to preserve fealty to King John. He was 
compelled to agree to the barons' demands at Eunnymede, June 
15, 1215. John here set his seal to the Great Charter or Magna 
Charta of the liberties of the English people. He died at Newark 
and was buried in Worcester Cathedral. He had by his Queen 
Isabella, five children, the eldest of whom succeeded him on the 
throne as King Henry III. See Chapter XV. 
Jones, Michael (died in 1649), born probably in England, son of 
Dr. Lewis Jones, a Welshman, who went to Ireland in 1606 and 
became Anglican Bishop of Killaloe, in Clare. After fighting 
for the king against the Irish he entered the Parliamentary 
army and distinguished himself in 1644-45, as a cavalry leader 
in Northern England. As Governor of Dublin, 1647-49, he de- 
feated General Preston at Dungan Hill, and the Duke of Ormond 
at Rathmines, near Dublin. He was second in command of the 
Parliamentary army in Ireland after the landing of Cromwell, 
with the rank of lieutenant-general. He died of fever in 1649. 
See Chapter XXXVIL 


Kanturk, market town and railway station (G. S. & W. E.), four 
miles north of Banteer station, County Cork, on rivers AUua 
and Dallua, 36 miles northwest of Cork by rail. It has a popula- 
tion of 1,583. 

Kells, market town, parish, and urban district, with railway 
station (G. N. I. K.), County Meath, on river Blackwater, 10 
miles northwest of Navan, and 58 miles northwest of Dublin, 
by rail. The area of the parish is 8,597 acres, with a population 
of 3,326. The urban district contains 263 acres, with a population 
of 2,428. There is an antique stone cross in the center of the 
town. Near the church there is a round tower. On the "Hill of 
Lloyd," near the town, is a lofty pillar, 100 feet high, erected 
by the first Earl of Bective. Kells was the "Ceann-lis," or head 
fort of the Irish kings, here about the 8th century was com- 
piled, in a monastery, founded about A. D. 550 by St. Columba, 
the "Book of Kells," an illuminated copy of the Gospels in 
Latin. It is a marvelous specimen of elaborate ornamentation, 
and is now in Trinity College, Dublin. Headf ort, the seat of the 
Marquis of Headfort, is about a mile from this town. 

Kells, village with railway station (B. & N. C. E.), County Antrim, 
on river Kells, five miles southeast of Ballymena. It has 225 

Kells, village and railway station (G. S. & W. E.), six miles north- 
east of Cahirciveen, County Kerry, on Dingle Bay. Here is a 
coast guard station. 

Kells, parish and village in County Kilkenny, eight miles south 
of Kilkenny. The parish contains 4,409 acres and 614 inhabit- 
ants. The village has a population of 169. 

Kells, The Book of. This is the most remarkable book of this 
class, though not the oldest. At the present day this is the 
best known of all the old Irish books, on account of its elabo- 
rate and beautiful ornamentation. It is a vellum MS. of the 
Four Gospels in Latin and is the most beautiful book in exist- 
ence. It was probably written in the seventh century. Each 
verse of the text begins with an ornamental capital; and upon 
these capitals the artist put forth his utmost efforts. — Dr. P. W. 
Joyce. Prof. J. O. Westwood, of Oxford, England, in his work 
on the Book of Kells, says: "It is the most astonishing book 
of the Four Gospels which exists in the world." See Notes to 
Chapter I. 

Kendal, Duchess of, see Schulenburg, Countess Ehrengard Melu- 
sina von Der. 

Kenmare, town and parish, with railway station (G. S. & W. E.), 
County Kerry, on river Blackwater near the head of Kenmare 
river, 20 miles southeast of Headford Junction by rail and 20 
miles south of Killarney by road. The area of the parish is 
22,507 acres, with a population of 3,013. The town has a popu- 
lation of 1,122. The scenery in the neighborhood is romantic, 
and numerous visitors are attracted to the town in the bathing 
season. It is reached by tourist car in connection with the 


C. B. & S. C. E. from Bantry, a distance of 24 miles. Fine 
salmon fishing is obtained in the Blackwater. Kenmare dates 
from 1670, when it was founded with the name "Nedeen," by 
Sir William Petty, ancestor of the Marquis of Lansdowne. 

Kenmare River or Bay, a sea inlet in County Kerry, and partly 
between Counties Kerry and Cork, 28 miles long and from two 
to six miles broad. The estuary of the Eoughty, or head of 
Kenmare Bay, is crossed by a suspension bridge (1838) the first 
structure of its kind in Ireland. 

Kerns. "Kerns was the term applied to the light troops of the 
Irish. They were armed with spears, javelins, darts, slings, 
arrows, etc." — C. and McD. Kerns were light armed, mercenary 
troops, partly Irish and partly Scotch, maintained by the Irish 
chieftains and employed in their intertribal wars, etc., up to 
the time of Queen Elizabeth of England. The heavy armed 
troops were known as Gallowglasses. See Gallowglasses. 

Kerry, maritime county, in the southwest of Munster province, is 
bounded north by the Shannon, which separates it from County 
Clare, east by Counties Limerick and Cork, south by County Cork, 
and west by the Atlantic Ocean. Greatest length, northeast and 
southwest, 67 miles; greatest breadth, east and west, 55 miles. 
Kerry has an area of 1,189,787 acres (32,802 water), or 5.7 
per cent of the total area of Ireland, and a population of 
165,726, of whom 160,511 are Catholics, 4,431 Episcopalians, 220 
Presbyterians, and 355 Methodists. The parliamentary con- 
stituency contains 23,242 electors. On the Atlantic coast, which 
is prevailingly bold and rocky, are the bays of Tralee, Dingle, 
Ballinskelligs, and Kenmare. The principal headlands from 
north to south are Kerry Head, Brandon Head, Slea Head, Bray 
Head, and Bolus Head. The largest islands are Valencia and 
the Blasket group. The greater part of the surface is bleak and 
mountainous, but there is also much romantic scenery. The 
principal summits are Carrantuohill or Carn Tual (3,414 feet), 
in the range of Macgillicuddys Eeeks, the loftiest mountains in 
Ireland; Brandon, 3,127 feet and Mangerton, 2,756 feet. The 
lakes are numerous, but mostly of small size; the principal are 
the celebrated Lakes tit Killarney. None of the numerous rivers 
are of great length. There are several medicinal springs. Slate 
and flagstone are quarried in Valencia. The chief crops are 
potatoes, oats, and turnips, but agriculture is not flourishing. 
The coast fisheries are extensive, and give employment to a 
large number of men and boys. The county is severed by the 
G. S. & M. R. and by the Ballybunion and Listowel Eailway. 
There is direct railway communication from Tralee and Killarney 
to Cork and Limerick. Kerry gives the title of baron and earl 
to the Marquis of Lansdowne. The county comprises 85 parishes, 
and parts of 2 others, the towns of Tralee, Killarney, Listowel, 
Cahirciveen, Kenmare, and Dingle. For parliamentary purposes 
the county is divided into four divisions — North, West, South and 


East Kerry — one member for each division. Its representation 
was increased from two to four members in 1885. 

EilcuUen, town and parish, County Kildare, on Eiver Liffey, five 
miles southeast of Kildare. The parish contains 7,330 acres 
with a population of 1,292. The town has a population of 619. 
Some ruins of Old Kilcullen, once a walled town, crown an 
eminence two miles to the south. 

Kildare, inland county of Leinster province, is bounded north by 
County Meath, east by Counties Dublin and Wicklow, south by 
County Carlow, and west by Queen's and King's Counties. 
Greatest length, north and south, 41 miles; greatest breadth, 
east and west, 28 miles; area, 418,496 acres, or 2 per cent of the 
total area of Ireland. Kildare has a population of 63,566, of 
whom 54,863 are Catholics, 7,382 Episcopalians, 688 Presby- 
terians, and 419 Methodists. The parliamentary constituency 
contains 18,761 electors. The surface is mostly flat, and there 
is much excellent land, both arable and pasture. The northwest 
division belongs to the bog of Allen. Much of the soil consists 
of a fine dry loam, on a sandy bottom. Fine marble is quarried 
to the west of the town of Kildare. The rivers are the Liffey 
in the northeast, the Boyne on the northwest border, and the 
Barrow on the west. The county is traversed by the 
Grand Canal and its branches, by the Eoyal Canal on the north 
border, and by the lines of the Great Southern and Western 
and the Midland Great Western railways. Agriculture is the 
chief industry; cotton, woolens and paper are manufactured to 
a limited extent. Among the antiquities there are five of the 
Eound Towers, which are so peculiar to Ireland. The county com- 
prises 107 parishes, and parts of five others, and the towns of 
Athy, Naas, Newbridge, Maynooth, and Kildare (the capital). 
For parliamentary purposes the county is divided into two 
divisions — North Kildare and South Kildare — one member for 
each division. 

Kildare (Cill-dara "the Church of the Oak," a certain favorite 
oak of St. Bridget), market town, parish and capital of County 
Kildare, with railway station (G. S. &. W. E.), 30 miles south- 
west of Dublin by rail. The parish has an area of 9,209 acres 
and a population of 2,430 — the town has a population of 1,576. 
The town, which is partly the property of the Duke of Leinster, 
has but little trade. In the 5th century a monastery was 
founded by St. Bridget, and a "sacred fire" was maintained 
here down to the Eeformation. The ancient cathedral has been 
restored. The diocese is now joined to that of Dublin. There 
is an interesting antiquity called the Pillar-Tower of Kildare, 
108 feet high. Near the town is the celebrated Curragh Common, 
where horse races are held four times a year, and on which a 
permanent military camp is established. 

Kilkenny, inland county in southwest of Leinster province, is 
bounded north by Queen's County, east by Counties Carlow and 
Wexford, south by County Waterford, and west by County 


Tipperary. Crreatest length, north and south, 45 miles; greatest 
breadth, east and west, 24 miles. Tipperary has an area of 
511,775 acres (3,105 water), and a population of 79,159, of whom 
74,830 are Catholics, 3,978 Episcopalians, 170 Presbyterians, and 
114 Methodists. The parliamentary constituency contains 10,529 
electors. The county is served entirely by the G. S. & W. E. The 
greater part of the country is hilly, but there is little land 
unfit for tillage, or which does not yield good pasture. The 
river Nore flows southwards through the middle of the county, 
the Barrow forms the east boundary for about three-fourths of 
its entire length, and the Suir traces the whole of the south 
border. These rivers are navigable for considerable distances. 
Anthracite coal is worked in the neighborhood of Castlecomer; 
and near the town of Kilkenny there are quarries of black and 
white marble. Limestone is abundant; manganese, copper, lead 
and potter's clay also occur. There are manufactures of flour, 
beer, whiskey and leather. The occupations are chiefly agri- 
cultural. The county comprises 124 parishes, and parts of 16 
others, the parliamentary and municipal borough of Kilkenny 
(one member) and Callan. For parliamentary purposes the 
county is divided into two divisions — North Kilkenny and South 
Kilkenny — one member for each division. 

Kilkenny ("Church of St. Kenny" or "Canice"), parliamentary 
and municipal borough, with railway station (G. S. & W. K.), and 
capital of County Kilkenny, on river Nore, 80 miles southwest 
of Dublin by rail. The parliamentary borough has 17,012 acres, 
and a population of 13,242 — the municipal borough comprises 921 
acres and a population of 10,609. The parliamentary constit- 
uency contains 1,517 electors. Kilkenny is divided into two 
parts by the rivulet Bregen, the Irish town and the English 
town. The former contains the cathedral of St. Canice, built 
in the 13th century, and restored at a cost of over £15,000 
during 1865-70, and used by the Protestants. The Caiholic 
cathedral was consecrated in 1857. At the grammar school. 
Swift, Congreve, Berkeley and Magee (Archbishop of York) 
were educated. Other buildings include the courthouse, monas- 
teries, convents, etc. The woolen manufacture is almost extinct, 
but there is a considerable trade in corn. On the Nore, two 
miles south, are extensive mills for the cutting and polishing 
of black marble. Brewing is also carried on. 

Kilkenny Castle, now the residence of the Marquis of Ormond, is 
situated on a summit of a precipice overhanging the river Nore. 
It was formerly a fortress of great strength and was besieged and 
taken by Cromwell in 1650. The borough returns one member to 

Killala, seaport town and parish, with railway station (M. G. W. 
R.), County Mayo, on west side of Killala Bay, eight miles 
northwest of Ballina. The parish contains 5,364 acres, with a 
population of 903. The population of the town is 510. The harbor 
affords good and safe anchorage for vessels drawing eight or 


nine feet of water. Killala was, at one time, a thriving little 
seaport, but has now been superseded by Ballina. There is a 
salmon fishery of some importance. The diocese of Killala, 
founded by St, Patrick, in the 5th century, was annexed to that 
of Tuam in 1833. The cathedral was entirely rebuilt in the 17th 
century. There is a round tower, 84 feet high. In 1798, the 
French, under General Humbert, landed on the shore of the bay, 
four miles distant. 

Killala Bay, between Counties Mayo and Sligo, is nine miles long 
and six miles across the entrance. Fish of various kinds are 
abundant and there is a good fishing station here. 

Killaloe, town and parish, with railway station (G. S. & W. R.), 
County Clare, on river Shannon, 17 miles northeast of Limerick. 
The parish has an area of 9,978 acres and a population of 1,781. 
The population of the town is 885. The station is at Ballina, 
on the opposite side of the river, which is here crossed by a 
bridge of 13 arches. The town has little or no trade; but it 
derives some advantage from the marble and slate quarries 
in the vicinity. There is a small pier for the Shannon steamers. 
The angling on the Shannon and Lough Derg (one mile distant), 
attracts a number of visitors. The see of Killaloe was founded 
in the 6th century by St. Dalua. The cathedral of St. Flannan 
(1160) is a venerable structure. "Kincora," the palace of King 
Brian Boru, written of by Moore, stood at Killaloe. 

Killaloe, parish, County Kilkenny, on King's river, two miles 
north of Callan. It has an area of 5,434 acres, and a population 
of 370. 

Kilmainham, parish. County Meath, four miles south of Kings- 
court. It has an area of 3,716 acres and a population of 543. 

Kllmalnham, New, western suburb of Dublin city, County Dublin. 
It contains the Royal Hospital for iuTalid soldiers and the 
courthouse. Here also is Kilmainham gaol, in which ParneU, 
'Brien and other political prisoners were incarcerated. 

Kilmallock, market town, with railway station (G. S. & W. R.), in 
County Limerick. It is 21 miles south of Limerick by road, and 
124 miles southwest of Dublin by rail. It numbers 1,027 inhabit- 
ants. It has two gates and other remains of its ancient fortifica- 
tions, the ruins of an abbey (13th century), and of a church, the 
choir of which is still used. 

Kilmallock, a parish in County Wexford, six miles southeast of 
Enniscorthy. It contains 4,093 acres, with a population of 474. 

Kilrush, seaport town, urban district and parish, with railway 
station (West Clare Ry.), County Clare, on the estuary of River 
Shannon, nine miles southeast of Kilkee by rail, and 28 miles 
southwest of Ennis by road. The parish has an area of 15,658 
acres, and a population of 6,230. The urban district contains 
1,313 acres, with 4,179 inhabitants. There is a good harbor, 
which forms an excellent refuge in stormy weather. There is 
a prosperous fishery and considerable trade in grain and timber, 
as well as a large export of peat taken from a bog north of the 


town. There is a steamer connection with Limerick, and during 
the summer months vessels sail daily in connection with the 
trains at Faynes, which is 18 miles further up the river. The 
seat of Kilrush house is near Kilrush. During the cholera 
epidemic of 1832, Charles Lever was stationed here as medical 
oflScer of health. 

Kilrush, parish and village in county and four miles southeast of 
Kildare. It contains 4,076 acres, with a population of 274. 
Near the village is Battlemount, where the Earl of Ormond 
defeated the Catholics under Lord Mountgarret in 1642. 

Kilrush, parish, County Waterford, half mile west of Dungarvan. 
It contains 1,522 acres and has a population of 645. 

Kilrush, parish. County Wexford, on Eiver Slaney, two miles 
southeast of Newtonbarry. It contains 11,385 acres, with a 
population of 1,399. 

Kilrush, seat, northwest County Kilkenny, two miles west of 

Kilworth, town and parish, County Cork, on Eiver Funshion, three 
miles north of Fermoy. The parish contains 5,457 acres, with a 
population of 994. The town has a population of 408. 

Kilworth Mountains, four miles south of Mitchelstown, County 
Cork. Here is Kilworth camp, with rifle ranges. 

Kincora, ruins, near Killaloe, County Clare, on Lough Derg. Here 
was the ancient seat of the Kings of Munster. 

King's County, an inland county of Leinster province, bounded 
north by County West Meath, east by County Kildare, south by 
Queen's County and Tipperary, and west by County Tipperary 
and the Eiver Shannon (separating it from Counties Galway and 
Eoscommon). Greatest length, northeast and southwest, 51 miles; 
greatest breadth, east and west, 43 miles. King's County has an 
area of 493,999 acres (1,195 water), or 2.4 per cent of the total 
area of Ireland, and a population of 60,187, of whom 53,806 are 
Catholics, 5,513 Episcopalians, 392 Presbyterians, and 353 Metho- 
dists. The parliamentary constituency contains 9,425 electors. 
The surface for the most part is flat, and much of it is occupied 
by the great bog of Allen. The Slieve Bloom mountains lie 
along the border with the west of Queen 's County, the greatest 
altitude being 1,733 feet. The soil is of middling quality, con- 
sisting of a deep moor or gravelly loam in the flat portions of 
the county. Limestone, sandstone, and clay-slate are general. 
The Shannon, which is navigable, forms the west and northwest 
boundary. The other principal streams are the Blackwater, the 
Brosna, the Boyne, and the Barrow. The Grand Canal, traversing 
the entire extent of the county from east to west, communicates 
with the Shannon. The county comprises 42 parishes, and parts 
of 9 others, and the towns of Tullamore, Parsonstown or Birr, and 
part of Portarlington. For Parliamentary purposes the county 
is divided into two divisions — Birr and Tullamore — one member 
for each division. 


Kinsale ("Saltwater Head"), seaport, parish and urban district, 
and summer resort, with railway station (C. B. & S. C. R.), 
County Cork, at mouth of River Bandon, 17 miles south of Cork 
by road, and 24 by rail. The parish contains 377 acres, with a 
population of 3,733. The town and urban district (partly in 
Ringcurran parish), has an area of 300 acres and a population 
of 4,250. The estuary of the River Bandon forms a spacious 
harbor, and is navigable by the largest vessels. Kinsale was 
for several centuries the most important seaport on the south 
coast of Ireland, and was protected by a fort built in the reign 
of Charles II., which is now used as a barrack. The ports 
of Cork and Queenstown have taken away much of its trade. 
James II. landed here from France in 1689. The fishery is very 
productive, this being the principal station of the South of 
Ireland Fishing Company. Kinsale returned one member to 
parliament until 1885. 

Kinsale Harbor, estuary of River Bandon, County Cork, extend ng 
two miles from Kinsale town. On Fort Charles, at east side 
of harbor, is a lighthouse 48 feet high, with fixed light (Kinsale) 
98 feet above high water and seen 14 miles. 

Knockdoe, hill, two miles northeast of Claregalway, County Gal- 
way; altitude, 232 feet. 

Iiagan river, of Ulster province. It rises in County Down under 
Slieve Croob mountain, flows northwest past Dromore to the 
vicinity of Magheralin, then turns northeast, and, passing 
Lisburn and tracing the boundary between Counties Antrim and 
Down, falls into Belfast Lough at the town of Belfast. The 
river is navigable for barges of 50 tons to a point two miles 
above Lisburn, where the Lagan Canal begins and continues 
the navigation past Moira to Lough Neagh, the entire navigable 
distance being nearly 29 miles. 

Lagan river rises in the south of County Monaghan, and flows east 
through County Louth (after entering which, it is called the 
Glyde), past Castlebellingham to Dundalk Bay. Its length is 
25 miles. 

Lake, Gerard (1744-1808), viscount. He entered the army at four- 
teen and served during the Seven Years' war in Germany. He 
served in the American Revolutionary war under Lord Cornwallis. 
In 1797 he was engaged in Ulster, Ireland, chiefly in disarming 
the population and counteracting the plans of the United Irish- 
men, Early in 1798 General Abercromby resigned, sickening 
at the extreme severity which the government claimed was 
necessary to exercise towards the people of the disaffected dis- 
tricts. General Lake was appointed to the chief command 
April 23, 1798, and in the following month the insurrection 
broke out. His military service in County Wexford was the 
capture of Vinegar Hill, and the occupation of Wexford the 
22nd of June. The former was the culmination of a series of 
combined movements by General Lake, supported by Dundas, 
Needham, Johnson, and Loftus, with 3,000 troops in four 


columns. After the landing of the French at Killala, Mayo, in 
1798, Lake marched to confront them. On the 27th of August 
he was defeated at Castlebar by a combined force of about 
2,000 French and Irish. After this disaster Lake fell back 
upon Tuam, where he was reinforced, and acting in concert 
with Colonel Vereker and Lord Cornwallis, with a large force, 
after a series of marches, General Humbert and the small 
remaining French army were compelled to surrender at Ballina- 
muck in September. The French were treated honorably as 
prisoners of war, but the Irish, many of them in French uni- 
forms, and indeed the country people generally of the districts 
that had been in occupation of the French, were slaughtered 
unmercifully, and their cabins burnt to the ground. General 
Lake was elected to parliament for Armagh in 1799, by the in- 
fluence of Lord Castlereagh, to vote for the Legislative Union. 
He was afterwards commauder-in-chief in India, where on more 
than one occasion he strenuously opposed the policy of the 
Governor-General, Lord Cornwallis, his former chief in Ireland. 
In 1804 he was created Baron Lake, and three years later raised 
to a viscountcy. Eeturning to England in 1807 he died in 
London the next year. See chapters LXI, LXII and LXIII. 
Lancaster, Thomas (died in 1583), was a native of Cumberland, 
England. He was Anglican Bishop of Kildare, 1549-68; Dean of 
Ossory, 1552; married and deprived of his preferments by Queen 
Mary in 1554, and spent the remainder of Queen Mary's reign 
in retirement. He became Archbishop of Armagh, 1568-83, and 
died at Drogheda, Ireland. 
Landen, Battle of (in the war of the English Eevolution), was 
fought in Belgium, July 19, 1693, between the English under 
King William III. and the French under Marshal Luxemburg. 
The French gallantly attacked the English entrenchments, and 
were at first repulsed, but after eight hours' desperate fighting, 
they succeeded in driving the English back all along the line. 
The retreat of the latter, however, was in good order. Though 
the French were victorious their severe losses prevented a vig- 
orous pursuit. William III. fell back upon the capital, Brussels, 
and was soon reinforced, but he neither ventured on a second 
battle nor interfered with the capture of Charleroi, an impor- 
tant town on the Sombre, about fifty miles south of the capi- 
tal. General Patrick Sarsfield, the hero of Limerick, commanded 
the left wing of the French army at Landen, and fell, mortally 
wounded, at the very moment of victory. 
Lanesborough, village, county Longford, on Eiver Shannon, nine 
miles southwest of the town of Longford and ten miles northeast 
of Eoscommon. It numbers 233 inhabitants. It has a fine stone 
bridge of six arches, and a swivel arch of iron for the passage 
of lumber boats and small steamers. It was formerly a parlia- 
mentary borough. It gives the title of Earl to the family of 


Lane^orough Lodge, seat of the Earl of Lanesborough, County 
Cavan; post-towu, Belturbet. 

Lanier, Sir John (died in 1692), governor of Jersey island under 
King Charles II. of England, served in Scotland and Ireland 
under King William III. of England, in 1689-91. He was, in 
1692, appointed general of horse by King William, in Flanders; 
and was mortally wounded at the battle of Steinkirk. 

Laud, William (1573-1645), was born at Eeading, England, and 
educated at Oxford. In 1621 he was appointed Anglican Bishop 
of St. David's in Wales, in 1630 he was chosen chancellor of 
Oxford. In 1633 he was raised to the archbishopric of Canter- 
bury, and the same year chosen chancellor of the University of 
Dublin. He united in his own person many of the principal 
ofSces of church and state. The zeal which he displayed for 
conformity to the Established Church, and his endeavors to 
introduce the English Liturgy into Scotland, created him 
numerous enemies. At the commencement of the Long Parlia- 
ment he was impeached by the House of Commons, and sent 
prisoner to the Tower of London. After lying there three years, 
he was brought to trial before the House of Lords, and his 
acquittal so provoked his enemies m the Lower House that they 
passed a bill declaring him guilty of treason, which they induced 
the peers to pass, and he was beheaded on Tower Hill, January 
10, 1645. He was simple and almost ascetic in his habits, but 
his zeal for the Anglican church made him the willing instrument 
of the despotism of King Charles I., and one of the chief agents 
in trampling upon the rights and liberties of the people. He 
had an iron will, an intrepid spirit and an entire devotion to his 
aims. He was a liberal patron of learning and scholars, and a 
benefactor of the University of Oxford. He was for a time even 
more powerful than Wolsey under King Henry VIII. To pursue 
and put down the Puritans was one of the great objects of 
his life. 

Laurence, Eichard (1760-1838), the "last Protestant Archbishop of 
Cashel, " was born at Bath, England, and educated at Oxford. 
He was appointed regius professor of Hebrew, and canon of 
Christ Church in 1814; was appointed to the archiepiscopal see of 
Cashel in 1822, and died December 28, 1838. As a theologian, 
Laurence was very popular with members of his church. He was 
considered an authority on the Ethiopic language and literature 
and was the author of many theological and controversial works, 
some of them in Latin. 

Lauzun or Lauzan, Antonin Nompar de Caumot (1632?-1723), 
Duke de. Marshal of France, was born in Gascony. He became 
the favorite of King Louis XIV. of France, who gave him hon- 
ors, places and promises; but having offended the king in 1699 
by an outburst of rage, he was sent to the Bastille. Eeleased 
after a few days, he was named captain of the guards, lost 
the chance of a brilliant marriage through the intrigues of 
Madame de Montespan, was created marshal, and in 1671 com- 


manded the army in Flanders. But fie was soon disgraced or 
fell from favor again, and after suffering imprisonment for five 
years and exile four, he went to England, where he was received 
by King James II. and by him intrusted in 1688 with the con- 
veyance of the queen and young prince to France. He did not 
regain the favor of King Louis, but was nevertheless created 
a duke in 1692. It is conjectured that he married secretly the 
Duchess of Montpensier, granddaughter of King Henry IV. of 
France. He died in Paris in 1723. 

Lecan, Book of, is so called from being composed at Lecan; was 
compiled by the MacFirbises, from the twelfth to the fifteenth 
century, and is one of the greatest and most authentic works 
on Irish history and antiquities. It is a voluminous MS., writ- 
ten on fine vellum, and comprises the history of Ireland from 
the earliest ages to the fifteenth century. The original Book 
of Lecan is in the library of the Koyal Irish Academy. — C. 
and McD. 

Lecan, The Yellow Book of. This book is in Trinity College, 
Dublin, and is a large quarto volume of about 500 pages. It 
was written at Lecan in County Sligo in or about 1390 by two 
of the scholarly family of MacFirbis — Donogh and Gilla Isa. 
It contains a great number of pieces in prose and verse, his- 
torical, biographical, topographical, etc.; among them the Battle 
of Mograth, the Destruction of Bruden Da Derga, an imper- 
fect copy of the Tain-bo-Quelna and the Voyage of Maildun. 
There is a copy of this work in the Eoyal Irish Academy, Dub- 
lin. — Dr. P. W, Joyce. See Notes to Chapter I. 

Lee, river. County Cork. It rises in Gouganebara Lough, County 
Cork, and flows 50 miles east through Loch Allua and past 
Macroon and Cork city to Cork Harbor. Its chief affluents are 
the Sullane, Bride and Glanmire. It is navigable for ships to 
Cork city, and for boats two miles farther up. It flows through 
much romantic scenery, and abounds in salmon. 

Lee, stream. County Kerry, It rises on the south side of the Stack 
mountains, and flows 10 miles southwest to Tralee Bay. 

Leighlin, Old, parish and village, County Carlow, two miles south- 
west of Leighlinbridge. It has an area of 9,926 acres and a 
population of 1,443. It was the seat of a flourishing monastery 
in the 7th century, and the seat of the diocese of Leighlin, now 
united with that of Ossory and Ferns. The cathedral, rebuilt in 
the 12th century, is a plain Gothic structure. 

Leighlinbridge, town in county and eight miles south of Carlow, 
on river Barrow, 69 miles southwest of Dublin. It has a popula- 
tion of 646. It is divided into two portions by the Barrow, 
which is crossed by a stone bridge of nine arches. The town 
has greatly declined in importance. There are some remains of 
Black Castle, a fortress of the 12th century. 

Leinster ("land of broad-pointed spears"), southeastern province 
of Ireland; bounded north by Ulster, east by the Irish Sea, 
southeast and south by St. George's Channel, and west by Mun- 


ster and Connaught. Greatest length, north and south, 140 
miles; greatest breadth, east and west, 80 miles. Area, 4,879,786 
acres, or 23.4 per cent, of the total area of Ireland. Population, 
1,152,829 (or 3.3 per cent, less than in 1891), of whom 85.2 per 
cent, are Catholics, 12.3 Episcopalians, 1.0 Presbyterians, and 0.7 
Methodists. The province comprises twelve counties — Carlow, 
Dublin, Kildare, Kilkenny, King's, Longford, Louth, Meath, 
Queen's, West Meath, Wexford, and Wicklow. Leinster was 
anciently a kingdom, and was brought within the English Pale 
on the conquest of Ireland in the reign of Henry II. It gives the 
title of Duke to the family of FitzGerald. 

Leinster, Book of. The Book of Leinster is contained in the 
Books of Lecan and Ballymote. A copy of it in the library of 
Trinity College gives the ancient history of Leinster, and its 
kings, princes, chiefs and clans, and would be a valuable work 
if translated into English and published with proper annota- 
tions. — C. and McD. See Notes to Chapter I. 

Leitrlm ("gray ridge"), the most northeasterly county of Con- 
naught province, bounded north by the bay and county of 
Donegal, east by Counties Fermanagh and Cavan, southeast by 
County Longford, and west by Counties Eoscommon and Sligo. 
Greatest length, northwest and southeast, 50 miles; greatest 
breadth, northeast and southwest, 20 miles; coast-line, four miles. 
Leitrim has an area of 392,381 acres (22,451 water), or 1.9 per 
cent, of the total area of Ireland, and a population of 69,343, of 
whom 62,860 are Catholics, 5,550 Episcopalians, 218 Presbyterians, 
and 694 Methodists. The county is served by the M. G. W. K., 
Sligo & Leitrim railway, and the Cavan & Leitrim railway. The 
climate is cold and damp. The largest loughs are Allen, Melvin, 
and Macnean, while smaller loughs are numerous. The river 
Shannon divides Leitrim from Eoscommon, and is connected with 
the river Erne by a canal extending from Carrick-on-Shannon to 
Ballyconnell. The county is divided into two nearly equal por- 
tions by Lough Allen, a large expansion of the river Shannon. 
The north section is hilly, and generally unproductive, reaching 

^ in Slieve Anierin an altitude of 1,922 feet; the south is flatter, 
and much interspersed with bog and lough. The valleys of the 
streams are fertile. Iron and lead are abundant in the mountain 
districts; coal is found at Slieve Anierin mountain, and on the 
south side of Lough Allen. There are some manufactories of 
coarse linens and woolens. The county comprises 15 parishes, 
and part of two others, and the towns of Carrick-on-Shannon, 
Manorhamilton, and Mohill. For parliamentary purposes the 
county is divided into two divisions — North Leitrim and South 
Leitrim — one member for each division. The parliamentary con- 
stituency contains 13,420 electors. 

Leitrim, village, County Leitrim, on river Shannon, four miles north 
of Carrick-on-Shannon, has a population of 187. 

Leitrim, five miles northwest of Castlewellan, County Down, on 
Leitrim rivulet. 


Leitrim, parish, County Galway, four miles southeast of Loughrea, 
has 4,098 acres, and a population of 492. 

Leitrim, parish, Counties Cork and Waterford, on river Blackwater, 
four miles northeast of Fermoy, has 7,127 acres, and a population 
of 729. 

Leitrim, the name given to the river Vartry below Newrath Bridge, 
Kathnew parish. County Wicklow. 

Leix, Division of, parliamentary division of Queen 's county and 
County Carlow. It contains 18,876 acres, with a population of 

Lene, Lough, two miles southeast of Castlepollard, County West 
Meath; is three miles by one mile. 

Lennox, an ancient county of Scotland. It comprised Dumbarton- 
shire, a large part of Stirlingshire, and parts of Perthshire and 

Lerins, a group of islands in the Mediterranean sea, belonging to 
France, opposite Cannes, chief among which are the islands of 
Sainte Marguerite and Saint Honorat, the first of which was the 
prison of "the man with the iron mask" and of Marshal 
Bazaine, and the second was the seat of the famous mediaeval 
monastery of Lerins. 

Leslie, Alexander (1580M661), first Earl of Leven, general, was 
born at Coupar-Angus, Scotland. In 1605 Leslie entered the 
army of the king of Sweden, in which he served with dis- 
tinction during the next thirty years. He fought under King 
Charles IX. of Sweden and under his son, Gustavus Adolphus, in 
their campaigns against Eussia, Poland and Denmark, as well 
as against the Imperial House of Austria in the Thirty Years' 
War. He rose to be field marshal. Eecalled to Scotland in 
1639, he took command of the Covenanting army, and in 1641 
was made Earl of Leven and Lord Balgony. In 1642 he was 
appointed general of the Scottish army sent to Ireland. Per- 
sonally he took little part in the Irish campaign and soon re- 
turned to Scotland, leaving the command in Ireland to Eobert 
Munroe. He died in 1661, and his honors and lands eventually 
passed to his great-grandson, David Melville, third Earl of 
Leven and second Earl of Melville. His descendant succeeded 
as eleventh Earl of Leven and tenth Earl of Melville in 1889. 

Letterkenny, urban district with railway station (L. L. S. & L. E.), 
County Donegal, on river Swilly, 25 miles southwest of London- 
derry by rail. It contains 395 acres and numbers 2,370 inhabit- 
ants. It has good flax and provision markets. Vessels not 
exceeding 300 tons can reach Port Ballyraine, one mile below 
the town. Situated in the midst of much picturesque scenery, 
Letterkenny forms a favorite tourist center. There is a recently 
built Catholic cathedral. 

Leven, Earl of, see Leslie, Alexander. 

Lia Tail, or Stone of Destiny. This stone on which the Irish kings 
were crowned, in subsequent ages, was brought into Ireland 
by the Tuatha De Dananns. This stone was said to emit myste- 


rious sounds when touched by the rightful heir to the crown; 
and when an Irish colony invaded North Britain and founded 
the Scottish monarchy there in the sixth century^ the Lia Fail 
Avap carried thither to give solemnity to the coronation of the 
king, and more security to his dynasty. It was afterwards 
preserved for several ages in the monastery of Scone, but was 
carried into England by King Edward I., in 1300, and deposited 
in Westminster Abbey, and is believed to be identical with the 
large block of stone now to be seen there under the coronation 
chair. — Martin Haverty. See Chapter I. 

Iiiffey, river, Leinster province, rises in two head streams, one five 
milos southwest, the other five miles west of Enniskerry, County 
Wicklow, flows southwest _^nd west through County Kildare, past 
Kilcullen and Newbridge, thence northeast through Counties 
Kildare and Dublin, and falls into Dublin Bay at Dublin city. 
Its length is 50 miles. The chief aifluents are King's Elver, Lye, 
Slade, Tolka, and Dodder. In its course through Dublin city the 
river is crossed by ten bridges. 

Iiimerick ("bare spot"). County of Munster province, bounded 
north by river Shannon and Counties Clare and Tipperary, east 
by County Tipperary, south by County Cork, and west by County 
Kerry. Greatest length, east and west, 53 miles; greatest 
breadth, north and south, 32 miles; circuit about 175 miles, of 
which 35 are washed by the Shannon. Limerick has an area of 
680,842 acres, or 3.2 per cent, of the total area of Ireland, and a 
population of 146,098, of whom 138,691 are Catholics, 5,796 Epis- 
copalians, 431 Presbyterians, and 726 Methodists. The parlia- 
mentary constituency contains 16,230 electors. The county is 
served by the G. S. & W. E. A portion of the county on the 
east belongs to the Golden vale. There are mountains on the 
south border. The principal streams are the Maigue, Deal, Mul- 
kerne, Commogue, and Morning Star, all flowing into the Shan- 
non. The surface generally consists of a finely undulating plain, 
well watered and highly productive. Much of the soil is a rich 
loam. Live stock and agricultural produce are largely exported, 
dairy and stock farms being numerous. Limestone prevails; 
clay, slate and red sandstone occur in various parts of the 
county. There are manufactories of woolens, paper, flour, and 
meal. Limerick gives the title of earl and viscount to the family 
of Pery. The county comprises 115 parishes, and part of 22 
others; the parliamentary and county borough of Limerick (one 
member) and the towns of Newcastle and Eathkeale. For parlia- 
mentary purposes the county is divided into two divisions — West 
Limerick and East Limerick — one member for each division. 

Limerick, parliamentary and county borough, city, and county of 
itself, with railway station (G. S. & W. E.), and important com- 
mercial port, in north County Limerick, on river Shannon, 50 
miles from the sea, 62 north of Cork, and 129 southwest of 
Dublin. The parliamentary borough has an area of 33,096 acres, 
and a population of 46,170; the county borough has 2,108 acres, 


and a population of 38,151. The parliamentary constituency con- 
tains 5,359 electors. The city stands upon low ground, and is 
composed of three parts — the Irish town, the English town 
(situated on King's Island in the river), and the fine suburb of 
Newtown Pery. The river is crossed by five bridges. The public 
structures, for the most part, are large and handsome, and include 
St. Mary's Cathedral (1179), Town Hall, Exchange, Court 
House, and Hospital. There are barracks for cavalry, infantry, 
and artillery. The trade and commerce of Limerick are exten- 
sive. In addition to the quay walls of the city, there is a 
magnificent floating dock, where vessels of 1,000 tons can dis- 
charge. The harbor has an area of seven and one-half acres and 
about 3,000 feet of quayage; there is also a large graving dock. 
Bacon-curing is a very extensive industry, and a considerable 
export trade is carried on in bacon, butter, and eggs. The 
manufacture of lace is less important than formerly, but is still 
carried on at the Convent of the Good Shepherd; the work is 
entirely done by hand and commands high prices. There is a 
clothing factory which gives employment to upwards of 1,000 
hands. Other industries are the manufacture of flour, condensed 
milk, salt, agricultural implements, and manures. Limerick is 
an ancient city; it was plundered by the Danes in 812; was the 
seat of the kings of Thomond; taken by the English in 1174; 
unsuccessfully besieged by King "William III. in 1690, but capitu- 
lated to General De Ginkell in 1691; and the dismantling of its 
fortifications commenced in 1760. The borough returns one 
member to parliament; it returned two members until 1885. 

Lim.erick, hamlet, County Wexford, five miles north of Gorey. 

Lincoln, Earl of, see Pole, John de la. 

Lisburn, town and urban district with railway station (G.N. I.E.), 
Counties Antrim and Down, on river Lagan, seven miles south- 
west of Belfast. The urban district contains 1,139 acres and 
numbers 11,461 inhabitants. The town is an important center 
of the linen industry, in which it is actively engaged, and is 
especially noted for its damasks. Linen thread, muslins, etc., 
are also manufactured. There are large corn mills. Lisburn was 
formerly called Lisnegarvey, and owed its rise to the Conway 
family, who built a castle here in the reign of Charles I. It is 
one of the cleanest and handsomest towns in Ireland. The church 
is the cathedral church of the diocese of Down, Connor and Dro- 
more, and contains a monument to Jeremy Taylor, who died here 
in 1667. Lisburn gives the titles of earl and viscount to the 
family of Vaughan. 

Lisburn Manor House is a seat. It returned one member to parlia- 
ment until 1885. 

Lismore, market town with railway station (G. S. & W. R.), County 
Waterford, on river Blackwater, 14 miles west of Dungarvan, 
and 43 miles southwest of Waterford. It contains 145 acres and 
1,583 inhabitants. The town has a fine appearance, is situated 
in a district of great beauty, and is the principal angling center 


for the salmon fishing on the river Blackwater. Fishing is also 
carried on commercially. The see of Lismore is joined to Cashel 
and the Cathedral of St. Carthagh, which has been restored, is 
now used as the parish church. Eobert Boyle, the philosopher 
(1626-1691) and William Congreve (1670-1729), dramatic poet, 
were natives. Here the chiefs of Munster and the Irish prelates 
swore allegiance to Henry 11. 

Lismore Castle, situated on an eminence overhanging the Black- 
water, is a seat of the Duke of Devonshire. This castle, built 
in 1185, belonged to the bishops, till Archbishop Magrath gave 
it in 1518 to Sir Walter Ealeigh. It was purchased by the Earl 
of Cork and passed into the possession of the Cavendish family. 

Lismore, seat, near Crossdoney railway station. County Cavan. 

Lismore, seat, Queen's County, three miles northeast of Bally- 
brophy station. 

Lismore, The Book of. See Notes to Chapter I. 

Liverpool, parliamentary and county borough, city, seaport, and 
parish, in Lancashire, on estuary of river Mersey, 31 miles west 
of Manchester and 201 miles northwest of London by rail. The 
parish contains 1,858 acres, with a population of 147,405. 
The county borough has an area of 13,239 acres and a population 
of 684,958. The parliamentary borough has an area of 8,133 
acres and a population of 626,634. The parliamentary constit- 
uency contains 84,581 electors. "Lyrpoole" and "Litherpoole" 
were ancient names of this celebrated seaport. It is doubtful 
whether the town existed at the time of the Conquest. Camden 
(1551-1623) refers to it as being more famous for its beauty 
and populousness than for its antiquity. In 1172 the military 
operations in Ireland gave it great importance as a convenient 
point of embarkation for troops. The first charter was granted 
in 1173 by Henry 11. In 1700 the population was about 5,000. 
Modern enterprise in mercantile and marine affairs has raised it 
to the first rank of British seaports. Several lines of steamships 
keep up regular communication with New York; others with 
Boston, Philadelphia, New Orleans, Halifax, Montreal and other 
Canadian ports, and the East and West Indies. The docks can 
receive the largest vessels, but, owing to the great difference in 
the tides, can be opened only for a short time at high water. 
The famous landing stage of Liverpool is an immense structure, 
2,478 feet long and 80 feet broad, supported by floating pon- 
toons, which rise and fall with the tide; several foot-bridges give 
access to it, and a floating bridge 550 feet long for vehicles. 
The city is justly celebrated for its fine buildings, among which 
are the Town Hall, St. George's Hall, the Exchanges, and the 
free Library and Museum. The Liverpool cathedral is the largest 
ecclesiastical building in Great Britain. Liverpool University, 
opened in 1882 and chartered in 1903, now ranks along with the 
older universities. Cotton is the staple of the imports of Liver- 
pool, which otherwise include grain, tobacco, leather, and goods 


from all parts of the world. The principal exports are cotton 
and linen manufactures, woolens, and iron and steel manufac- 
tures. An enormous trade has arisen through the importation 
of provisions and live stock from America and the colonies. The 
port, too, is the principal place in the kingdom for the departure 
of emigrants. Shipbuilding has fallen off greatly owing to the 
competition at the Clyde and in the north of England. The 
manufacturers of engines for marine navigation, however, have a 
world-wide renown. Wpter is conveyed from Lake Vyrnwy, in 
Montgomeryshire, by means of an aqueduct 77 miles long. To 
form the reservoir a dam was constructed across Vyrnwy Valley, 
a village school, church, several farmhouses and a highway being 
submerged. The area of the surface of the reservoir is 1,121 
acres, and the holding capacity 12,131,000 gallons. The munici- 
pality has erected many dwellings for the working people. There 
are many spacious parks. The first important line of steam 
railway in the world, that connecting Liverpool and Manchester, 
was opened in 1830. 

Loch Ce, The Annals of. These were copied in 1588 for Brian 
MacDermot, who resided in an island in Lough Key, near Boyle 
in Eoscommon. They are in the Irish language and treat 
chiefly of Ireland from 1014 to 1636, but have many entries 
of English, Scottish and Continental events. There is a small 
sized vellum MS. copy in Trinity College, Dublin. They have 
been translated into English in two volumes. — Dr. P. W. Joyce. 
See Notes to Chapter I. 

London, the capital of England, the seat of government of the 
British Empire, and the most populous city of the world, is 
situated on both banks of the Thames in the counties of London, 
Middlesex, Surrey, Essex, and Kent. The area of Greater Lon- 
don is about 700 square miles, but even beyond this there is a 
large array of towns, some of them of great size, whose activities 
are in great measure merged in those of the capital. In 1901 the 
population of Greater London was 6,580,616. In 1910 it is 
estimated at about 7,500,000. London is well supplied with 
squares, gardens, and parks, many of which are adorned with 
imposing monuments. Among the most noted are Trafalgar 
Square, Waterloo Place, St. James Park, adjoining the royal 
residence, Buckingham Palace; Hyde Park, 390 acres; Kensing- 
ton Gardens, 240 acres; Eegent's Park, 472 acres, containing the 
famous zoological gardens, among the best cared for gardens of 
their kind in the world. The dwelling-houses of London are 
mostly small, a large proportion of them being occupied by a 
single family. The very poor, however, live in great part in 
crowded tenements, vast numbers of families having dwelling 
places consisting of only a single room. The rate of mortality is 
remarkably low, being 21 per 1,000. No city in the world, with 
the exception of Paris, has so many structures and institutions 
of historical, literary, scientific, and artistic moment and impor- 
tance as London. Foremost among these are St, Paul's Cathe- 


dral, Westminster Abbey, the Houses of Parliament, the Mansion 
House (official residence of the Lord Mayor), the Guild Hall 
(Council Hall of the City), the Koyal Courts of Justice, Lambeth 
Palace (seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury). The British 
Museum contains a vast collection of Egyptian, Assyrian, Greek 
and Roman antiquities, the famous Elgin marbles, British pre- 
historic remains, an unrivalled collection of original drawings, 
engravings, and etchings, and a library of upwards of 2,000,000 
volumes. The Natural History Museum contains the uatui-al 
history collections properly belonging to the British Museum, 
and occupies a building (erected 1873-1880) the largest in the 
world devoted to collections of its class. The South Kensington 
Museum (or Victoria and Albert Museum) contains magnificent 
collections of ornamental or applied art. Oriental and other col- 
lections, the National Art Library, etc. The National Gallery is 
one of the greatest galleries of painting in the world. The Bank 
of England (the only bank in London issuing paper money), 
founded in 1694, the greatest bank in the world, occupies a build- 
ing covering four acres, and in its vaults are usually housed 
20 million pounds sterling in gold and silver. The Tower of 
London (dating back to William the Conqueror), historically the 
most interesting structure of all England, at first a royal palace 
and stronghold, afterwards a gloomy dungeon or state prison of 
London, now contains the crown jewels and a large collection of 
old armor. The most famous monument of the city is the Albert 
memorial, erected to the memory of Albert, Prince consort, and 
adorned with reliefs in marble of 178 figures. London stands pre- 
eminent in the number of its higher institutions of learning, its 
associations for the cultivation of the arts and sciences, and 
its special technical schools. Half a million children attend the 
primary schools. The manufacturing industries of London are 
on a vast scale and embrace an immense range of products. 
London is the greatest commercial and financial center and the 
foremost port in the world. The city commands one-third of 
the imports of the United Kingdom. The value of the imports 
in 1900 was £175,000,000. The exports in the same year amounted 
to £91,502,000. The merchant marine is second only to that of 
Liverpool. The Thames is crossed by numerous bridges and 
tunnels. Rapid transit is facilitated by a vast network of sur- 
face cars and underground railways. The trade of London com- 
prises every department of active commercial enterprise that is 
usually associated with a great city. Markets exist for almost 
every commodity that has sufficient mercantile importance. The 
industries are numerous and varied, none being of exceptional 
importance. London is a distributing center for all descriptions 
of produce from every quarter of the globe. The vast dock 
accommodations, warehouses, magazines, etc., required to handle 
this traffic are owned by private joint stock companies. The 
water supply of the city is drawn from the Thames, Lee, and 
New rivers, and filtered before distribution. The gas supply is 


in the hands of private companies. The city has 18,000 trained 
policemen. London was a busy trading place under the Komans, 
by whom it was enclosed with a wall. The city asserted its 
importance in Anglo-Saxon times. About the beginning of the 
7th century, when it was included in the realm of the East 
Saxons, it was made the seat of a bishop. It grew in promi- 
nence in the time of the wars with the Danes, to whom its sturdy 
inhabitants offered heroic resistance, and finally became the 
capital of Saxon-England. William the Conqueror gave London 
a charter in 1079. The city flourished under the Plantagenets 
(1154-1399). The expansion of England under the Tudors (1485- 
1603) and Stuarts (1603-1701) gave a great impetus to the 
growth of London, which in the 17th century overtook Paris in 
population. It was visited by the plague in 1665, and in the 
following year the Great Fire destroyed 13,000 houses. The fire 
swept away the haunts of disease, and the new London that 
arose from the ashes exhibited a great architectural transforma- 
tion. London has kept pace with the progress of the British 
nation. The census of 1801 gave a population of 864,000, far 
exceeding that of any other city in Christendom. By 1841 the 
figure had more than doubled through natural increase and the 
absorption of adjoining towns and parishes. In 1851, when the 
first World's Fair was held in Jlyde Park, London counted 
2,362,000 inhabitants. In the next half century the population 
nearly trebled. 
Londonderry, a maritime county in Ulster province, bounded north 
by Lough Foyle and the Atlantic Ocean, east by County Antrim 
and Lough Neagh, south by County Tyrone, and west by County 
Donegal. Greatest length, north and south, 40 miles; greatest 
breadth, east and west, 35 miles. Londonderry has an area of 
522,315 acres, or 2.5 per cent, of the total area of Ireland, and a 
population of 114,404, of whom 65,296 are Catholics, 27,804 
Episcopalians, 45,682 Presbyterians, and 1,466 Methodists. The 
county electorate numbers 18,349. The surface is low along the 
north and east for a width of about six miles, hilly in the middle, 
and mountainous in the south, where the highest summit, Sawel, 
rises to an altitude of 2,240 feet. Londonderry is traversed by 
the Donegal railway and the Londonderry and Lough Swilly and 
Letterkenny railway. The rivers are Foyle, Faughan, Glen, Roe, 
Claudy, Moyola, and Bann, the last tracing nearly the whole of 
the east boundary. The soil is for the most part fertile; the sub- 
strata consist of mica-schist, basalt, limestone and sandstone. 
The chief crops are flax, oats, barlly, and potatoes; eggs are 
largely exported. The staple manufacture is linen. The fisheries 
on the coast and inland are important. About three-fourths of 
the whole county is owned by the Irish Society and the Twelve 
Traders' Companies of the city of London. The county com- 
prises 32 parishes, and part of 14 others; the parliamentary and 
county borough of Londonderry (one member), and the towns of 
Coleraine and Limavady. For parliamentary purposes the county 


is divided into two divisions — North Derry and South Derry — 
each returning one member. 
Londonderry or Derry, city, seaport, county, and parliamentary 
borough, with railway stations, G. N. I. R. (Foyle Eoad), B. & N. 
C. E. (Waterside), Londonderry and Lough Swilly and Letter- 
kenny railway (Middle Quay), the first and last stations being 
connected by tramway. The town, in northwest County London- 
derry, on west side of river Foyle, is 163 miles northwest of 
Ihiblin and 100 miles northwest of Belfast by rail. The town 
has an area of 2,164 acres, and a population of 39,892. The 
city is situated on a hill (120 feet high) called the "Island of 
Derry" (being nearly insulated by the winding of the river 
Foyle), and five miles above the point where the river expands 
into Lough Foyle. The suburb called Waterside stands on the 
opposite bank of the river, which is spanned by the beautiful 
Carlisle Bridge, 1,200 feet in length; it was constructed at a cost 
of £16,000. The ancient walls of Londonderry still remain, and 
encompass the city for nearly a mile. A quadrangular area, 
called the Diamond, is situated in the center of the city, from 
which four of the principal streets branch off and lead to the 
original gates. There are many fine public buildings, including 
the Protestant and Catholic cathedrals, Foyle College (founded 
1617), public libraries, etc. The new Guildhall was erected in 
1890 at a cost of £16,000. The Magee Protestant College is one 
mile from the city; the Ebrington military barracks are at 
Clooney, Waterside. The trade of Londonderry is extensive and 
important, but the linen manufacture has declined since 1822. 
There are extensive shirt factories, distilleries, several tanneries, 
iron and brass foundries, flour mills, and tobacco manufactories. 
Shipbuilding is carried on. The coasting trade of the port is 
very extensive. Butter, pork, eggs, cattle, and grain are shipped 
in large quantities to Glasgow and Liverpool. Coal, timber, 
and foreign produce are largely imported. The North American 
steamers from Liverpool call at Moville, near the entrance of 
Lough Foyle, to receive mail, passengers, and goods for America, 
and also on the return voyage. The greatest depth of the Foyle 
(which forms the harbor) is about 33 feet, and the depth is about 
12 feet at low water; the quayage extends to about 5,700 feet. 
The Foyle fisheries are very important, large quantities of 
salmon being sent to London. The city, which arose from an 
abbey founded by St. Columba about 546, was originally and is 
still popularly called Derry ("oak grove"); it acquired the 
prefix London in 1613, when it received a charter of incorpora- 
tion from James I. It has sustained several sieges, the severest 
being that of 1688-89, which lasted 105 days. This celebrated 
siege is commemorated by a monument erected in the city to the 
Eer. George Walker, who directed its affairs at that time. The 
diocese of Derry includes Counties Londonderry and Tyrone, 
together with parts of Counties Antrim and Donegal. The 


borough returns one member to parliament, and contains 5,710 

Longford, an inland county of Leinster province, and situated 
nearly in the center of Ireland, is bounded northwest by County 
Leitrim, northeast by County Cavan, southeast and south by 
County West Meath, and west by County Koseommon (from 
which it is divided by Lough Eee and the river Shannon). 
Greatest length, northeast and southwest, 32 miles; greatest 
breadth, northwest and southeast, 19 miles. Longford has an 
area of 269,409 acres (12,950 water), or 1.3 per cent, of the total 
area of Ireland, and a population of 46,672, of whom 42,742 are 
Catholics, 3,403 Episcopalians, 256 Presbyterians, and 203 Meth- 
odists. The electorate numbers 7,798. The county is served by 
the M. G. W. E. The surface for the most part is flat, and is 
much interspersed with bog. The principal streams besides the 
Shannon are the Inny, the Camlin, and the Kerragh. There is 
a range of bleak hills along the northwest border. Loughs are 
numerous. Much of the soil is fertile, varying from a light 
mould to deep loam; limestone and marble are general. There 
are numerous grazing farms, and butter is produced in great 
quantities, the chief market for which is Drogheda. There are 
some linen and coarse woolen manufactures, and many women 
are employed in spinning. The Koyal Canal, with its branches, 
traverses a great extent of this county. The county comprises 
23 parishes, and parts of 3 others, and the towns of Longford, 
Granard, Ballymahon, and Edgeworthstown. For parliamentary 
purposes the county is divided into two divisions — North Long- 
ford and South Longford — each returning one member. 

Longford, market town, county and assize town, and urban district, 
with railway station (M. G. W. K.), on river Camlin and a 
branch of the Eoyal Canal, 76 miles northwest of Dublin. The 
urban district contains 834 acres and a population of 3,747. It 
has good markets for agricultural produce. St. Mel's Catholic 
Cathedral is a fine building with a lofty tower. Here also is 
St. Mel's Catholic College. There are barracks for cavalry and 
artillery, occupying the site of the old castle. Longford gives 
the title of baron to the family of Packenham. 

Louis XIV. (1638-1715), King of France, surnamed the Great, was 
born September 16, 1638, son of King Louis XIII. of France and 
Anne of Austria. In 1643, at the age of five, he ascended the 
throne, under the regency of his mother. In 1688 a general war 
broke out between King Louis, on one side, and Spain, Austria, 
England, and the Prince of Orange (afterwards King William III. 
of England), on the other. King Louis zealously supported the 
cause of King James II. of England by sending to his aid a 
powerful expedition to Ireland, but the victory of King 
William III. at the Boyne in 1690 and the surrender of Limerick 
the next year completely crushed the Stuart cause and King 
James was compelled to take refuge in France, where he was 
treated ■with great kindness. In 1700, by the will of King 


Charles II. of Spain, Philip, Duke of Anjou (a grandson of 
Louis XIV.), was appointed heir to the Spanish throne. This 
occasioned a great European coalition against the French king, 
and brought on the long war of the Spanish Succession, which 
was ended by the treaty of Utrecht in 1713. "His reign is 
celebrated as an era of magnificence, learning, and licentiousness 
in France." After a reign of 72 years, he died in 1715, leaving 
behind him monuments of unprecedented splendor and expense, 
in palaces and gardens. King Louis XIV. was an able adminis- 
trator and possessed the faculty of choosing the right man for 
the position. He encouraged manufactures and commerce. His 
reign is regarded as the Augustan age of France. His extensive 
wars and extravagance were paid by oppressive taxation. His 
grandson, Louis XV., inherited all the vices and none of the 
virtues of Louis XIV., and by his oppression and tyranny helped 
to bring about the French Eevolution. 

IiOuth, a maritime county in the northeast of Leinster province, 
and the smallest county in Ireland, is bounded north by Courty 
Armagh, northeast by County Down, east by the Irish Sea, south 
by County Meath, and west by Counties Meath and Monaghan. 
Greatest length, north and south, 28 miles; greatest breadth, 18 
miles; coast-line about 48 miles. Louth has an area of 202,731 
acres (697 water), or less than 1 per cent, of the total area of 
Ireland, and a population of 65,820, of whom 60,171 are Catholics, 
4,218 Episcopalians, 980 Presbyterians, and 296 Methodists. 
Along the coast, which is low and sandy, are Carlingford Lough, 
between Louth and Down, Dundalk Bay, and the estuary of the 
Boyne. The Carlingford peninsula in the northeast is almost 
wholly occupied by a range of mountains, whose summits attain 
their greatest altitude in Carlingford mountain, 1,935 feet. The 
rest of the surface, with the exception of a small hilly district in 
the southwest, is level or slightly undulating. The principal 
streams are the Fane, Glyde, Dee, White, and Boyne. The soil 
is generally fertile, the country having a fine appearance, with 
rich woods and verdant fields; it is rich in antiquities. Granite 
is the prevailing rock among the mountains; clay-slate and lime- 
stone underlie the surface of the other districts. Coarse linens 
are manufactured to some extent. The fisheries are valuable and 
extensive, and include an oyster fishery in Carlingford Lough. 
The county comprises 59 parishes, and part of 8 others, the 
county of the town of Drogheda, and the towns of Drogheda, 
Dundalk, and Ardee. For parliamentary purposes the county is 
divided into two divisions — North Louth and South Louth — each 
returning one member. The two parliamentary constituencies 
together contain 10,961 electors. 

Loutb, parish and village. County Louth, on river Glyde, six miles 
southwest of Dundalk. The parish has 17,832 acres and a popu- 
lation of 3,262; the village has a population of 221. Louth has 
the remains of a priory originally founded by St. Patrick. Louth 
gives the title of baron to a branch of the Plunket family. 


Itovel or Lovell, Francis (1454-1487), Viscount Lovel, born prob- 
ably in England, was son of John, eighth Baron Lovel of 
Tichmarsh, Northamptonshire. Francis Lovel was knighted by 
the Duke of Gloucester, in August, 1480, while on an expedi- 
tion against the Scots, and in 1482 was summoned to parlia- 
ment as thirteenth Baron Lovel of Tichmarsh. He was a strong 
supporter of King Eiehard III.; in 1483 was created Viscount 
Lovel, and also became a privy councillor, a K. G., and lord 
chamberlain. Lovel fought at Bosworth Field, and after the 
battle fled to sanctuary at St. John 's, Colchester. Early in May, 
1487, in company with John de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln, and 
Martin Swartz, he followed Lambert Simnel, the Pretender, to 
Ireland, and in June crossed to Lancashire, taking part in the 
battles of Bramham Moor (June 10) and Stoke (June 16). He 
was reported to have been killed at Stoke, but was seen try- 
ing to swim the Trent on horseback, and seems to have escaped 
to his house at Minster Lovel, Oxfordshire, where he lived for 
some time in a vault and probably died of starvation. In 
1780, when a new chimney was built at Minster Lovel, a vault 
was discovered in which was the skeleton of a man (supposed 
to be the remains of Lord Lovel), who had died seated at a 
table whereon was a book, paper and pen. He had been at- 
tainted in 1485, and most of his Northamptonshire estates were 
given to the Countess of Eichmond. Lovel married Anne, daugh- 
ter of Henry, thirteenth Lord FitzHugh. 

Ludlow, Edmund (1620-1693), regicide and Eepublican general, 
born at Maiden Bradley, Wiltshire, England, was a student in 
the Middle Temple at the opening of the civil war in England. 
He fought against the king at Edgehill in 1642 and commanded 
a regiment at Newbury. He also saw active service under 
Waller and Fairfax; was returned to parliament for Wiltshire 
in 1646; sat among the king's judges who condemned King 
Charles I. in 1649, and was elected to the council of state of 
the Commonwealth, in which he opposed the ambitious designs 
of Cromwell. In 1651 he was sent to Ireland as lieutenant-gen- 
eral of horse; on the death of Ireton (1651) the command of 
the army was left to Ludlow, but as he refused to recognize 
Cromwell 's Protectorate or government he was deprived of com- 
mand. Eeturned to parliament (after the death of Cromwell) 
for Hindon in 1659, he urged the restoration of the Eump 
Parliament; held command again for a few months in Ireland; 
was nominated by Lambert to the committee of safety and 
strove in vain to reunite the Eepublican party. After the 
Eestoration he made his way to Vevey (or Vevay), Switzerland. 
The year after the English Eevolution he returned to England, but, 
the House of Commons presenting an address to King William 
III. demanding his arrest, he returned to Vevey, His "Memoirs 
1640-88" was first printed in 1698-99. 

Luttrell, Henry Lawes (1743-1821), second Earl of Oarhampton. 
British soldier and politician, was born in 1743. He entered the 


army in 1757, became a major-general in 1782, and represented 
Old Leighton in the Irish Parliament in 1783. In 1787 he suc- 
ceeded his father in the Irish peerage. He was made lieutenant- 
general of the ordnance in Ireland in 1789; and became com- 
mander of the forces in Ireland, 1796-97. 

MacAlpine, Kenneth (died in 860), founder of the Scottish dynasty, 
was the son of Alpin, king of the Dalriad Scots or Irish in 
Scotland. His father, according to the "Chronicle of Hunt- 
ingdon," was slain in battle with the Picts in 834, and was 
at once succeeded by Kenneth as king, apparently only in Gal- 
loway. According to the same authority, Kenneth became king 
of the Dalriad Scots about ten years later. In the seventh 
year after his father's death (841) he compelled Danish pirates 
who had seized the Picts' territory to fly, and in the twelfth 
year of his reign (846), two years after succeeding to the Dal- 
riad monarchy, he finally conquered the Picts and confirmed his 
rule over all "Alban" (now Scotland), the name given to the 
united kingdom of the Scots and Picts. Accounts vary regard- 
ing this king. He is called by some historians Kenneth 11. Be- 
sides expelling the Danes and conquering the Picts of the cen- 
tral districts, Kenneth invaded Saxony (Lothian), or the north- 
ern parts of Northumbria, England, six times, burning Dunbar 
and Melrose. He moved the chief seat of his kingdom from 
Argyll and the Isles (Dalriada) no longer tenable against the 
Danes, to Scone, which became the Scottish capital, so far as 
that word is applicable to the principal royal fort. In 851 he 
removed some of the relies of St. Columba (or Columkill) still 
left on the Island of Zona (off the southwest coast of Scotland) 
to the church which he built at Dunkeld, which became the 
chief ecclesiastical seat of the new kingdom. Kenneth died in 
860 at Forteviot, and was buried at lona. It was from Scone 
and Dunkeld that the Scottish monarchy gradually expanded 
and the first important step was taken by Kenneth in giving 
his kingdom a firmer hold on the central highlands, where it 
was secure from permanent conquest, either by the Danes or 

Madrid, the capital city of Spain and the seat of the captain- 
general of New Castile, is situated on a small plateau (altitude 
2,140 feet) in the middle of a large sandy, arid plain on the 
banks of the small river Manzanares (dry in summer), almost in 
the center of Spain. Conquered from the Moors in the 11th 
century, Madrid was up to the 16th century a royal hunting seat, 
often residence of Charles V., and was formally made the capital 
by Philip II. in 1561. In 1868 the old walls were demolished and 
the town greatly enlarged. The newer parts of the city are laid 
out in fine boulevards, capacious parks, and promenades. The 
city is supplied with water from the Guadarama mountains, 42 
miles distant. Madrid possesses the Central University, an 
Industrial College, Academy of Art, Conservatorio of Music, 
National Library (300,000 volumes, 300,000 manuscripts), Mu- 


scums of archaeology and natural science, and an astronomical 
and meteorological observatory. Manufactures of tobacco, pow- 
der, gold and silver smith 's works, tapestry, and ceramics form the 
chief industries. The climate is very dry, very hot in summer, very 
cold in winter, with a powerful irradiation, and very dangerous 
for delicate people. The population in 1877 was 397,000; in 1887, 
470,000; and in 1900, 539,585. 

Magh Sleachta signifies either the Plain of Adoration or the 
Plain of Slaughter, and obtained its name from the Druidical 
rites performed there, or from the human sacrifices which the 
pagan Irish offered up to their deities of Druidism, as the 
Canaanites offered up theirs to Moloch. In this place stood a 
famous temple of the Druids, with the great idol Crom Cruach 
surrounded by twelve minor idols, composed of pillar stones 
and decorated with heads of gold. According to our ancient 
annalists Tighearnmas, monarch of Ireland, of the race of 
Heremon, was the first who introduced the worship of idols into 
Ireland, and it is stated that while worshiping the Crom Cru- 
ach, the chief deity of the Irish Druids, along with a vast as- 
sembly of his subjects at Magh Sleachta in Brefny, on the feast 
of Samhuin (one of their deities, the day dedicated to whose 
rites was the same as the last day of October), he himself with 
three-fourths of his people were struck dead by lightning, as a 
punishment from heaven for his introduction of idolatry into 
the kingdom. The temple at Magh Sleachta and its idols were 
destroyed by St. Patrick, who erected a church on its site. 
Magh Sleachta, situated in the present barony of Mohill, County 
Leitrim, in after ages had a celebrated monastery and college, 
and was long famous as a seat of learning and religion. Crom- 
leacs of huge stones and other Druidical remains are to be seen 
there to this day. Its present name is Fenagh. — C. and McD. 
See Chapter VI. 

Mahon, rivulet. County Waterford. It rises in Comeragh moun- 
tains, and flows 14 miles south to the sea at Bunmahon. 

Mahon, upper reach of Cork Harbor south of Little Island and 
separated by Great Island from Cork Harbor proper. 

Malby, Sir Nicholas (1530 M584), President of Connaught, was 
born in England about 1530. He served in the army in Spain 
and France, and on his return to England from the latter country 
he was sent to Ireland. He was shortly afterwards appointed 
sergeant-major of the army in Ireland by Sir Henry Sidney, the 
chief governor. He was collector of customs of Strangford, 
Ardglass, and Dundrum in 1571; and made unsuccessful efforts 
to colonize a part of County Down. In 1576 he was knighted 
and appointed military governor of Connaught, and in 1579, 
President of Connaught. Died at Athlone. 

Mallow, market town and parish with railway station (G. S. & 
W. E.), County Cork, on river Blackwater, 21 miles northwest 
of Cork and 144 miles southwest of Dublin by rail. The parish 
contains 8,819 acres and 5,315 inhabitants. The population of 


the town is 4,542. Mallow carries on a good agricultural trade 
and has an extensive tannery. There are celebrated warm 
mineral springs, and many beautiful seats in the neighborhood. 
There is good salmon fishing on the river, which is here crossed 
by a bridge of 15 arches. There is an excellent golf course. 

Mallow Castle, seat adjacent to Mallow, County Cork. 

Mallow, near east border of County Kerry, 10 miles northwest of 

Man, Isle of, in the Irish sea, 27 miles west of England, 27 miles 
east of Ireland, and 16 miles south of Scotland. Its length is 33 
miles and its width varies from 6 to 12 miles. A range of moun- 
tains runs northeast to southwest, occupying the greater part of 
the island. The highest elevation is Snaefell (2,034 feet), which 
is justly celebrated for its lovely and picturesque scenery. The 
island is well watered. Some of the valleys have rich pastures, 
and where the land is somewhat level, grain is cultivated. 
Scientific farming has greatly increased the richness and fertility 
of the ground. The fisheries employ several thousand fishermen. 
Manufactures are inconsiderable, and consist mainly of manx 
cloth, cordage, nets, and canvas. Eailway communication exists 
between the various towns, and there are numerous excellent 
roads. The island is chiefly peopled by the Manx of the Celtic 
race. Druidie remains and Eunic monuments are numerous, and 
among ancient buildings special mention should be made of 
Castle Eushen (947), Eushen Abbey (1154), and Peel Castle. 
The modern building of Castle Monal (1801) is now used as a 
hotel. Man has a highly interesting history. In early years it 
frequently changed hands, passing under the dominion of the 
Welsh, the Scots, the Northumbrians, and the Norse. By 
Magnus VI. of Norway it was ceded to Alexander III. of Scot- 
land in 1266. About the beginning of the 15th century the island 
was bestowed upon Sir John Stanley, and remained in the pos- 
session of the Derby family — the head being "King of Man" — 
until it was surrendered to the Parliamentarians in 1651, after 
the famous and heroic defense attempted by Lady Derby. It was 
then granted to General Lord Fairfax, but at the restoration it 
again went to the Earl of Derby, in which attachment it 
remained until 1736. It then came by inheritance to the Dukes 
of Atholl, and in 1829 its final reversion to the Crown was 
effected by purchase. The island is an Anglican bishopric in the 
province of York. The bishopric is supposed to have been 
founded by St. Patrick in 447. The island has a government 
and constitution of its own, also laws, law officers, and court. 
The House of Keys, which controls its legislature, is very 
ancient. The two supreme judges are called deemsters. The 
government and laws have been well described by Hall Caine. 
The Manx language, a Celtic dialect, is still in common use, 
although the inhabitants speak English. 

Manchester, parliamentary and county borough, city and parish, in 
Lancashire, England, on rivers Irk, Irwell and Medlock, thirty- 


one miles east of Liverpool and 183 miles northwest of London 
by rail. Manchester has an interesting history. It was a 
British stronghold before it became a Eoman station. In Saxon 
times it belonged to Northumbria. It suffered much during 
the inroads of the Danes. Shortly after the Norman conquest 
it was granted to Koger of Poictiers about 1350. It became 
the center of the woolen industry. It next became the center 
of the cotton trade. In 1643 the city was captured from the 
Eoyalists by Sir Thomas Fairfax; and in the rebellions of 1715 
and 1745 it showed active and practical sympathy with the 
Stuart cause. The Bridgewater Canal was opened in 1758. In 
1830 the Manchester and Sheffield railway was opened, the sec- 
ond in England. Great distress prevailed in Manchester and 
throughout Lancashire during the Civil War in the United 
States, which caused a scarcity of raw cotton. Manchester 
possesses some magnificent buildings, mostly of modern date. 
The Town Hall erected in 1877 cost over $5,000,000 and covers 
8,000 square yards. The cotton, woolen and silk industries, 
engineering and the making of machinery give employment to 
most of the inhabitants. Manchester returns six members to 

Mangerton, mountain, County Kerry, six miles southeast of Killar- 
ney, has an altitude of 2,756 feet. 

March, Earl of, see Mortimer, Koger. 

Margate, municipal borough, parish, and popular seaside resort, 
Kent, in Isle of Thanet, 5 miles northwest of Eamsgate and 74 
miles east of London by rail. It contains 1,489 acres and a 
population of 23,118. The municipal borough, which received its 
charter in 1857, is a corporate member of the Cinque Port of 
Dover. Margate is the most familiar seaside resort of Londoners, 
of whom many thousands visit the place every year. It is con- 
nected with the neighboring towns by electric tram-cars. Much 
has been done in the town for the convenience and comfort of 
guests. The town is well known for its fine hotels and its hos- 
pital for the reception of invalids. Sea fishing is the chief 
industry. The famous landscape painter, J. M. W. Turner (1775- 
1851), was educated here. 

Marlborough, Duke of, see Churchill, John. 

Marsiglia, Battle of (Wars of King Louis XIV. of France), was 
fought in Italy, October 4, 1693, between the French, under 
Marshal Catinat, and the Austrians, Spanish and English, un- 
der the Duke of Savoy. The allies were attacked by the French, 
and, after severe fighting, driven across the Po with a loss of 
about 6,000 men. The Duke of Schomberg and Lord Warwick 
were taken prisoners. The loss of the French was slightly less. 

Martin, Saint (316?-400), was born about 316, at Sabaria, in Pan- 
nonia; consecrated Bishop of Tours, in France, about 374, and 
died November 8, 400. He is regarded as the Apostle of France. 

Mary II. (1662-1694), Queen of England, was born April 30, 1662, 
daughter of the Duke of York, afterwards King James II. of 


England, and Anne Hyde, daughter of the Earl of Clarendon. 
At the age of fifteen she was married to William, Prince of 
Orange, whom she followed from Holland to England in 1689. 
The same year the British parliament, having declared the crown 
vacant by the flight of King James II., conferred it upon William 
and Mary. She died December 28, 1694. 

Maryborough, market and county town with railway station 
(G. S. & W. E.), Queen's county, on Triogue rivulet, 51 miles 
southwest of Dublin. It contains 499 acres and 2,957 inhabit- 
ants. Maryborough has considerable trade and extensive corn 
mills. It is named after Queen Mary, in whose reign Queen's 
county was formed out of the territory of Leix. The town con- 
tains a district lunatic asylum, county infirmary, and military 

Mary, Queen of Scots, see Stuart, Mary. 

Maynooth ("plain of Madhat"), town with railway station (M. G. 
W. E.), County Kildare, on Eye water and Eoyal Canal, 15 miles 
west of Dublin. It has a population of 948. It contains the 
Eoyal College of St. Patrick (opened 1795), the principal educa- 
tional establishment of the Catholic Church in Ireland. There is 
also a Catholic church and convent. Maynooth castle, of which 
ruins still exist, was built by the FitzGeralds, probably in 1176. 

Mayo, a maritime county of Connaught province, bounded west 
and north by the Atlantic Ocean, northeast by County Sligo, 
east by County Eoscommon, and south by County Galway. Its 
greatest length, northwest and southeast, is 67 miles; greatest 
breadth, northeast and southwest, 53 miles; coast-line about 200 
miles. Mayo has an area of 1,380,390 acres (58,350 water), or 
6.5 per cent, of the total area of Ireland, and a population of 
199,166, of whom 194,504 are Catholics, 3,790 Episcopalians, 591 
Presbyterians, and 281 Methodists. The county is served by the 
M, G. W. E. and G. S. & W. E. Along the coast, which is bold 
and rugged, are Clem Bay, Blacksod Bay, Broad Haven, and 
Killala Bay; and the promontories of Achill Head, Erris Head, 
Benwee Head, and Downpatrick Head. Among the islands, 
which are numerous, the largest are Achill, Clare, Inishturk, 
Inishbofin, and Inishkea. The irregular peninsula of Belmullet, 
on the northwest, projects between Broad Haven and Blacksod 
Bay. Much of the surface is of a wild and mountainous charac- 
ter, especially in the western districts, where the summits range 
from 1,000 to 2,688 feet. The valley of the Moy and the country 
east of Castlebar consist of low-lying land well suited for pasture 
or tillage. The mountains are chiefly of quartz and mica-schist, 
and mountain limestone or limestone gravel is prevalent in 
other parts. Black marble is found in the southwest, and iron 
ore occurs at various places. The principal rivers are the Moy, 
Gwishenden, and Owenmore; there are numerous mountain 
streams. The largest loughs are Conn, Carra, Carrowmore, and 
Feeagh, while Loughs Mask and Corrib are on the south border. 
Agriculture — grazing rather than tillage — gives the chief employ- 


ment. The fisheries along the coast and the salmon fishery in 
the Moy are very productive; there are some manufactures of 
linen. The county comprises 57 parishes, and parts of five 
others, and the towns of Ballina, Westport, Castlebar (the county 
town), Ballinrobe, Swineford, and Claremorris. For parliamen- 
tary purposes the county is divided into four divisions — North, 
West, East and South Mayo — each returning one member. The 
representation of Mayo was increased from two to four members 
in 1885. The parliamentary constituencies together contain 
33,724 electors. 

Mayo, parish and hamlet. County Mayo, three miles south of Balla, 
has 11,847 acres and a population of 1,743. 

McGillicuddy's Reeks, a mountain group in County Kerry, six 
miles southwest of Killarney. They contain Carrantuohill (3,414 
feet), the loftiest summit in Ireland. 

Mean Castle, cliff castle near Land 's End, Cornwall. 

Meath, a maritime county of Leinster province, bounded north by 
Counties Cavan, Monaghan, and Louth, east by the Irish Sea, 
southeast by County Dublin, south by County Kildare and a 
small part of King's County, and west by County West Meath. 
Greatest length, northeast and southwest, 38 miles; greatest 
breadth, northwest and east, 45 miles; coast-line seven miles. 
Meath has an area of 579,320 acres (2,921 water), or 2.8 per 
cent, of the total area of Ireland, and a population of 67,497, of 
whom 62,643 are Catholics, 4,394 Episcopalians, 330 Presbyte- 
rians, and 66 Methodists. The county is served by the G. N. R. 
and M. G. W. R. The coast is low and sandy, and is broken 
only by the estuary of the Boyne, on the border of Louth. The 
surface is level or slightly undulating, and the soil is generally 
fertile. Limestone and clay slate are the prevailing sub-strata. 
The. county is beautifully diversified by numerous fine seats 
and luxuriant demesnes, while the ruins of old abbeys, castles, 
and other objects of antiquarian interest frequently occur. The 
principal river is the Boyne, dividing the county into two nearly 
equal portions; its chief tributary is the Blackwater. Agricul- 
ture and cattle grazing are the staple industries. The manu- 
facture of coarse linen and woolen is carried on. The county 
comprises 136 parishes, and part of 10 others, and the towns of 
Navan, Kells, and Trim (the county town). Meath gives the 
title of earl to the Brabazon family. For parliamentary pur- 
poses the county is divided into two divisions — North Meath and 
South Meath — each returning one member. The parliamentary 
constituencies together contain 11,816 electors. 

Mediterranean Sea, the ancient "Mare Internum," also the "Great 
Sea" of the Bible, an inland sea, enclosed east by Asia, south 
by Africa, and north by Europe, communicating with the Atlan- 
tic on the west by the Strait of Gibraltar, with the Black Sea 
on the northeast by the Sea of Marmora and the Dardanelles, 
and with the Red Sea on the southwest by the Suez Canal. Its 
greatest length is 2,330 miles. Width between Sicily and Cape 


Bon is 85 miles; and from Venice to tlie shores of the Gulf of 
Sidra is 1,050 miles. The surface is 1,007,220 square miles. The 
Tyrrhenian, Ionian, Adriatic, and iEgean seas are branches sepa- 
rating the great peninsulas of southern Europe and Asia Minor. 
The waters of the Mediterranean are noted for their deep blue 
color, and also, especially in the west, for great transparency. 
There is a steady surface inflow of the waters of the Atlantic 
through the Strait of Gibraltar, due probably to excessive evapo- 
ration, while there is a lower current flowing in the contrary 
direction. Waterspouts are common on the coast of Asia Minor. 
The shores of the Mediterranean are subject to earthquakes. 
Active volcanoes exist on the coast of Italy (Vesuvius), in the 
Lipari islands (Stromboli), in Sicily (Etna), and the Cyclades 
(Island of Santorin). The Mediterranean abounds in fish, and 
also furnishes fine coral and sponges. Since the opening of the 
Suez Canal, various molluscs, including the pearl oyster, have 
migrated inward from the Red Sea. The Mediterranean was 
called by the Hebrews the "Great Sea." The Phenedians are 
the first people known to have extended their commerce along 
its coasts. The Greeks afterwards disputed it with them and 
with the Carthaginians. After the destruction of Carthage the 
Romans were sole masters of its shores. In the latter part of 
the Middle Ages, Pisa, Genoa, and Venice were great maritime 
powers in the Mediterranean. At their close the Venetians 
almost monopolized its commerce. 
Michelet, Jules, (1798-1874), French historian, born in Paris in 
1798. He was chosen chief of the historical department •f 
the archives of France in 1830. Before this time he had pub- 
lished several historical works for schools. About 1832 he was 
appointed the substitute or successor of Guizot as professor 
of history at the Sorbonne. He published in 1831 a "Roman 
History: the Republic," and in 1833, the first volume of his 
"History of France." In 1838 he obtained the chair of his- 
tory and moral science in the College of France, and was elected 
a member of the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences. 
He became noted as an adversary of the Jesuits and the Catho- 
lic church. After the coup-d'etat of Louis Napoleon in De- 
cember, 1851 (refusing to take the oath), he lost his place in 
the archives, and his chair in the College of France. His prin- 
cipal works are a "History of the French Revolution," seven 
volumes in 1853; a "History of France," fourteen volumes in 
1862; "Love," in 1858; and "Woman," in 1859. These have 
been translated into English and often reprinted. "His his- 
tories present a profusion of poetical images with a brilliant 
style and ingenious generalizations." He also wrote "A Sketch 
of Modern History" in 1833; "The Sea" in 1861; "The Bible 
of Humanity" in 1864; and two posthumous works: "The 
Soldiers of the Revolution" in 1878, and "The Banquet" iu 
1879. He died February 5, 1874. 


Milesians. The Milesians were a colony which came from Spain, 
and are represented by our old annalists as originally Scythians. 
According to many authorities, some of the Scythian nations 
bordering on Phenicia and Syria became mixed with the Pheni- 
cians, and some of those mixed people of Scythian and Phenician 
origin, or Scytho-Phenicians who had settled in Spain, in very 
remote ages, are considered to have been ancestors of the Mile- 
sian colony that came to Ireland from Spain about a thousand 
years before the Christian era. The great affinity between the 
Phenician and Hiberno-Celtic or Irish language and alphabet has 
been shown by various learned antiquarians, and they have 
likewise pointed out a similarity between the Irish language 
and that of the Carthaginians, who were a colony of the Tyrians 
and Phenicians. The Phenician alphabet was first brought to 
Greece from Egypt by Cadmus, about fifteen centuries before 
the Christian era, and Phenix, brother of Cadmus, the Pheni- 
cian who first introduced letters among the Greeks and Pheni- 
cians, is considered to be the same as the celebrated Phenius of the 
old Irish historians, who state that he was king of Scythia, 
and ancestor of the Milesians of Spain, who came to Ireland, 
and being a man of great learning, is said to have invented 
the Irish alphabet which his Milesian posterity brought to 
Ireland, and it may be further observed that the Irish in their 
own language were from Phenius called Feine, a true Latinized 
Phenii, and signifying Phenicians. — C. and McD. See Chapter II, 

Mill, John Stuart (1806-1873), an English philosopher, was born 
in London. He was the son of the British economist and 
philosopher, James Mill, the founder of English associationism. 
His father directed his education and forced the child beyond 
his years. The year 1820 was spent mostly in the South of 
France, where he developed a love of travel and French litera- 
ture. He studied law with John Austin, a disciple of the 
utilitarian Bentham. He entered the service of the East India 
Company in 1823 and remained connected with it till 1856. He 
was the chief conductor of the Westminster Eeview 1835-40. 
His life after 1856 was chiefly directed to literary pursuits. As 
member of Parliament for Westminster, 1865-68, he acted with 
the advanced Radicals and advocated votes for women. He 
was a member of the Academie des Sciences Morales. He is 
the author of many philosophical works and is noted for his 
contributions to logic and ethics. In philosophy he was an 
empiricist, sensationalist and associationalist. In ethics he was 
a utilitarian, but departed from Bentham by recognizing differ- 
ences in quality as well as in quantity of pleasures. In polit- 
ical theory Mill believed that every man should be allowed 
all liberty compatible with the liberty of his fellows. His 
greatest work was in logic, to which he added a fruitful treat- 
ment of the subject of induction. He died at Avignon, France. 
Missouri, the principal branch of the Mississippi and the longest 
river of the United States. It is formed in Montana by the 


confluence of the Jefferson, Madison, and Gallatin rivers. The 
longest branch, the Jefferson, has its farthest source on the 
Continental divide in the Kocky mountains, two miles from the 
headwaters of the Snake (which empties into the Columbia and 
thence into the Pacific ocean). The middle and largest branch 
rises in the Yellowstone Park near the source of the Yellowstone 
river. From the junction of the three forks the Missouri flows 
north and east across Montana into North Dakota, where it 
describes a long curve to the southeast aud then crosses the 
whole width of South Dakota. It then separates Nebraska from 
Iowa and Missouri, forms the northeastern boundary of Kansas, 
flows east through Missouri, and joins the Mississippi 20 miles 
above St. Louis. Its length is about 2,950 miles. With the 
lower Mississippi it has a total length of 4,200 miles, which is 
longer than any other river in the world. The Missouri is a 
swift, turbid stream, navigable only by flat-bottomed boats. 
During high water it can be ascended to Grand Falls, 2,300 miles 
from its mouth. During low water it is navigable only as far as 
the Yellowstone. It has numerous large tributaries and drains 
the greater part of the territory between the Mississippi and the 
Kocky mountains. The area of the Missouri basin exceeds 500,000 
square miles. A number of thriving cities are located on the 
Missouri, including Kansas City, Leavenworth, Atchison, Omaha, 
Sioux City, Pierre, Bismarck, and Great Falls, the last being the 
center of a great copper-smelting industry which utilizes the 
power of the Falls, which here drop 350 feet in 16 miles. 
Monaghan, an inland county of Ulster province, bounded north by 
County Tyrone, east by County Armagh, southeast by County 
Louth, south by Counties Meath and Cavan, and west by Coun- 
ties Cavan and Fermanagh. Greatest length, northwest and 
southeast, 38 miles; greatest breadth, northeast and southwest, 
24 miles. Monaghan has an area of 319,741 acres (5,475 water), 
or 1.5 per cent, of the total area of Ireland, and a population of 
74,611, of whom 54,757 are Catholics, 9,528 Episcopalians, 9,532 
Presbyterians, and 423 Methodists. The surface is hilly or undu- 
lating, and bogs and lakes are frequent. Slaty rocks prevail, 
along with mountain limestone and sandstone. Iron and lead 
ore, antimony, manganese, marble, and traces of coal occur in 
different districts. The soil varies from moor to a stiff clay, 
and is fertile in the more level parts. The principal crops are 
oats, barley, potatoes, and flax. Spade husbandry has been 
generally followed. The manufacture of linen is carried on. The 
principal streams are the branches of the Erne. The Ulster 
Canal passes through the county. The county comprises 17 
parishes, and part of six others, and the towns of Monaghan, 
Clones, Carrickmacross, Castleblaney, and Ballybay. For parlia- 
mentary purposes the county is divided into two divisions — 
North Monaghan and South Monaghan — one member for each 
division. The parliamentary constituencies together contain 
13,262 electors. 


Monaghan ("a place full of shrubberies"), market town, parish, 
urban district, and county town of Monaghan, with railway sta- 
tion (G. N. I. E.), on the Ulster Canal, 52 miles southwest of 
Belfast by rail. The parish has an area of 13,546 acres and a 
population of 6,875; the urban district has 170 acres and a popu- 
lation of 2,932. Monaghan contains the Catholic cathedral for 
the diocese of Clogher. Monaghan Lough is close to the town. 

Monaster, the seat of Monaster House, is situated in the parish of 
Monasteraneuagh, in County Limerick on Eiver Commogue, two 
miles east of Croom. The parish contains 7,618 acres and 705 
inhabitants. The ruin of the Abbey of Monasteranenagh is here. 

Monk, George (1608-1670), Duke of Albemarle, was descended 
from the Plantagenets, and born in Devonshire, England. At the 
age of seventeen he served under his relative. Sir Eichard Gren- 
ville, in an expedition against Spain; and in 1620 he went as an 
ensign to the Low Countries, where he obtained a captain 's 
commission. In 1639 he attended King Charles I. to Scotland, 
and was made lieutenant-colonel; afterwards he went to Ireland, 
and for his services in the civil war there was appointed 
Governor of Dublin. On his return to England with his regiment 
(1643), he was made major-general in the Irish brigade, then 
employed in the siege of Nantwich, Cheshire, where he was 
taken prisoner and sent to the Tower of London. After remain- 
ing in confinement for about three years, he was induced to 
accept a commission under the British Parliament against the 
Irish Confederates and royalists, in which service he became 
Governor of Ulster, and in 1648 captured Eobert Munro, com- 
mander of the royalist Scots in Ireland. But as Governor of 
Carrickfergus he at last fell under censure for concluding a 
treaty with Owen Eoe O'Neill, the leader of the Confederates. 
Upon this, he gave up the command and retired to his estate, 
but was soon called to serve with Cromwell in Scotland, where 
he bore a part in the decisive battle of Dunbar, after which he 
was left in command of the English forces in that kingdom. 
In 1653 he joined Blake and Dean in the British naval service 
against the Dutch fleet commanded by Van Tromp, with whom 
two battles were fought that year, in both of which the English 
were victorious. By his diplomacy and judgment he brought 
about the restoration of Charles II. in 1660, without bloodshed 
or confusion. After this he was created Duke of Albemarle and 
Knight of the Garter. In 1661 he was made lord-lieutenant of 
Ireland, but withdrew in favor of Ormond. In 1664 he com- 
manded the fleet against the Dutch. He died in 1670 and was 
buried in Westminster Abbey. 

Monroe, Monro or Munro, Eobert (died in 1680?), a Scotch sol- 
dier, who took a prominent part in the Irish civil war in 
1641-52. He distinguished himself in Flanders, and afterwards 
in the Thirty Years ' War. On his return to Scotland he zealously 
espoused the cause of the Covenant, and "appears to have 
had much real enjoyment in ruthlessly carrying out its behests. ' ' 


In 1642 he passed over to Ireland to reinforce the Scotch Pres- 
byterians there. The position of the Scotch force in Ireland 
(opposed alike to the Irish Catholics and the royalists) is as 
difficult to follow as that of the other parties among whom 
Ireland was desolated for eleven years. In April he landed 
with 2,500 Scotch at Carrickfergus in Ulster, and being joined 
by Lord Conway and Colonel Chichester with 1,800 foot, five 
troops of light horse and two of dragoons, advanced to Newry. 
The Irish Confederates almost immediately quitted the town, 
and the castle was surrendered. Monroe put sixty men, eight- 
een women and two priests to death, and leaving a garrison of 
300 men, set out on the 7th for Carrickfergus, wasting the coun- 
try and driving off a herd of 4,000 cattle. After a short delay 
he again marched out into County Antrim, burnt Glenarm and 
carried off great herds of cattle. He was hospitably received 
at Dunluce by the Earl of Antrim, who "proffered his service 
and assistance in the pacification of the country," and provided 
for him a great entertainment; but it was no sooner over than 
Monroe made him a prisoner and occupied the castle. Con- 
fining his operations to Ulster, he overran the Counties of Down 
and Antrim and shipped off such numbers of cattle to Scotland 
that the lords justices at Dublin felt obliged to interfere and 
complained to the English Parliament, in whose interest Monroe 
was acting. In May next year he unsuccessfully endeavored 
to surprise Owen Roe 'Neill at Charlemont and was obliged 
to retreat with the loss of 100 men and a large number of 
cattle he had taken. In May, 1644, he seized Belfast, pre- 
viously in occupation of an English force. In July of the same 
year he advanced into County Cavan with an army of 10,000 
foot and 1,000 horse and sent parties into West Meath and 
Longford, which burnt the houses and crops and put to the sword 
all the country people they met. Besides this expedition he 
conducted several similar movements during his command in 
Ulster. He was totally defeated by Owen Roe 'Neill at the 
decisive battle of Benburb, in June, 1646. See Chapter XXXVI). 
In September, 1647, when in command of Carrickfergus, the 
town was, through the treachery of his own officers, delivered 
up to General Monk, and he was sent prisoner to the Tower 
of London, where he lay for five years. Although a captive, he 
is supposed to have had considerable influence with Cromwell. 
Excepted from pardon for life and estate in 1649, he was ulti- 
mately permitted to return to Ireland and secured part of his 
estates. He married the second Viscountess Montgomery, and 
resided at Mount Alexander in County Down, until her decease 
in 1670. His brother. Sir George Monroe, served with him both 
under Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden and also in Ireland, and 
was commander-in-chief of the English forces in Scotland after 
the Restoration. General G. F. Monroe of the British army is 
the lineal descendant of Sir George. The subject of this sketch 
published in 1637 aii account of his services under the Swedish 


king entitled "Monroe's Expedition Under the Invincible King 
of Sweden." 

Montalemljert, Count de, see Forbes, Charles. 

Montorio, town in Italy in the province and district of Eome, 1,560 

Moore, Sir John (1761-1809), British general, was born at Glasgow, 
Scotland. His father was a Scottish physician and writer. 
Educated at the University of Glasgow. At the age of fifteen 
he became ensign in a regiment of foot. He greatly distin- 
guished himself for skill and bravery during the Corsica cam- 
paign in 1794. In 1796 he was sent to the West Indies, as 
brigadier-general under Sir Ralph Abercromby, who appointed 
him to the government of St. Lucia, Windward Islands, in the 
capture of which he had a principal share. After his return to 
England in 1797 he was employed in Ireland during the Insur- 
rection of '98, and was raised to the rank of major-general. 
In 1799 he went on the expedition to Holland, and afterwards 
to the Mediterranean. On his return to England he was made a 
Knight of the Bath; and in 1808 was appointed to command an 
army in Spain, where, after a famous retreat before a French 
superior force, he was mortally wounded near the walls of 
Corunna, January 16, 1809. His death has been commemorated 
by the distinguished Irish poet, Eev. Charles Wolfe, in his 
' ' Burial of Sir John Moore, ' ' which Lord Byron considered to be 
the most perfect ode in the English language. 

Morna, Clanna. The Clanna (or Clan) Morna, so called from 
Morna, one of their celebrated chiefs, were the warriors of 
Connaught and of the Firbolg race, called Damnonians, and 
were afterwards commanded by a famous champion named Goll 
(or Gaul), the son of Morna. He flourished in the second cen- 
tury of our era. — C. and McD. See Chapters I. and V. 

Mortimer, Roger (1374-1398), fourth Earl of March, was the son 
of Edmund, third Earl of March, whom he succeeded in 1381. 
He married Eleanor, daughter of Thomas de Holland, Earl of 
Kent. He was brought up as a royal ward and proclaimed heir 
to the English throne by King Richard II. in 1386. He accom- 
panied Richard II. to Ireland in 1394; was made lord-governor of 
Ulster, Connaught, and Meath in 1395, and lord-lieutenant of 
Ireland in 1397. He was killed in a skirmish at Kells, in Kil- 
kenny. See Chapter XIX. 

Moses (B. C. 15701-1450'?), Hebrew lawgiver or legislator and 
prophet, born in Egypt about 1570 B. C, was a son of Amram, 
of the Hebrew tribe of Levi. In consequence of a royal edict 
that all male infants of the Hebrews should be put to death, 
he was deposited by his mother in an ark or basket on 
the border of the Nile and found by King Pharaoh's 
daughter, who adopted him as her son. He became "learned 
in all the wisdom of the Egpytians and mighty in words and 
deeds," and about 1530 began to consider the liberation of the 
oppressed Hebrews. Having incurred the anger of Pharaoh by 


his active sympathy with his own race, he fled to Midian, 
where he served as a shepherd for many years. He received 
what he deemed a divine mission to bring the children of Israel 
out of Egypt to the land of Canaan. Under his guidance the 
Israelites, or "chosen people," passed through the Eed Sea into 
the wilderness. "He was instrumental in composing for his 
people a code of laws called by his name, and is the supposed 
author of the book of Genesis and other books of the Penta- 
teuch in the Bible." The form of government which he estab- 
lished for the Hebrews was a theocracy. The fundamental 
principles of the Mosaic law were that man must worship the 
only true God exclusively, and love his neighbor as himself. 
Having appointed Joshua as his successor, and obtained a dis- 
tant view of the promised land, Moses died on Mount Pisgah 
about 1450. 

Mountjoy, Lord (Earl of Devonshire), see Blount, Sir Charles. 

Moybolg, parish, Counties Meath and Cavan, three miles south of 
Bailieborough. It contains 6,760 acres and 966 inhabitants. 

Moytura, Plain of, extreme southeast of County Mayo, and adjoin- 
ing Cong. It is supposed to be the site of a very ancient battle- 
field where was fought the battle of South Moytura about B. C. 
1300. Opposite Cong are five stone circles, one of which is 54 
feet in diameter. 

Mullamast, hill, six miles northeast of Athy, County Kildare. It is' 
563 feet high. 

Munster, province, in southwest of Ireland, bounded on the north 
by Connaught, east by Leinster, and south and west by the 
Atlantic Ocean. Greatest length, northeast and southwest, 150 
miles; greatest breadth, 110 miles; average breadth, 75 miles. 
Area, 6,093,775 acres, or 29.3 per cent, of the total area of 
Ireland. Population, 1,076,188 (or 8. 3 per cent, less than in 1891), 
of whom 93.6 per cent, are Catholics, 5.3 Episcopalians, 0.3 Pres- 
byterians, and 0.5 Methodists. Previous to the conquest of 
Ireland, in the reign of Henry II., Munster was divided into 
the two kingdoms of North Munster (now County Clare) and 
South Munster. In the reign of Queen Elizabeth upwards of 
574,000 acres of Munster were forfeited to the crown by rebel- 
lion, and granted to English colonists. Munster comprises six 
counties — Clare, Cork, Kerry, Limerick, Tipperary, and Water- 

Music. In music the ancient Irish were highly celebrated. Giral- 
dus Cambrensis (Gerald de Barry), the "Welsh ecclesiastic, who 
came to Ireland with the English (Anglo-Normans) in the lat- 
ter end of the twelfth century, in the reign of King John, ex- 
tols the skill of the Irish in music, and says in a passage too 
long to be here quoted that in his time they excelled in music 
and minstrelsy all the European nations. The Irish in former 
ages were the most famous harpers in Europe, and continued 
eminent in the art even down to modern times. Turlough O'Caro- 
lan, the last and greatest of the Irish bards, a celebrated 


harper and composer, died in 1738 in the sixty-eighth year of 
his age, at Alderford, in Koscommon, the residence of his great 
patron, MacDermott Koe, and was buried in the old church of 
Kilronan. — C. and McD. 

Naas^ market and assize town, parish, and urban district, with 
railway station (G. S. & W. K.), County Kildare, on a branch of 
the Grand Canal, 20 miles southwest of Dublin by rail. The 
parish contains 5,526 acres and 4,036 inhabitants. The urban 
district contains 4,541 acres and 3,836 inhabitants. Naas has a 
fine military barrack and also a constabulary barrack. It was 
the seat of the kings of Leinster, and at one time possessed a 
castle and three monasteries. 

Napoleon I. or Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821), Emperor of the 
French, was born at Ajaccio, in the Island of Corsica in 1769, 
the same year that Wellington (his opponent at Waterloo) first 
saw the light. He attended a military school in France from 
1779 to 1784, and showed particular aptitude for history and 
mathematics. Entered the French army as sub-lieutenant in 
1785, and in 1792 had risen to the rank of captain of artillery. 
In 1793 he submitted a plan for the reduction of Toulon, France, 
held by the English and Spaniards, and was entrusted with its 
execution. His success in this undertaking won for him a com- 
mission as brigadier-general. In 1794, on the fall of Eobespierre, 
Napoleon was suspended and put under arrest, his detention, 
however, being of short duration. In the spring of 1795, on the 
remodeling of the French army, he was again suspended and 
placed on half pay, the only reason given by the authorities 
being that he was too young to command the artillery of an 
army. In the fall, on the breaking out of a formidable insur- 
rection led by the National Guard, the whole force of insur- 
gents numbering more than 30,000, the convention recalled 
Napoleon, who, with only 5,000 regulars and 1,500 volunteers, 
gained a brilliant victory after a brief but sanguinary engage- 
ment. This victory made him virtually commander-in-chief of 
the French army of the interior. In 1796 he was appointed 
to the command-in-chief of the army invading Italy, and in the 
same year married Josephine de Beauharnais. In his very first 
campaign Napoleon appeared a consummate general. His pe- 
culiar and original mode of attack consisted in precision of 
movement, concentration of forces and formidable charges upon 
a determinate point. In a few weeks he gained four victories, 
conquered Lombardy and laid seige to Mantua, which he cap- 
tured after almost annihilating three Austrian armies. Napo- 
leon then turned his arms against Pope Pius VI., compelling 
him to pay 30,000,000 lire and surrender many valuable works 
of art. After defeating another Austrian army sent to Italy, 
Napoleon concluded a treaty securing his brilliant success. In 
1798 he was given command of a powerful expedition into Egypt, 
the intention being to strike at the power of Great Britain, 
and gained a decisive victory over the Mamelukes and Turk- 


ish auxiliaries at the Battle of the Pyramids and another at 
Aboukir. Returning to France, he overthrew the Directory and 
was elected first consul. In 1800 he gained the great victci-y 
of Marengo. Made peace with England, 1802, granted general 
amnesty, established public order, re-established the Catholic 
faith and produced his "Civil Code." Napoleon became Em- 
peror in 1804, and engaged in war with England, Sweden, Rus- 
sia and Prussia. Divorced from Josephine in 1809, he married 
Maria Louise, daughter of the Emperor of Austria in 1810. In 
1812 occurred the ill-fated Russian campaign, Napoleon's loss 
being estimated at 450,000 men. Beaten at Leipsic, 1813, he 
made a disastrous retreat. In 1814 the allies entered Paris, 
compelled Napoleon to abdicate, and sent him to Elba, grant- 
ing him the sovereignty of that island, with a yearly pension 
of 6,000,000 francs. Returning again to France the next year, 
he was enthusiastically received and raised an army of about 
125,000, but was completely defeated by overwhelming numbers 
and adverse circumstances at Waterloo, Sunday, June 18, 1815. 
He abdicated again, and, unable to carry out his intention 
of embarking for America, he surrendered to the captain of a 
British man-of-war. Carried to the island of St. Helena, he 
died there in 1821, after nearly six years' captivity. "During 
his marvelous career he fought over 100 battles and lost only 
two." He is considered the greatest military genius of modern 
times, perhaps of all time. 

Nassau, Henry (1641-1708), Count and Lord of Auverquerque, in 
the Netherlands, general, was the third son of Louis, Count of 
Nassau. He accompanied William Prince of Orange (afterwards 
King William III.), to England in 1688 as captain of his body- 
guard; was appointed his master of the horse in 1689, and the 
same year was naturalized by act of the English Parliament. 
He fought at the battle of the Boyne, and afterwards occupied 
Dublin with nine troops of horse, and served at Limerick. In 
1691 he was promoted major-general, and general in 1697. In 
command of the Dutch forces, with the rank of field marshal, 
he co-operated with the Duke of Marlborough in the earlier 
campaigns of the war of the Spanish Succession, and died in 
the camp before Lille, France, October 17, 1708. 

Neagb, lough, in Ulster province, bordering north and east on 
County Antrim, south on Counties Armagh and Down, and west 
on Counties Tyrone and Londonderry. It is the largest sheet of 
fresh water in the British Islands, being 18 miles by 11 miles, 
and 65 miles in circuit; 48 feet above sea-level; greatest depth, 
102 feet; and area, 153 square miles. It is considered by Pro- 
fessor Hull to be the oldest existing lake in the British Islands, 
and to be older than the glacial epoch. It has flat, sandy shores 
and contains only a few small islands. It contains trout; also, 
pollen, or "fresh-water herring," which are supplied, along with 
eels, to the Manchester, Liverpool, and other English markets. 
Chalcedony pebbles, found in the sand and clay, are manufac- 


tured into seals and other ornaments. Its great outlet is the 
river Bann, which issues from the northwest extremity. A canal 
connects it with Belfast, Newry, and Lough Erne. 

Nemedians. The Nemedians, who were Celto-Scythians, came from 
the country near the Euxine Sea, and were located chiefly in 
Ulster at Ardmacha, or Armagh; in Derry, and Donegal; and 
at the hill of Usneach, in Meath. — C, and McD. See Chapter I. 

Nesta (fl. 1106), a beautiful Welsh princess, was a daughter of 
Ehys ap Tudor Mawr, Prince of South Wales. Seven of her 
sons became lords of cantreds in South Wales, and from her 
descended some of the most famous of the Welsh-Norman in- 
vaders of Ireland. Her children by Gerald of Windsor, constable 
of Pembroke Castle were William FitzGerald (father of Eaymond 
FitzGerald), Maurice FitzGerald, and David FitzGerald, the 
Bishop of St. David's. A daughter by this marriage married 
William de Barry, and was the mother of Gerald de Barry 
(Giraldus Cambrensis); another daughter was the mother of 
Richard and Miles de Cogan. By Stephen, constable of Cardi- 
gan, she was the mother of Robert FitzStephen. Nesta also 
had two sons by King Henry I. of England. One son by this 
marriage, Henry FitzRoy, was the father of Miler and Robert 
FitzHenry. See Chapter XI. 

Newark, municipal borough, market town and parish (Newark upon 
Trent), 18 miles northeast of Nottingham and 120 miles from 
London by rail. Newark has ancient British and Roman associa- 
tions. The castle, now an imposing ruin, is supposed to have 
been founded by Egbert, King of the West Saxons. Here King 
John died in 1216. Three sieges were sustained by the town 
during the CivU War, and it was surrendered to the Scottish 
army in 1646. Newark contains 1,931 acres and 14,992 inhabit- 
ants. It is connected with the Trent navigation and carries 
on a large trade in malt and flour. Its corn market is one of 
the largest in the kingdom. Ironfounding, brassfounding, brew- 
ing, and the manufacture of boilers and agricultural implements 
are conspicuous industries. The grammar school was founded 
in 1529. The town has long been known for the manufacture 
of a special plaster, in which it does a large trade, 

Newcastle, village with railway station (D. W. & W, E.), on coast 
of County Wicklow, on river Little Vartry, six miles north of 
Wicklow and 22 miles southeast of Dublin by rail. It has a 
population of 144. 

Newcastle, parish and hamlet, County Dublin, on Grand Canal, two 
miles south of Hazlehatch railway station. It contains 4,158 
acres and 494 inhabitants. 

Newcastle, market town and parish with railway station (G. S. & 
W. R.), in county and 27 miles southwest of Limerick, near river 
Deel. The parish contains 5,424 acres and 2,393 inhabitants. 
The population of the town is 2,599. 

Newcastle, seaport town with railway station (B. & C. D. E.), 
County Down, on Dundrum Bay, 11 miles southwest of Down- 


Patrick. It has 1,553 inhabitants. It is a bathing resort. Many 
of the inhabitants are employed in fishing. The town is finely 
situated near the base of Slieve Donard mountain. 

New England, a collective name applied to former British posses- 
sions in North America, now comprising the six northeast states 
of the Union: — Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, 
Ehode Island, and Connecticut. The inhabitants were largely 
descendants of Puritans and Presbyterians, and are familiarly 
designated as Yankees. 

Newgate, the name of a celebrated prison in London, England. 
It was located at the west end of Newgate Street, opposite Old 
Bailey. It was at the new gate of the ancient city. It was 
established at the beginning of the 12th century. If the prisoners 
in old times were without means, they had to rely upon alms 
for food; frequently they were detained for years before secur- 
ing a hearing or trial. In 1218 Henry III. commanded the sheriffs 
of London to repair the prison. Its inmates were of all cate- 
gories — prisoners of state, and the most abandoned criminals 
were alike committed to it. A dark den in ancient times, it 
was for centuries ravaged by deadly diseases. The original 
building was destroyed by fire in 1666, but was rebuilt in 1770. 
In 1808 Mrs. Fry began her labors for improving the terrible 
conditions which had characterized the place for centuries. After 
1868 executions took place inside its walls. Newgate ceased to 
be used as a place of incarceration in 1877. In 1902 the building 
was pulled down. The name also of a celebrated prison in 
Dublin, Ireland. 

New Eoss or Ross, market town, river port, and urban district with 
railway station (D. W. & W. R.), County Wexford, on river 
Barrow, 13 miles northeast of Waterford and 102 miles south of 
Ihiblin by rail. It contains 461 acres and 5,847 inhabitants. 
The Barrow is here crossed by an iron bridge (1869), with a 
portcullis for navigation. Vessels of 200 tons can reach the 
quays at all times of the tide, and those of 800 tons at high tides. 
Large quantities of provisions and agricultural produce are 

Newry ("The yew tree"), parliamentary borough, market and sea- 
port town, parish, and urban district, with railway stations 
(G. N. I. R.), on Newry river and Canal, five miles from the head 
of Carlingford Lough, 44 miles south of Belfast, and 74 miles 
north of Dublin by rail. The parish contains 22,361 acres, and 
19,007 inhabitants. The parliamentary borough contains 2,551 
acres, and 13,137 inhabitants. The urban district, 697 acres and 
12,405 inhabitants. The parliamentary contituency contains 2,307 
electors. Newry is a clean, well-built and thriving town. It is 
one of the most important ports for the exportation of cattle and 
all kinds of agricultural produce to Liverpool, Dublin, etc. There 
is extensive importation and wholesale trade in staple com- 
modities. Other industries include brewing, tanning, rope- 
making, and the manufacture of machinery and agricultural im- 


plements. The granite from the neighboring quarries is cut, 
polished and exported. Newry is an ancient place. It had an 
abbey founded in 1175, and a castle, which was destroyed by 
Edward Bruce in 1318. The town was nearly destroyed by the 
IXike of Berwick in 1689, but revived with the making of the 
Canal in 1741. Newry gives the title of Viscount to the Earl of 
Kilmorey. It returns one member to parliament. 

Newtowntoarry, market town and seat, St. Mary's parish, County 
Wexford, in a fine situation at the confluence of the rivers Clady 
and Slaney, nine miles northwest of Ferns, and nine miles south- 
west of Shillelagh. It has 890 inhabitants. It was taken by the 
insurgents in 1798. Newtownbarry House is on the east bank 
of the river. 

Newtown Butler, village with railway station (G. N. I. E.), County 
Fermanagh, five miles west of Clones, and 44 miles northwest of 
Dundalk by rail. It has 396 inhabitants. Newton Butler gives 
the title of Baron to the family of Butler, Earls of Lanesborough, 
who had the manor; no traces of the seat now remain. 

New York, chief city of the United States in population, wealth 
and commerce, and after London the largest city in the world. In 
1898 the boundaries of New York (originally Manhattan Island) 
were extended to Kings County, and part of Queens County, on 
Long Island, Kiehmond County (Staten Island), and part of the 
towns of East Chester and Pelham, south of Westchester County 
— embracing 309 square miles. New York was discovered by 
Henry Hudson in 1609; first permanent Dutch settlement in 1621. 
Old Peter Minuit, the first governor-general of the Dutch colony 
in New Netherland, is said to have bought the whole island 
from the Indians for about $25.00; the value of the ground 
alone in 1895 was estimated at $2,500,000,000. The Indian name 
of Manhattan was changed to New Amsterdam in 1647, and to 
New York after seizure by the English in 1664. It was the 
national capital for about six years, 1784-90. Greater New York 
has a population (1910) of 4,766,883. Previous to 1874 the 
city did not extend beyond Manhattan Island. 

Niagara River ("thunder of water"), between Canada and the 
United States, connecting lakes Erie and Ontario, having a 
north course of thirty-six miles from the former to the latter, 
and a total descent in that distance of 336 feet. It descends 
fifty-two feet in the rapids above the falls. It encloses many 
islands; the largest. Grand Island, is twelve miles long and 
two to seven miles broad. Twenty-two miles from Lake Erie 
it forms the famous Falls of Niagara, where the river is pre- 
cipitated over a vast ledge of Silurian limestone, forming two 
cataracts separated by Goat Island, which is 1,000 feet in width. 
Niagara stands pre-eminent among the great cataracts of the 
world. The energy of Niagara Falls has recently been utilized 
for industrial purposes. 

Nore, river, rises near Eosecrea, County Tipperary, and flows south- 
east through Queen's County and County Kilkenny to Eiver 


Barrow, two miles above New Eoss. It is 70 miles long, is 
tidal to Innistioge, and navigable for barges to Thomastown. 

Normandy, an ancient province of France, bounded north and west 
by the English Channel and traversed by the Seine. It had an 
area of 10,500 square miles. It was divided into Upper Nor- 
mandy in the east, and Lower Normandy in the center, south and 
west. The capital of the former was Eouen, which was the 
capital of all Normandy, and that of the latter was Caen. Nor- 
mandy consists of fertile plateaus. In the southeast there is a 
broken and very picturesque region. Normandy has fine pastures 
and is noted for its dairy produce and apples. Among the towns 
on the coast of Normandy are Dieppe, Havre, Honfleur, Harfleur, 
Cherbourg and Granville. Trouville is the principal sea-bathing 
resort. The region derives its name from the Northmen (Nor- 
mans), who descended upon it in the 9th century and were 
formally granted possession by the French king about 911. 
William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy, conquered England 
in 1066. The duchy was wrested from England and united to 
France by Philip Augustus in 1202-04. It was again in the 
hands of the English in the first half of the 15th century, being 
finally reconquered by the French in 1449-50. Simultaneously 
with the conquest of England, the Normans established their 
sway in Southern Italy and Sicily, where an independent kingdom 
was founded. Normandy is now divided into the departments of 
Seine-Inferieure, Euro, Calvados, Manche and Orne. 

Normans, see Anglo-Normans. 

Norris, Sir John (1547M597), President of Munster, son of 
Henry Norris, Baron Norris of Eycote, England. He served 
as a volunteer under Admiral Coligny in the civil wars of France 
and distinguished himself in the Low Countries; in 1575 served 
under Lord Essex in Ireland, and in July carried out the mas- 
sacre on Eathlin Island. He was appointed President of Muns- 
ter in June, 1584. In 1589 he was joint commander with Drake 
in an expedition against Spain. In February, 1595, he lauded 
in Ireland a force of some 2,000 veteran troops to oppose Hugh 
O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone, and the confederate chieftains of the 
North. He and his brother, Sir Thomas Norris, were wounded 
in an effort to revictual Armagh in the same summer. Next 
year he headed a great force against O'Neill, O'Donnell, and 
the northern chieftains, and placed garrisons at Cong, Galway, 
Athenry, Kilconnell, Ballinasloe, Eoscommon, Tulsk and Boyle. 
He was knighted in Christ Church, Dublin, in April, 1597, and 
died in 1597. 

Norris, Sir Thomas (1556-1599), President of Munster, born prob- 
ably in Oxfordshire, England, younger brother of Sir John 
Norris, distinguished himself in the wars of Ireland. He was 
the fifth son of Henry Norris, Baron Norris of Eycote, Oxford- 
shire, and educated at Oxford. One of his brothers was Sir 
Edward Norris. He became captain of a troop of horse in Ire- 
land in 1579. He figures on several occasions in the Annals 


of the Four Masters and in Fynes Moryson's "Itinerary." In 
1588 he accompanied Sir Richard Bingham in an expedition 
against Connaught; in 1595 he and his brother John were 
wounded in a skirmish near Athlone, and in September, 1597, 
he was appointed President of Munster in Sir John's place, 
having been already vice-president thereof for some years. He 
was mortally wounded in a conflict with the Burkes near Kil- 
mallock in the summer of 1599, and died six weeks afterwards. 

North, Frederick (1732-1792), English politician, second Earl of 
Guilford, better knows as Lord North. He was educated at 
Eton, Oxford and Leipsic. In 1767 he became chancellor of the 
exchequer and leader of the House of Commons, and in 1770 
first lord of the treasury. He was responsible for the tea tax 
and the American Eevolution. Though bitterly assailed by 
Burke, Fox, Lord Chatham and other liberal leaders, he con- 
tinued in office until the surrender of Lord Cornwallis at York- 
town, Virginia, U. S. A., when he resigned (1782). In the session 
of 1779-80 he granted free commerce to Ireland, which had been 
previously thwarted by the jealousy of the English manufac- 
turers. In 1783 he combined with Fox and overthrew the 
Shelburne ministry. In March, 1783, he became secretary of 
state in the coalition ministry, but after its dissolution nine 
months later, was dismissed, when Pitt became premier. He 
succeeded his father as Earl of Guilford in 1790. 

Northampton, parliamentary and county borough and capital of 
Northamptonshire, on Eiver Nen, 65 miles northwest of London 
by rail. The parliamentary borough contains 1,972 acres and 
76,070 inhabitants. The county borough contains 3,469 acres 
and 87,021 inhabitants. The town has a high degree of historical 
interest. In 921, it was a possession of the Danes, by whom it 
was burnt in 1010. After the conquest it was a royal residence; 
and, beginning with 1179 was the meeting-place of several 
parliaments, one of which ratified the "Treaty of Northampton," 
which acknowledged the independence of Scotland (1328). Henry 
VI. was defeated and taken prisoner here in the sanguinary 
battle of July 10, 1460. The old castle and walls, dating from 
the 11th century, were demolished in 1662. Here also is the 
Knights Templars church, one of the four round churches of 
England, and a beautiful Eleanor cross. All Saints church 
was rebuilt by Wren (1680), after being burnt by the great 
fire, which nearly destroyed the town in 1675. Northampton is 
the principal seat of the boot and shoe manufacture in England. 
The borough returns two members to parliament, and has an 
electorate of 12,352. 

North Sea, or German Ocean, that part of the Atlantic between 
the eastern coast of Great Britian and the continent of Europe. 
It is pear-shaped in outline, with a wide opening northward, and 
a narrowing arm extending southward to the Strait of Dover, 
which, with the English Channel forms the southern connection 
with the Atlantic. It connects with the Baltic on the east 


through the Skaggerack, Cattegat and three sounds. Its greatest 
width from Scotland to Jutland is 412 miles; its greatest length, 
from north to south, is 680 miles; and it area is about 200,000 
square miles, of which 2,500 square miles are occupied by islands. 
The depth varies from 100 feet in the south to 400 feet in the 
north. There is a trough 1,000 feet deep along the precipitous 
coast of Norway. And over the Dogger Bank, in the center of the 
southern half, the depth is only 60 feet to 100 feet, the sur- 
rounding depths being 100 to 200 feet. The tides are irregular, 
because two tidal waves enter, one from the north and one from 
the south. Eain and fogs occur at all seasons. The fisheries of 
the North Sea provide support for many thousand inhabitants 
of the surrounding countries. 
Norway, a country forming the northwest portion of Europe and 
occupying the west and northwest parts of the Scandinavian 
Peninsula. It is bounded on the east by Eussian Lapland and 
Sweden, and washed on all other sides by the sea. The length, 
southwest to northeast, is about 1,050 miles. The width varies 
from 20 miles to 260 miles. The area is 124,100 square miles. 
Although a part of Norway is situated within the Arctic circle, 
various causes contribute to moderate the temperature, notably 
the great extent of sea-coast and the Gulf-stream. The year is 
nearly divided between winter and summer. Pine trees clothe 
the mountain slopes with magnificent forests. Oak, birch, beech 
and elm forests flourish. The whale, cod and herring fisheries 
of Norway are of very great value. The rivers and lakes 
abound in salmon and trout. There are extensive beds of 
oysters on all coasts. The exportation of fish is the most im- 
portant branch of trade. Next to this is the export of timber, 
wooden manufactures, timber products, paper and paper manu- 
factures, hides, ice and the products of the mines and metal 
forges. For a century prior to 1905, Norway was united with 
Sweden under one limited hereditary monarch, but with a sep- 
arate Norwegian ministry and legislature. In 1905 the nation 
severed its connection with Sweden and is now ruled by a con- 
stitutional monarch and the "Storthing" (great court), which 
is elected by the citizens every three years. Universal suffrage 
exists. A voter must have completed his twenty-fifth year. There 
are no titles of nobility in Norway. The capital is Christiania. 
The population in 1900 was 2,239,880. The increase in the 
decade preceding was 12 per cent. The history of Norway 
prior to the 9th century is enveloped in fable. Towards the 
close of that century, the hitherto divided country was united 
into a kingdom by Harald Haarfagr. Before this time the 
Northmen (Norwegians, Danes) had become the terror of 
Western Europe. Their inroads into Britain began about 789, 
and a little later the Prankish dominions were invaded. Ireland 
was harassed by the Danes from 795 until 1014. They pillaged 
Paris repeatedly in the 9th century, and about 911 obtained 
cession of a part of France, afterwards called Normandy. In 


874 they settled in Iceland, and a century later the Icelanders 
began to colonize Greenland. The mainland of America is sup- 
posed to have been discovered by Northmen about 1000. From 
the side of Sweden, too, the Scandinavians advanced on a career 
of conquest. The Varangians, supposed to have been Northmen, 
laid the foundation of the Russian empire at Novgorod, about 
862, and a few years later we find them before the walls of 
Constantinople. The Christianization of Norway was effected 
in the course of the 10th and 11th centuries. In Ireland the 
Scandinavians suffered a great overthrow at Clontarf, in 1014. 
For a time the Norwegians were in possession of the Orkney 
and Shetland Islands, and the Hebrides. Their last invasion of 
Scotland was repelled in 1263. In 1397, Margaret, queen of 
Denmark, Norway and Sweden, daughter of Valdemar IV. of 
Denmark, effected the Union of Kalmar, by which the crowns 
of the three Scandinavian kingdoms were to remain permanently 
united under one sovereign. In 1523 Sweden again became a 
separate kingdom, but the union between Denmark and Norway 
was drawn closer and closer, to the disadvantage of the latter, 
which was reduced to the position of a mere dependency of 
the former. Denmark was forced to cede Norway to Sweden 
in 1814. The Norwegians resisted this transfer, but their 
resistance was unavailing in the face of the Swedish arms. 
Norway did not, however, become part of the kingdom of 
Sweden. The two crowns were declared indissolubly united, 
but each kingdom retained its separate constitution. This 
union was declared dissolved by Norway in 190" 

Norwegians, see Danes and also Norway. 

O'Donnells, Battle Book of the. St. Columkille on a visit to St. 
Finnen, of Movilla in Ulster, made a copy of this book. When 
the copy was finished, St. Finnen claimed that it belonged to 
him, as it was made from his book without his permission. The 
dispute was referred to the king of Ireland. The king pro- 
nounced judgment against St. Columkille. The book was, how- 
ever, afterwards given up to St. Columkille, and it remained 
(a precious heirloom) in possession of his kindred of the O'Don- 
nells. It is now in the National Museum. Dublin, where it has 
been deposited by the head of the O'Donnell family. Only 
fifty-eight of the vellum leaves of the book remain. — Dr. P. W. 
Joyce. See Notes to Chapter I. 

Ogygia, the ancient name of Ireland by Plutarch. — C. and McD. 
See Ireland, Ancient Names of. 

Oldbridge, suburb of Clonmel, County Waterford. 

Oldbridge, is a place two miles west of Drogheda. Here was 
fought the battle of the Boyne, 1690. An obelisk, 150 feet high, 
was erected in 1736 to mark the spot. On the opposite of the 
river and in County Meath is the seat of Oldbridge Hall. 

Orkney Islands, a group of islands north of Scotland from which 
they are separated by the Pentland Firth. They comprise 67 
islands, 28 of which are inhabited, besides a large number of 


rocky islets or skerries. The largest island in the group is 
Pomona. Other large islands include Hoy, North and South 
Eonaldsay, Eonsay, Shapinsay, Westray, Eday, Stronsay, Sanday. 
On the south and west the cliffs are bold and precipitous. On 
the other sides the coasts of the islands are extremely irregular, 
abounding in bays and headlands. The surface, most elevated 
in Hoy, is generally low. The climate is moist but equable. 
The soil mostly consists of peat or moss, but is either sandy 
or of a good loam where the land is arable. Oats, barley and 
turnips are grown. Live stock, poultry and eggs are largely 
exported. Fishing and agriculture are the chief industries. The 
Orkneys were known to the Eomans as Orcades, and seem to 
have been peopled originally by Celts. During the 4th century 
the islands were visited by the Norse sea-rovers, who ultimately 
settled upon them. They were annexed to Norway in the 9th 
century, and in 1468 were attached to Scotland as a pledge 
for the dowry of the Princess of Denmark who married King 
James III. of Scotland. The people still retain some traces of 
their Scandinavian descent. 

Orleans, Louis Philippe Joseph (1747-1793), Duke of, was born at 
St. Cloud, France, in 1747. On account of his debauchery and 
cowardice he was ridiculed and abhorred by the Court, and out 
of revenge he entered with enthusiasm into the French Eevolu- 
tion, which ended in the overthrow of the monarchy. He allied 
himself with Danton, renounced his rank and title, assumed the 
name of Citizen Egalite, and aspired to lead the Eepublican 
movement in France. He voted for the death of his relative 
Louis XVL, but notwithstanding this he was arrested in April, 
1793, and guillotined at Paris in the following November by 
the extreme Jacobins. His son Louis Philippe became King 
of the French in 1830. 

Ossory, parliamentary division of Queen County; has 240,019 acres, 
and a population of 29,091. The ancient name of Kilkenny 

Oughter, lough, two miles east of Killashandra, County Cavan, on 
river Erne, is four miles by three miles. 

Oulart, place eight miles east of Enniscorthy, County Wexford. 

Oxford University, a great seat of learning in Oxfordshire, 
England, which has for centuries upheld a high celebrity 
throughout the world. It comprises 21 colleges and an inde- 
pendent hall. The oldest college is University college, which 
claims to have been founded by King Alfred (849-901), but 
really dates from 1249. The colleges combine the freedom of 
the halls with means of support for the students. Each college 
is governed by a warden and a number of senior fellows, who 
perpetuate their own body by co-optation, administer the college 
property, and oversee the younger members of the college. The 
purpose of the colleges is to make discipline and instruction 
easier. The examinations are conducted and the degrees con- 
ferred by the university, not by the colleges. The morning and 


evening are devoted to study. The afternoon is devoted by most 
undergraduates to athletic exercise. Since 1884 women have 
been allowed to share the instruction, though not to matriculate 
or take degrees. There are 85 professors and about 3,500 under- 
graduates. The Bodleian library (founded about 1602) contains 
600,000 volumes. 
Pale, The English. The term Pale (signifying a fence or inclosure), 
was applied to those English settlements in Ireland within which 
their laws and authority prevailed. The designation Pale 
appears to have been first applied to the English territory about 
the beginning of the 14th century. Spenser in his "View of 
Ireland," written in the reign of Elizabeth, speaking of the 
invasion of Edward Bruce, in 1316 says: "He burned and 
spoiled all the old English Pale." The extent of the Pale 
varied much at different periods. As the English power extended 
so did the Pale, and it was considered to comprise at some 
periods the counties of Antrim, Down, part of Armagh, Louth, 
Meath, West Meath, Dublin, Kildare, King's and Queen's 
counties, Carlow, Kilkenny, Tipperary, Waterford, Wexford, 
and part of Wicklow; but in general the name of the Pale 
was confined to the counties of Dublin, Louth, Meath, and 
Kildare. It appears that the Irish who dwelt within the Pale, 
and acknowledged English authority, were considered as sub- 
jects, and had to a certain extent the protection of English 
laws; but all the Irish outside the Pale were styled "Irish 
enemies," and not recognized as subjects. The Anglo-Irish, 
or Irish of English descent, who resisted the government, were 
termed "English rebels," being accounted as subjects. The 
native Irish, according to Sir John Davies, being reputed as 
aliens, or rather enemies, it was adjudged no felony to kill a 
mere Irishman in time of peace; and it appears that if an 
Englishman killed one of the mere Irish, he was only fined 
a mark. Various penal laws against the native Irish were 
passed in the parliaments of the Pale, particularly the Statute 
of Kilkenny (1367) in the reign of Edward III., which pro- 
hibited, under the penalty of high treason, any intermarriages, 
fosterage, or similar connections between the families of 
English descent and the native Irish. Imprisonment, fines, and 
forfeiture of lands and goods, were also inflicted on such English 
as permitted the Irish to pasture or graze cattle on their lands; 
and similar penalties, prohibiting the appointment or promotion 
of any of the native Irish to bishop's sees, abbacies, church 
livings, or any ecclesiastical preferments; and that any person 
of the English race speaking the Irish language, or adopting 
Irish names, dress, customs, or manners, should forfeit all his 
goods, lands, and tenements. In the reigns of the Henrys and 
Edwards, various other penal laws were passed against the 
native Irish, to compel them to change their names and take 
English surnames; to give up the use of the Irish language, 
and speak only English; to adopt the English dress, manners. 


and customs; to cut off their glibs, or flowing locks, and shave 
their upper lips at least once in a fortnight, otherwise to be 
punished as Irish enemies. The Irish resisted the relinquish- 
ment of their ancient customs, as they were extremely partial 
to wearing long flowing hair and beards on their upper lips, 
and notwithstanding these penal enactments, the Irish continued 
for centuries to use only their own language, manners, and 
customs. — C. & McD. 

Palestine, see Syria. 

Palladius, Saint (f. 431), was the first Christian missionary who 
preceded St. Patrick in Ireland. He was consecrated Bishop 
of Ireland by Pope Celestine I. and despatched by him in 431 
to Ireland. He landed on the Irish coast, but failed to gain 
many converts and after a few months Palladius took his 
departure. He founded three churches in the district comprised 
in the present County of Wicklow. He died probably in 

Paris, capital of the French Eepublic, and of department of the 
Seine, on both banks of the river Seine, in the center of the' 
fertile plain of Ile-de-France. In the Middle Ages a principal 
focus of European civilization, Paris is still esteemed the chief 
city of the world for monuments and public buildings, for 
general elegance, as well as for scientific, literary, and educa- 
tional institutions. From its history, since 53 B. C, when Julius 
Cgesar founded a town on the island still called La Cite, Paris 
has had a relation to the whole kingdom which differs from 
that of any other great capital, being "strictly the birthplace 
of the French nation. ' ' The site was chosen for strategic 
reasons, and the Eoman town soon became a populous center. 
In the 6th century Clovis had a palace in Paris, but owing to 
the incursions of the Northmen it did not become the permanent 
capital until the reign of Hugh Capet (A, D. 990). King Philip 
Augustus (1180-1223) was the second founder; he built the 
first Louvre, instituted the university (1220), and greatly 
extended the capital on both banks of the river. For ages 
Paris consisted of La Cite, on the islands in the Seine, La Ville, 
on the right bank, and L 'Universite, on the left bank. The 
University of Paris, becoming the most famous in Europe for 
theology and philosophy, attracted scholars from all lands. 
Paris has a population (1906) of 2,765,000. 

Parsons, Sir William (1570?-1650), first baronet, born probably 
in England, lord justice of Ireland, went to Ireland as 
assistant to his uncle Sir Geoffrey Fenton, and in 1602 
succeeded him as surveyor-general. He obtained various 
grants of land, and took an active part in the plantation of 
Ulster (1610), Wexford (1618), Longford (1619), and Leitrim 
(1620). He was made privy councillor in 1623, represented 
County Wicklow in parliament in 1639, and appointed lord 
justice in 1640. He has been accused of stimulating or stirring 
up the Irish revolt of 1641-52, to obtain "a new crop of con- 


fiscations. ' ' He returned to England in 1648, when Dublin was 
threatened on all sides except the sea by the Irish Confederates. 
See Chapters XXXII. and XXXIII. 

Partholanians. The Partholanians came from Scythia near the 
Euxine or Black Sea, and were located chiefly in Ulster, at 
Inis-Samer in Donegal, and also at Binn-Edair (now the Hill 
of Howth), where they were all, in number nine thousand, cut 
off by a plague, after they had been in Ireland thirty years. — 
C. and McD. See Chapter I. 

Peel, Sir Eobert (1788-1850), second baronet, statesman, born near 
Bury, in Lancashire, England, February 5, 1788, was the eldest 
son of Sir Eobert Peel, first baronet (the English manufacturer 
and millionaire, who died in 1830, leaving six sons and five 
daughters). He was educated at Harrow School (where Lord 
Byron was his classmate) and at Christ Church, Oxford, where 
he gained the honor pre-eminence both in classics and mathe- 
matics. He left college in 1808, and entered Parliament as a 
member for Cashel, and a supporter of the Tory ministry, in 
1809. In January, 1810, he seconded the address to the throne, 
and made his first speech. He was appointed under-secretary 
for the colonies in 1811, and chief secretary for Ireland in 1812. 
In 1815 he challenged Daniel O'Connell for offensive remarks 
in a public speech; but the intended duel was prevented by 
the police. His opponents nicknamed him "Orange Peel," in 
allusion to his hostility to the Catholics. He made a speech 
against the Catholic claims in 1817. In 1818 he was elected 
to Parliament for the University of Oxford, in preference to 
Canning, and resigned his office of secretary. He succeeded 
Horner as chairman of the Bullion committee in 1819, and ac- 
quired a high reputation as a financier by procuring the pas- 
sage of an act for the resumption of cash payments. He mar- 
ried in 1820 a daughter of General Sir John Floyd. In Janu- 
ary, 1822, he became secretary for the home department in the 
ministry of Lord Liverpool. For several years ensuing, Can- 
ning and Peel were the most able and prominent members of 
the ministry. Although Peel was less brilliant as an orator 
than his colleague, he was considered "more solid and prac- 
tical, ' ' and had equal or greater influence with his party. When 
Canning became prime minister, in April, 1827, Peel retired 
from office. He accepted the place of home secretary in the 
new ministry formed by the Duke of Wellington in January, 
1828, and made a telling speech in favor of Catholic emanci- 
pation (which he had long opposed) in March, 1829. By his 
change on this question he lost his seat as representative of 
Oxford, in 1829. The obstinate resistance of the Tory ministry 
to parliamentary reform caused them to be defeated and driven 
from power in November, 1830. Earl Grey then formed a Whig 
ministry, and Peel became the leader of the opposition. At 
the death of his father, in 1830, he inherited an immense for- 
tune and the title of baronet. He opposed the Eeform Bill in 


1831-32, but declined to co-operate with Wellington in the 
formation of a new ministry when Lord Grey resigned, in 
1832. In 1833 he was elected to Parliament for Tamworth, 
which he continued to represent until 1850. Peel at this period 
was the recognized leader of the Conservative party, which he 
had organized, and the principles of which were modified Tory- 
ism. The Whig ministry having been dismissed, Peel and Well- 
ington united to form a cabinet, in which the former became 
first lord of the treasury, or prime minister, in December, 1834. 
Failing to obtain the support of a majority of the new Parlia- 
ment elected at this period, Peel was compelled to resign, in 
April, 1835, and was succeeded by Lord Melbourne. On the 
resignation of Melbourne, in May, 1839, Peel failed to become 
prime minister, because he insisted on the removal of certain 
ladies of the royal bed chamber. The general election of 
1841 gave the Conservatives a large majority in Parliament. 
Lord Melbourne resigned in August of that year, and was suc- 
ceeded by Peel, who became first lord of the treasury. The 
important events of his administration were the settlement of 
the questions of the corn laws, tariff, and income tax. In 1842 
he proposed a sliding scale, according to which the duty on 
grain should be reduced in proportion as the price increased. 
This bill became a law. He imposed an income tax of 7 pence 
in the pound to supply the deficit in the revenue, and passed 
a new tariff bill, by which many articles were admitted free 
and the duties on others were reduced in 1842. A powerful 
pressure against the duties on breadstuffs was produced by the 
Anti-Corn Law League, whose interests were advocated by 
Cobden and Bright in public speeches. The case was rendered 
more urgent by the potato failure and famine in Ireland in 
1845. Sir Eobert announced himself in favor of the repeal of 
the corn laws, but some of his colleagues opposed the measure. 
Peel then resigned and Lord John Eussell was called to form a 
new cabinet, but did not succeed. In December Peel resumed 
oflice with his former colleagues, except Lord Stanley, who re- 
tired. The Tory party was divided on this question into Peel- 
ites and Protectionists. By the united votes of the Peelites and 
Liberals, the corn laws were repealed, after an eloquent speech 
by Peel in favor of the repeal, in January, 1846. Having been 
defeated on the Irish Coercion bill (which he advocated). Peel 
resigned June 29, 1846, and was succeeded by Lord John Rus- 
sell. He had acquired general popularity with his countrymen 
and "he would likely have been called again to the direction 
of affairs if he had lived a few years longer." In June, 1850, 
he was thrown from his horse and received injuries, from which 
he died July 2 of that year. Several members of the Peel 
family became distinguished in the British army and navy and 
In politics. 
Pelham, Sir William (died in 1587), lord justice of Ireland, com- 
manded the pioneers at the siege of Leith, Scotland, in 1560, 


and at Havre, France, in 1562. He was knighted by Sir 
William Drury, lord justice of Ireland, and was himself chosen 
lord justice in 1579. In the latter year and in 1580 he carried 
on an exterminating warfare in Munster. He afterwards served 
as marshal in the Netherlands till his death in 1587. See 
Chapter XXVII. 
Pembrokeshire, a maritime county of South Wales, washed by the 
sea on all sides excepting the northeast and east, where it is 
bounded respectively by Cardiganshire and Carmarthenshire. 
The antiquities include St. David 's Cathedral and numerous 
mediaeval castles. The county has a population of 88,732. The 
town of Pembroke was founded in the 11th century. Pembroke 
Castle is said to have been the birthplace of King Henry VII. 
It resisted for a long time the assaults of Cromwell's forces. 
Pentarchy, or Ancient Division of Erin. Tuathal, the Legitimate, 
monarch of Ireland, of the race of Heremon, in the early part 
of the second century (of our era) formed a new di- 
vision of Ireland into five provinces and having taken 
a portion from each of the provinces of Leinster, Munster, Ul- 
ster and Connaught, formed the new province of Meath, which 
was to be appropriated as "Mensal Lands" for use of the 
monarchs of Ireland. The division continued for many centuries, 
and even long after the Anglo-Norman invasion. A king ruling 
over each of the five provinces or kingdoms, namely^ Meath, 
Ulster, Connaught, Leinster and Munster, the Irish government 
being a Pentarchy, and a supreme monarch being elected to 
preside over all the provincial kings and designated Ard-righ 
(ard-ree) or High King. — C. and McD. See Chapter IV. 
Perrot, Sir John (1527-1592), probably a natural son of King 
Henry VIII. of England, was born in Pembrokeshire, Wales. 
He was a favorite of King Edward VI. and suffered imprison- 
ment under Queen Mary. In 1570 he went to Ireland as first 
Lord President of Munster, — "an unflinching opponent of the 
ancient faith," — and immediately directed his arms against Sir 
James FitzMaurice FitzGerald then in revolt, whom he forced 
to submit. He returned to England in March, 1573. In 1583 
he was made lord-deputy of Ireland and sailing from Milford 
Haven, Wales, he arrived in Dublin in January, 1584. He was 
recalled in 1588, and in 1591 tried for high treason and sen- 
tenced to death. Eeprieved by Queen Elizabeth, he died in the 
Tower of London. See Chapters XXVL, XXVII. and XXVIIL 
Petty, Sir William, M. D. (1623-1687), one of the most success- 
ful of the many adventurers enriched by Irish confiscations in 
the seventeenth century, and a "benefactor to Ireland by his 
survey and his economic writings," was the son of a clothier, 
and was born at Eumsey, in Hampshire, England, May 26, 
1623. He retired to the continent during the early part of the 
civil war in England and is stated to have worked as a car- 
penter at Caen in Normandy, France. But he must also have 
studied medicine, for in 1649, soon after his return to Eng- 


land, he took his degree of M. D. at Oxford. He secured the 
appointment of physician to the Parliamentary army in Ire- 
land, and landed at Waterford in September, 1652, having then 
a capital of £500. In this office he continued until 1659, at a 
good salary, making at the same time by private practice some 
£400 per annum. In December, 1654, he entered into a favor- 
able contract with the government for the survey of Ireland 
at the rate of a little over £7 per 1,000 acres of arable land, 
besides one penny per acre from the soldiers to whom it was to 
be allotted. The office work of Petty 's survey was carried 
on in a large house, known as the "Crow's Nest," in Dublin, 
on the site of the present Crow Street, to which it gave its 
name. His difficult task was completed in the remarkably 
short time of thirteen months. By this survey Dr. Petty, accord- 
ing to his own admission, made some £9,000, which, with other 
smaller items, including his professional fees and his salary as 
clerk of the council in Dublin, enabled him to purchase 19,000 
Irish acres of land, which, twenty years later, yielded him as 
much per annum as the price paid. By a wise system of deal- 
ings in land, he added still more to his possessions, which in- 
cluded all the country to be seen from the lofty top of Mt. 
Mangerton, in County Kerry. He was elected to Eichard Crom- 
well's Parliament in 1658. In March, 1659, he was accused 
by Sir Jerome Sankey, another English adventurer, and a mem- 
ber of the same Parliament, of having "made it his trade to 
purchase debentures, being then the chief surveyor." Petty 's 
maiden speech was a justification of his conduct. He seems to 
have desired the closest scrutiny into all his dealings; but such 
a storm was raised against him that Eichard Cromwell was 
obliged to dismiss him from his public employments. Dr. Petty 
having made his fortune under the Cromwellians, had the skill 
to obtain court favor and rank after the Eestoration. King 
Charles II. was "mightily pleased with his discourse." Petty 
was knighted in 1661, and next year was made one of the court 
of commissioners for Irish estates and surveyor-general of Ire- 
land, and he was elected to the Irish Parliament for Ennis- 
corthy. "It was," says John Mitchel, "in County Kerry that 
Dr. Sir William Petty had his principal estates. For years the 
vales of Dunkerron and Iveragh rung with the continual fall 
of giant oaks. There was a good market; Spain and France 
were searching the world for pipe staves; in English dockyards 
there was steady demand for ship knees, and Sir William knew 
exactly where there was the best market for everything. In 
Ireland itself also he set on foot iron works, and fed the fires 
from his own woods. There was no source of profit known to 
the commerce and traffic of that day in which Sir William did 
not bear a hand." In 1667 Sir William Petty married the 
widow of Sir Maurice Fenton, built a fine house in London, and 
when drawing up his will in 1685, estimated his income at 
£15,000 per annum, and his personal property alone at some 


£45,000. In Dublin he founded a Philosophical Society over 
which he presided. He was one of the original members of 
the Koyal Society, and a constant contributor to its "trans- 
actions." Macaulay says, "He created the science of political 
arithmetic." He died in 1687, and was buried beside his father 
and mother in the church at Eumsey, England. The present 
Marquis of Lansdowne inherits much of his estates. Twenty- 
five of his books and essays, chiefly upon scientific and social 
questions are enumerated in the notice of him in Wood 's 
"Athenae Oxonienses. " The most important of those relating 
to Ireland are his "Maps of Ireland" (London, 1685), compris- 
ing a general map of Ireland, the provinces and counties, in 
thirty-six plates, with portrait of himself; and his "Political 
Anatomy of Ireland" (London, 1691). This invaluable work 
gives a minute account of the condition of the country in 
1672 — its extent, population and prospects, its resources and po- 
litical condition. Sir William Petty estimated the area of Ire- 
land at 17,000,000 statute acres (14,000,000 tillage and pasture 
and 3,000,000 plantation waste). "The actual area is now 
known to be 21,000,000 (16,500,000 tillage and pasture and 4,500,- 
000 plantation and waste.)" He estimated the population at 
1,100,000 (800,000 Irish, 200,000 English and 100,000 Scotch; or, 
800,000 Catholics, 100,000 Established Church, and 200,000 Dis- 
senters). The population (1901) was 4,458,775. He estimated 
the number of families in Ireland at 200,000 (160,000, "with 
no fixed hearths"), and the number of houses at 40,000, of 
which 24,000 had only one chimney. The present number of 
houses (1901) is 932,479, of which 858,158 were inhabited and 
74,321 uninhabited. The originals of Dr. Petty 's maps can be 
consulted in the record office, in Dublin. 

Pharaoh (f. B. C. 1732), King of Egypt. There were several kings 
who had the title "Pharaoh," which means "the Sun," but 
the one generally referred to is known as the "Pharaoh of the 
Oppression," who first persecuted the Israelites and held them 
in bondage. He belonged to the XVIII. and XIX. dynasty. His 
reign probably commenced a little before the birth of Moses, 
which we place B. C. 1732, and seems to have lasted upwards 
of 40 years, perhaps much more. 

Philip II. (1527-1598), King of Spain, only son of the Emperor 
Charles V. and Isabella of Portugal, was born at Valladolid, 
Spain. In 1543 he married Maria of Portugal, who died in 1546, 
after bearing the ill-fated Don Carlos. In 1554 he married 
Mary Tudor, Catholic Queen of England, who was many years 
his senior. During his 14 months' stay in England he labored 
unsuccessfully to ingratiate himself with his wife's subjects. 
In 1555 he became by abdication of his father the most powerful 
ruler in Europe, having under his sway Spain, the two Sicilies, 
the Milanese, the Low Countries, Franche Comte, the Indies, 
Mexico, and Peru — master of an empire "on which the sun 
never set." But the treasury was deficient, drained by the 


expenditure of his father's wars. The first danger he had to 
face was a league formed between King Henry II. of France and 
Pope Paul IV, The Spanish Duke of Alva, carrying out Philip's 
orders, overran the papal territories, while Philip 's troops 
defeated the French at St. Quentin (1557) and Gravelines (1558), 
and Henry made peace (1559). In January, 1558, the French 
had captured Calais, and Mary Tudor died eleven months later. 
Philip failed to secure the hand of Queen Elizabeth, half -sister 
of the ?ate queen, and in 1559 he married Elizabeth or Isabelle 
of France, a daughter of King Henry II. His son Don Carlos, 
whom he hated, died mysteriously in prison in 1568. He married 
in 1570, as his fourth wife, Anne of Austria (his niece), whose 
son by him became King Philip III. of Spain. His one great 
triumph was the decisive naval victory of Lepanto (1571), won 
by his half-brother, Don John of Austria, over the Turks. In 
1580, the direct male line of Portugal having become extinct, 
Philip claimed and obtained the throne, and dispatched Alva to 
occupy the kingdom. But in 1588 his attempt to conquer Eng- 
land after making extraordinary preparations, resulted in hope- 
less disaster, as the Spanish great fleet, called the ''Invincible 
Armada," was swept to destruction before the valor and skill 
of the British seamen and the great storms and northern tem- 
pests. The stubborn resistance of the Netherlands and the 
ravages of the English on the Spanish Main, added to financial 
distress at home and embittered Philip's last years. He died 
September 13, 1598, at Madrid, and was succeeded by his son 
King Philip III. Philip possessed great ability, ambition and 
industry, but little political wisdom, and he engaged in so many 
vast enterprises at once as to overtask his resources without 
leading to any profitable result. "Philip was both fanatic and 
bigot. One of the first measures of his reign was the atrocious 
edict, condemning to death all who should print, write, copy, 
keep, buy, sell, or give any book by Luther or Calvin, and all lay 
persons who should read or teach the Bible. ' ' His systematic 
efforts to suppress all religious liberty by means of the Inquisi- 
tion, in all his dominions, brought on a general revolt of the 
Flemings and Dutch, in which thousands of non-combatants of 
both sexes and all ages were massacred by the Spaniards, but 
without ultimate success. 

Philippsburg or Phillipsburg, urban commune, Baden, Germany, 17 
miles southwest of Heidelberg; has a dismantled fortress. It 
figured frequently in the Franco-German wars of the 17th and 
18th centuries. Under its walls the Duke of Berwick was killed 
in 1734. Population 3,000. 

Philipstown, market town, King's County, on Philipstown rivulet 
and on Grand canal, eight miles east of Tullamore, and 12 miles 
southwest of Edenderry. The town has a population of 778; and 
received its name in honor of Philip II. of Spain, the consort of 
Queen Mary of England, and was designed to be the counterpart 
of Maryborough, in Queen's County. 


Philipstown, parish, County Louth, on river Glyde, five miles 
northwest of Ardee, has 3,659 acres, and a population of 574. 

Philipstown, parish,, County Louth, on river Castletown, four miles 
northwest of Dundalk, has 1,035 acres, and a population of 162. 

Philipstown, parish, County Louth, two miles north of Drogheda. 

Philipstown, four miles from Dunleer, County Louth; population 14. 

Picts. "The Ficts, or Cruthneans, " according to Connellan and 
MacDermott, "were Celto-Scythians, and, according to our an- 
cient historians, came from Thrace (in Greece), soon after the 
arrival of the Milesians, or about one thousand years B. C, 
but not being permitted by the Milesians to remain in Ireland, 
they sailed to Albain (or Scotland) and became possessors of 
that country; in the course of many centuries, colonies of them 
came over and settled in Ulster, about the beginning of the 
Christian era, and at subsequent times; they were located chiefly 
in the territories which now form the counties of Down, An- 
trim and Derry. An account of these colonies and of the tribes 
in Ireland is mentioned by the Greek geographer, Ptolemy, in 
the second century." The Picts, the ancient inhabitants of the 
northeast of Scotland, were a Celtic race. Probably the word 
means the same as Caledonians (dwellers in woods). The Scots 
were a Celtic colony from Ulster, Ireland, which (about 400 
B. C.) settled in the southeastern parts of Scotland, then called 
Caledonia. Likely the Picts were the more ancient inhabitants 
of Scotland. 

Pitt, WiUiam (1708-1778), first Earl of Chatham, English states- 
man, was born in Cornwall, England. He was educated at Eton, 
and in 1726 entered Trinity College, Oxford, which he left for 
the military profession. In 1735 he was returned to parliament for 
Old Sarum, and enlisted early in the ranks of opposition against 
Walpole. In 1746, in the administration which had succeeded Wal- 
pole, he became joint vice-treasurer of Ireland, and soon after 
treasurer and paymaster of the army, and a privy councillor. In 
1755 he resigned, and though he received the seals of secretary 
of state, he did not long continue in office; but in june, i757, he 
became prime minister. England proved everywhere successful 
in consequence of his plans. Quebec was conquered, and the 
French were defeated in Africa and in the East. The accession 
of King George III. was soon followed by the resignation of the 
minister, who refused to cooperate with an administration which, 
by the influence of Lord Bute, as it is supposed, thwarted his 
vigorous and enlightened measures. His retirement was attended 
by the grant of a peerage to his wife and a pension of £3,000. 
In 1766 he accepted the privy seal, and was created Earl of 
Chathar_i, but he resigned the office in 1768. During the Amer- 
ican Eevolutionary War he burst forth from his retirement, and, 
in the House of Lords, denounced "taxation without represen- 
tation" and the severe measures against the American colonists. 
On one of these occasions, after the Duke of Eichmond had 
replied to him, he rose up to answer the speech, but his enfeebled 


constitution sank under the attempt, and he fell in a fit in the 
arms of those who were near him. He died shortly afterwards, 
May 11, 1778. As an orator, he blended the mechanical skill of 
the cultured artist with the passion of the speaker whose heart 
vibrates with the emotion of the moment. Living in an age 
when corruption was the rule, he refused to soil his hands with 
a bribe or even to take advantage of customary official per- 
quisites. He was called ' * the Great Commoner ' ' because he 
appealed to the people when such appeals were rare indeed. His 
energy inspired those under him. His personal happiness and 
honor were bound up inextricably with the greatness of his 
nation. His high character was in many ways not unlike that 
of the illustrious orator and statesman, Edmund Burke. He was 
buried in Westminster Abbey, the chief mourner being his 
second son, William Pitt, ''whose name with his father's will 
live forever in the pages of British history. ' ' 

Pitt, William (1759-1806), English statesman, second son of Will- 
iam Pitt, first Earl of Chatham, was born in Kent, England. On 
leaving Cambridge University he spent some time in France; 
and, after his return, became a student at Lincoln's Inn, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1780. He entered parliament in 1781, 
where he exerted the power of his eloquence against Lord North. 
On the removal of that minister, Pitt did not obtain a place in 
the Cabinet, but he became chancellor of the exchequer when 
the Marquis of Eockingham was succeeded by the Earl of Shel- 
burne. Shelburne 's ministry was displaced by the coalition of 
Lord North and Fox, in 1782; but the defeat of Fox's India bill 
produced another change at the end of 1783, and Pitt, at the age 
of 24, became first lord of the treasury (prime minister), as well 
as chancellor of the exchequer. His project of a legislative 
union between Great Britain and Ireland and his sabsequeut 
Irish policy will be found detailed in chapter LVI. and succeed- 
ing ones. After guiding the policy of his country for 17 years 
he resigned office in March, 1801, and was succeeded by Adding- 
ton; but a combination of Whigs and Tories forced the latter 
to resign, and in 1804 Pitt was recalled to power. He died at 
Putney, January 23, 1806, having never been married. His 
death was hastened by the vexation which he suffered from the 
failure of the new combination against Napoleon and the latter 's 
decisive victory at Austerlitz in 1806. Pitt was a consummate 
debater and perhaps unequaled as a master of sarcasm. In 
private life he was amiable. "Pride appears to have been his 
principal fault." "He was preeminently qualified for the office 
of a parliamentary leader, and, throughout his career was the 
idol, not only of his party, the Whigs, but of the country. Ho 
was ambitious, but his love of power had in it nothing mean, 
paltry, or low. He was upright, straightforward and truthful. 
His oratory was of a high order." 

Plantagenet, Edward (1475-1499), born probably in England, was 
a son of George, Duke of Clarence, and was styled Earl of War- 


wick. He was confined in the Tower of London by King 
Henry VII. in 1485, and executed, as an accomplice of Perkin 
Warbeck, the impostor, in 1499. 
Plantagenet, Eichard (1411M460), Duke of York, son of the Earl of 
Cambridge, a scion of the Plantagenet royal family of England, 
was born probably in England about 1411. Through his mother 
(daughter of Koger Mortimer, Earl of March) he inherited 
extensive estates in England and Ireland, and pretensions to the 
crown, as being descended from Lionel, third son of King 
Edward III. of England, the reigning family being descended 
from John of Gaunt, the fourth. In 1449 the Duke of York was 
sent into virtual exile in Ireland as lord lieutenant, but stipu- 
lated for complete freedom of action in government, and for the 
entire revenue of the country, besides a substantial yearly allow- 
ance. He landed at Howth with much pomp, accompanied by his 
duchess, and was well received by the people of the Pale (or 
Anglo-Irish settlement) with whom his ancestors had been 
popular. At the head of a large force he advanced into the 
country of the O 'Byrnes and brought them to terms, and acted 
with such tact and discretion that before long about a score of 
the Irish chieftains, earls, and barons came to the viceroy, swore 
to be true liegemen to King Henry VI. of England and to the 
duke and his heirs; gave hostages, etc. In October, 1449, the 
duke's son George, afterwards Duke of Clarence, was born in 
Dublin Castle, and the Earls of Kildare and Ormond stood his 
sponsors. At a parliament convened the same month, acts 
were passed against coigne, livery, and other trying exactions. 
The duke was soon in want of funds (the Irish revenues being 
very uncertain, and the allowances from England not forthcom- 
ing), and was compelled to pledge his jewels and plate, and 
borrow from his friends. In September, 1450, he suddenly 
returned to England, leaving the eldest son of the Earl of 
Ormond as deputy. In the ensuing wars of the Eoses, Irish 
contingents fought on both sides, but largely on that of the 
Yorkists. In 1459 the duke revisited Ireland, where he was 
enthusiastically received. Stimulated by the presence of the 
duke, and in answer to the decrees of the Lancastrian Parlia- 
ment at Coventry, England, the Irish Parliament at Trim 
asserted the independence of the legislature of Ireland, and 
affirmed the right to separate laws and statutes, and a distinct 
coinage, and that the king's subjects in Ireland were not bound 
to answer any writs except those under the Great Seal of Ire- 
land. A messenger who arrived with English writs for the 
arrest of the duke was tried for treason against the Irish 
Parliament, and hanged, drawn and quartered. The English 
king's friends then made an unsuccessful effort to stir up the 
Irish septs or clans to revolt. Subsequently, the Yorkists gain- 
ing some important successes in England, the duke committed 
the government of Ireland to the Earl of Kildare, crossed over 
to Chester, and made his way by rapid stages to London, which 


he entered in triumph. His brief subsequent career, and his 
defeat and death (December 31, 1460) at the battle of Wakefield, 
are matters of English history. See chapter XX. 

Poland, a former kingdom of Europe, containing about 282,000 
English square miles (40,000 larger than Austria-Hungary is 
now) ; an area which has a population of over 25,000,000. This 
extensive tract forms part of the great European central plain, 
and is crossed by only one range of hills, which rise from the 
north side of the Carpathians and run northeast through the 
country, forming the watershed between the rivers which flow 
into the Baltic and Black seas. The kingdom of Poland, during 
the period of its greatest extent, after the addition of the 
grand duchy of Lithuania, at the close of the 14th century, was 
subdivided, for purposes of government, into about 40 pala- 
tinates, which were mostly governed by hereditary chiefs. The 
people were divided into two great classes — nobles and serfs. 
The so-called "Kingdom of Poland," united to Kussia in 1815, 
had its own constitution till 1830, and a separate government till 
1864, when, after the suppression of the revolt, the last visible 
remnant of independence was taken away. The administration 
was at first given to eight military governors, and then to a 
commission sitting in St. Petersburg. Finally, in 1868, the 
Polish province was absolutely incorporated with Kussia, and 
the ten governments into which it was divided are grouped with 
the governments of Eussia proper. 

Pole, John de la (1464-1487), Earl of Lincoln, eldest son of 
John de la Pole, second Duke of Suffolk, by Elizabeth, sister of 
King Edward IV. of England. He was created Earl of Lincoln 
in 1467; became lord-lieutenant of Ireland (1484), and was rec- 
ognized as heir-presumptive to the English throne. Though 
he cherished the ambition to succeed King Eichard III., he was 
not molested by King Henry VII. after the former's death. 
He promoted Lambert Simnel's plot, and was killed in the battle 
of Stoke, England, in 1487. 

Pole, Eeginald (1500-1558), cardinal, was descended from the blood- 
royal of England, being a younger son of Sir Eichard Pole, 
cousin to King Henry VII., by Margaret Plantagenet, daughter 
of George, Duke of Clarence, younger brother of King Edward 
IV. He was born at Stourbridge Castle, Staffordshire, England, 
in 1500, and educated in the monastery of Shene, Surrey, whence 
he removed to Magdalen College, Oxford. In 1517 he obtained a 
prebend of Salisbury, to which he added the deaneries of Win- 
bourne, Minster, and Exeter. About this time he went abroad 
and resided at Padua, where he contracted an acquaintance with 
Longolius, whose life he afterward wrote. In 1525 he returned 
home, but carefully avoided the question of King Henry VIII. 's 
divorce, but Pole after some hesitation, however, professed him- 
self opposed to the divorce; of his assent to which the Arch- 
bishopric of York, after the death of Wolsey, would have been 
the reward. This difference with the king led him to return to 


the continent, but he was treated with unusual forbearance by 
King Henry, and allowed to draw the revenues of his deanery of 
Exeter. At last Pole drew the sword and flung away the scab- 
bard, by writing and sending to England in the early summer 
of 1536, his famous treatise in defense of the papal supremacy 
and a denunciation of Henry, not so violent as it subsequently 
became when printed towards the close of 1538, but violent 
enough to be treated as a declaration of war. In December, 
1536, Pole became a cardinal, and was sent as legate to 
strengthen revolt in England, from the nearest points of France 
and Flanders, and to incite the chief rulers of the continent 
against King Henry and the English Reformation. His missions, 
or series of missions, which extended over several years, practi- 
cally failed. The chief results of his activity was to procure 
his own attainder, to bring his brother, Lord Montague, and some 
years later his mother, the Countess of Salisbury, to execution, 
as participators in his "treason." He attempted in vain to 
return to England at the accession of King Edward VI., but with 
the opening of the reign of Queen Mary, his prospects bright- 
ened. After the removal of various obstacles, and when Mary 
was married to King Philip II. of Spain, Pole once more set foot in 
his native country, coming in triumph as the papal legate to 
reconcile England to Rome. He arrived at Dover m 1554. On 
the day after the death of Cranmer, Pole was appointed Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury. Despite this elevation, however, and the 
vigor of the Marian persecution, Pole 's career was not one of 
uninterrupted triumph. When Mary sided with Philip against 
France, then allied to the see of Rome, Pope Paul IV., in his 
indignation, not only canceled Pole's commission as legate, but 
revived against him an old charge of heresy, an accusation which 
did not tend to make Pole more lenient to the English Reformers 
in his power. This treatment of him by the Pope, to establish 
whose authority in England he had labored through long years 
of exile, may have contributed to hasten his end. Ague was the 
nominal complaint which carried him off. He died sixteen hours 
after Queen Mary in November, 1558, "when the reign of the 
Pope in England and the reign of terror closed together." The 
private character of Pole was blameless. He was a scholar and 
a wit. Nor was his natural disposition other than amiable and 
benevolent. "But in spite of the efforts of his apologists, he 
must be pronounced one of the most ruthless if most sincere 
antagonists of the English Reformation." "He had the arched 
eyebrow and the delicately-cut cheek and prominent eye of the 
beautiful Plantagenet face, a long brown curly beard flowed 
down upon his chest, which it almost covered." 
Political Divisions, "Ireland is divided into the four provinces 
of Leinster, Munster, Ulster and Connaught. These are sub- 
divided into thirty-two counties, besides the eight small exempt 
jurisdictions of Dublin, Cork, Kilkenny, Waterford, Carrick- 
fergus, Drogheda and Galway, the first five of which are styled 


counties of cities, the remaining three counties of towns. The 
counties are divided into 316 baronies, and again into 2,422 
parishes. The smallest political divisions are called townlands 
and in some parts plowlands. ' ' 

Portland, Earl of, see Bentinck, William. 

Portland, Duke of, see Bentinck, William Henry Cavendish. 

Powerscourt, Viscount. See Wingfield, Sir Eichard. 

Poynings, Sir Edward (1459-1521), lord deputy of Ireland, was 
born in England. After a distinguished military career, in 1494 
he was sent to Ireland by King Henry VII. as deputy for his 
son Henry (afterwards King Henry VIII.), then in his fourth 
year. His period of government is especially noted for passing, 
in 1494, the famous statute known as "Poynings' Act." In 
the latter year he assembled a parliament which passed numerous 
acts (repealed, after three centuries, in 1782) restricting Irish 
independence. It was enacted that none but Englishmen should 
be entrusted with the care of any royal castle in Ireland, and 
that a ditch should be thrown up to defend the Pale (or Anglo- 
Irish settlements) against the Irish on the borders. Other acts 
were passed in this parliament, the most momentous of which 
was Poynings' Act. It extended the English law to Ireland 
and subverted the independence of the Anglo-Irish Parliament 
by providing that no act of parliament should be valid unless 
sanctioned by the King and English privy council; and another 
which enacted that all laws passed in England previous to 1494 
should be valid in Ireland. He was recalled in 1496 and died in 
1521. See Chapter XXI, 

Pratt, John Jeffreys (1759-1840), Marquis of Camden, the eldest 
son of Charles Pratt, first Earl of Camden, an English judge and 
statesman, was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, Eng- 
land. Shortly after coming of age he was, at the general elec- 
tion of 1780, elected to Parliament as one of the members for 
Bath, and in the same year was appointed one of the tellers of 
the exchequer, which office he held for the long period of sixty 
years. He succeeded his father in the peerage in 1794, entered 
the House of Lords, and, in 1795, was sent to Ireland as lord 
lieutenant, in which post he remained until 1798. From 1789 to 
1794 he was one of the lords of the treasury. He was secretary 
for the the colonies, 1804 to 1805; president of the council, 1805 
to 1806, and again from 1807 to 1812, being in the latter year 
advanced to the dignity of marquis. He was elected chancellor 
of the University of Cambridge in 1834 and died six years later. 

Provincial Conventions. Great conventions or legislative assem- 
blies similar to those at Tara were held in ancient times in all 
the other provinces. The states of Connaught assembled at 
Cruachan, near Elphin; the states of Ulster at Emania, or 
Armagh; the states of Leinster at Naas, in Kildare; and the 
states of Munster at Cashel. Conventions of the states or legis- 
lative assemblies were also held at the Hill of Uisneach (situ- 
ated a few miles from Mullingar, in West Meath), which was 


a celebrated seat of Druidism. These assemblies were con- 
vened in the month of May, and, after the abandonment of 
Tara, this was probably one of the chief places for legislative 
meetings. — C. and McD. See Tara, Conventions or General 
Assembly of. 

Prussia, the largest and most important state of the German 
Empire, composed of fourteen provinces, embraces nearly the 
whole of northern Germany. Prussia is a constitutional mon- 
archy (based on the charter of the constitution of 1850). The 
head of the state is the king — the crown being hereditary in the 
male line of the House of Hohenzollern, and joined to the Ger- 
man Imperial Crown. All the executive power is vested in the 
king. The legislative authority belongs to the Diet; but the 
laws passed by it do not take effect till promulgated by the king. 
The Diet consists of two chambers, that of the lords and that 
of the deputies. By the victorious war against France (1870-71) 
and by Bismarck 's genius, the new German Empire was created 
under the leadership of Prussia. January 18, 1871, King "Will- 
iam I. of Prussia was elected German emperor. Prussia has 
an area of 134,500 square miles, and a population (1900) of 
34,472,509, so that the kingdom comprises nearly two-thirds of 
the entire German Empire, with over three-fifths of the in- 

Puritans, a name first given, according to Fuller, in 1564, and 
according to Strype in 1569, to those clergymen of the Church 
of England who refused to conform to its liturgy, ceremonies, 
and discipline as arranged by Archbishop Parker and his 
coadjutors. Before the war between King Charles and Parlia- 
ment broke out, a considerable number of the Puritans emigrated 
to this country, where they became the founders of the New 
England States, and practiced the form of religion to which 
they were attached. 

Pym, John (1584-1643), parliamentary orator and statesman, was 
born in Somersetshire, England, in 1584. He was educated at 
Oxford and afterwards admitted to the bar. He became member 
of the House of Commons in the reign of King James I. and soon 
distinguished himself by his ability and zeal in resisting the 
arbitrary measures of the king. He was for a time imprisoned 
in the Tower of London on account of his resistance to the 
tyrannical policy of the court. In the next reign, that of Charles 
I., he acted with great vigor, and was one of the five members 
of Parliament who were demanded by the king to be delivered 
to him as traitors, the first step which led to civil war. He was 
a member of the Committee of Safety in 1642 and perhaps the 
ablest leader of the popular party when hostilities broke out 
between the king and Parliament. In 1643 he was appointed by 
his party lieutenant of the ordnance, but died the same year and 
was interred in Westminster Abbey. 

Quatrains, The Psalter of. There is a complete copy of this work 
in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, England. It consists of 


162 short Irish poems on sacred subjects. The whole collec- 
tion has been published with glossary of words, but without 
translation by Dr. Whitley Stokes. — Dr, P. W. Joyce. See Notes 
to Chapter I. 

Queen's County, inland county of Leinster province, bounded north- 
west and north by King's county, east by County Kildare, 
southeast by County Carlow, south by County Kilkenny and 
southwest by County Tipperary. Greatest length, east and west, 
34 miles; greatest breadth, north and south, 30 miles. The county 
has an area of 424,723 acres (357 water), or 2.0 per cent, of the 
total area of Ireland, and a population of 57,417, of whom 50,599 
are Catholics, 5,950 Episcopalians, 295 Presbyterians, and 419 
Methodists. The county is served by the G. S. & W. E. The 
county is so called after Queen Mary (1553-1558), in whose honor 
Maryborough, the county town, is also named. Between the 
Slieve Bloom mountains on the northwest border and the Dysart 
and Slieve Loogh hills in the southeast district there extends a 
flat open tract of country, much of which is boggy and waste. 
There are many parts, however, particularly in the southeast, 
which are fertile. Agriculture is the chief employment; great 
numbers of fat and store cattle are reared. Mountain limestone 
is the chief substratum; old red sandstone occurs in the Slieve 
Bloom range. Anthracite coal is worked in the south; copper, 
manganese, fullers' earth, and marble are found. The principal 
rivers are the Nore and the Barrow, and there are two branches 
of the Grand canal in the northeast. Queen's County comprises 
the towns of Maryborough, Mountmelliek, and Portarlington 
(part of), and 41 parishes, and part of 12 others. For parliamen- 
tary purposes the county is divided into two divisions — Ossory 
and Leix — each returning one member. The parliamentary con- 
stituencies together contain 10,171 electors. 

Radcliffe or Eatclifife, Thomas (1526-1583), Earl of Sussex, son of 
Henry, second Earl of Sussex, a distinguished soldier and poli- 
tician in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, "of ancient and honor- 
able descent," was born about 1526, probably in England. He 
was ambassador to the court of Spain to negotiate the marriage 
between Queen Mary of England and King Philip II. of Spain. 
On his return he was made lord deputy of Ireland, chief justice 
of the forests north of Trent, a Knight of the Garter, and captain 
of the band of pensioners. In 1569, appointed president of the 
North, he was instrumental in putting down the great northern 
revolt. Under orders of Elizabeth he made repeated and 
destructive inroads into Scotland, devastating that country with 
merciless barbarity. In 1572 he became lord chamberlain, which 
office he held till his death in 1583. Sussex was one of the most 
cruel, most unscrupulous of Queen Elizabeth's most trusted 
councillors. See Chapter XXV. 

Raleigh or Ralegh, Sir Walter (1552-1618), soldier, navigator, 
courtier, and author, was born in Devonshire, England, in 1552, 
He was educated at Oriel College, Oxford. His life was full oi 


romance and adventure. He fought for the Huguenots in France 
for five years and took part in several great battles. He served 
in the Netherlands, and in 1579 accompanied his half-brother, 
Sir Humphrey Gilbert, on a voyage to America. On his return he 
engaged in the Irish wars, was noted for his cruelty, and was 
joined in a commission for the government of Munster. His 
introduction at court, according to tradition, was by an act of 
gallantry or policy; Queen Elizabeth, walking out one day, 
stopped at a miry place, upon which Kaleigh took off his cloak, 
and spread it on the ground, so that the queen might pass on 
clean and dry. In 1584 he obtained letters patent for discover- 
ing unknown countries, by virtue of which he took possession of 
that part of America which was afterwards called Virginia, in 
honor of "the Virgin Queen" Elizabeth. Soon after this he 
received the honor of knighthood, was elected to Parliament for 
Devonshire, made warden of the Stannaries, and also rewarded 
with several grants of land in England and Ireland. In 1588 he 
bore an active part in the destruction of the Spanish Armada; 
and the year following he accompanied the King of Portugal to 
his dominions. In 1592 he commanded an expedition against 
Panama. In 1595 he engaged in an enterprise for the conquest 
of Guiana, where he took the city of San Joseph. The year fol- 
lowing he displayed great valor in the expedition against Cadiz; 
and he was also appointed to command in the armament sent out 
to intercept the Spanish plate fleet, which he would have cap- 
tured had he not been thwarted by the Earl of Essex. The ruin 
of that nobleman was hastened by Ealeigh, who little thouglit 
that he was thereby preparing the way for his own destruction. 
On the accession of King James I. he was deprived of his prefer- 
ments, and brought to trial at Winchester for conspiring with 
Lord Cobham and others to place Arabella Stuart on the throne. 
Ealeigh was condemned; but the sentence was respited, and he 
lay thirteen years in the Tower of London, where he wrote the 
"History of the World," published in 1614. Two years after 
this he was released and entrusted with a squadron destined 
against Guiana; but the enterprise failed after an attack on 
the town of St. Thome, where his eldest son was killed. When 
Ealeigh landed in England he was arrested and sent to the 
Tower of London, whence he endeavored to make his escape, 
but was taken, and received sentence of death, which was carried 
out in Old Palace Yard, October 29, 1618. To Ealeigh we are 
indebted for tobacco and the potato, which last he planted in 
Ireland on his return from America. The works of Sir Walter 
are numerous and on a variety of subjects. He wrote many 
poems and tracts. "The name of Sir Walter Ealeigh is unques- 
tionably one of the most renowned and attractive, and, in some 
respects, the most remarkable in English story." 
Ramillies, Battle of (Seven Years' War), was fought May 23, 1706, 
between the British and Imperialists under the Duke of Marl- 
borough and Prince Eugene, about 80,000 strong, and the French 


in equal force, under Marshal Villeroy. The allies drove the 
French out of Eamillies, their resistance on the whole being 
unworthy of them, and in the end they were disastrously de- 
feated with heavy loss, 5,000 being killed and wounded, while 
6,000 prisoners and 50 guns were taken. The allies lost less 
than 3,000. 

Raphael, or Eaffaello Sanzio (1483-1520), the most illustrious 
painter of modern times, was born at Urbino, Italy, March 28, 
1483. He was the only son of Giovanni Sanzio, a painter, who 
placed him, at the age of thirteen, under Peter Perugino. Three 
years afterwards, he went with Pinturicchio to Siena, to assist 
him in painting the history of Pope Pius II., for the cathedral 
there; but Eaphael soon left that work to visit Florence, where 
he improved his style by studying the designs of da Vinci and 
Michael Angelo. His favorite artist, however, was Fra Bar- 
tolomeo, from whom he received instructions. In 1508 Eaphael 
was invited to Eome by Pope Julius II., who employed him to 
paint the "School of Athens," in the Vatican. In performing 
this commission, he gave such satisfaction that the Pope ordered 
all the pictures already painted in the various rooms to be 
obliterated, and the walls prepared for the productions of 
Eaphael alone, who, with difficulty, succeeded in saving from 
destruction a ceiling painted by his old master, Perugino. The 
first of these rooms is dedicated to the history of Constantine; 
the second exhibits four miracles; the third is filled with 
allegorical representations of Science; and the fourth is devoted 
to the histories of Pope Leo III. and IV. Eaphael also enjoyed 
the favor of Pope Leo X., for whom he made a series of cartoons 
from the sacred history; seven of which came into the posses- 
sion of Queen Victoria of England. To his other talents he 
added that of being an able architect; the principles of which 
science he studied under Bramante, who recommended him for 
his successor in conducting the great work of St. Peter's; the 
general plan of which, as it now stands, was designed by 
Eaphael. He likewise constructed a number of magnificent 
buildings, particularly the Caffarelli palace at Eome. This great 
artist was, besides, ambitious of being a sculptor, and a statue 
of Jonah still exists in the church of St. Maria del Popolo, as 
a specimen of his extraordinary powers. His death, April 7, 
1520, was occasioned by excessive bleeding, when his frame was 
already weakened by a violent fever. 

Rathangan, small market town and parish, in county and six miles 
northwest of Kildare, on river Little Barrow and a branch of 
the Grand Canal. The parish has 11,531 acres, and a population 
of 1,428; the town has a population of 619. The Duke of Lein- 
ster is the proprietor of the town. 

Rathlin Island, an island and insular parish, County Antrim, off 
Fair Head, five m.iles north of Ballycastle, has 3,398 acres and 
368 inhabitants. The island is crescent or elbow-shaped, meas- 
uring about five miles between the extreme points (which are 


towards the mainland) and one mile in width; greatest altitude 
449 feet. Eathlin has a church founded by St. Columba, in the 
6th century; was ravaged by the Danes in 790 and 973, and 
was the refuge of Eobert Bruce in 1306. The remains of 
" Bruce 's Castle" are situated on a lofty precipice. The in- 
habitants live chiefly by fishing. 

Eatlunines and Rathgar, urban district with railway station, 
Kanelagh and Eathmines (D. W. & W. E.), in county and one 
and one-half miles south of Dublin, has 1,714 acres and a popu- 
lation of '32,602. 

Eed Branch Knights. The Eed Branch Knights were the chief 
military force of Ulster, principally residing about Emania, 
where stood the palace of the Kings of Ulster, near Armagh, 
and highly celebrated in the first century of our era under their 
champions, Cuchillin and Conall the Victorious. — C. and McD. 
See Chapter IV. 

Red Sea, an inland sea between Africa and Asia (Arabia). Length, 
northwest to southwest, 1,450 miles; breadth varies from 16 to 
nearly 200 miles. The Jews and Phoenicians appear to have 
carried on an extensive trade upon this sea; and after the 
destruction of the Persian empire it resumed importance as the 
principal route of the traffic between Europe and the East, 
which distinction it retained until the discovery of the passage 
round the Cape of Good Hope; and latterly, since the opening 
of the Suez Canal, it has resumed its ancient importance as a 
trafiic routew 

Bhine, one of the largest European rivers, and the most important 
river of Germany. The stretch from Bingen, where the river 
cleaves its way through the Taunus range, up to Bonn, where it 
enters the lowlands, is the Ehine of romance and song, vineyards, 
castles, picturesque crags, and interesting legends claiming the 
attention at every turn of the winding waters. Numerous towns 
of historic and commercial importance stand on the banks of the 
Ehine or stud its valleys, for this has for ages been one of the 
principal routes between the south and the north of Blirope. Its 
length is 810 miles, of which 550 miles (from Basel) are 

Richard I. (1157-1199), surnamed Coeur de Lion, commonly known 
as Eichard the Lion-Hearted, King of England, third son of 
King Henry II. of England and Eleanor of Poitou, France, was 
born at Oxford. He allied himself with the French King Philip 
Augustus against his own father in 1188, but the latter dying the 
next year (1189) Eichard succeeded to the throne, and immedi- 
ately began his preparations for the third crusade. He reached 
Acre, with King Philip, in June, 1191, which had been besieged 
by the Crusaders for two years, and was still defended by the 
Sultan Saladin. Acre surrendered July 12, 1191, and after 
defeating Saladin in a great battle and concluding a truce for 
three years Eichard sailed for England in October, 1192. While 
passing through Germany he was arrested and imprisoned by the 


Emperor Henry VI. of Germany, an enemy of the captive, and 
was held until 1194, when he was released by paying a large 
ransom. On his arrival in England he frustrated an attempt by 
his brother John to usurp his authority. He was mortally 
wounded while besieging the Castle of Chaluz, France, in 1199, 
Eichard embodied the ideals of the age of chivalry. His mili- 
tary talents were of a high order, and his extraordinary courage 
and prowess gained him the appelation "The Lion-Hearted. " 
He was open, frank, generous, sincere and brave, and capable at 
times of great generosity and liberality. But it must be admitted 
that he was also rapacious and selfish, obstinate, passionate, 
revengeful, domineering, ambitious, haughty and cruel. The 
incidents of his life resemble the adventures of a knight-errant, 
rather than the actions of a great monarch. He was a ready and 
powerful speaker and was fond of literature, especially of poetry. 

Richard II. (1367-1400), King of England, younger son of Edward 
the Black Prince (eldest son of King Edward III. of England), 
was born at Bordeaux, France. He succeeded his grandfather to 
the English throne in June, 1377. In April, 1399, he went to 
Ireland to avenge the death of the Earl of March, and in his 
absence the Duke of Hereford, whom he had banished in 1398, 
landed in England, raised a large army, and made himself master 
of the kingdom. Eichard after his return from Ireland found 
himself unable to raise a sufficient force and many of his sol- 
diers deserted him. He surrendered in August, 1399, and 
resigned the crown the following month. His rival was recog- 
nized as King Henry IV. Eichard died in prison, probably by a 
violent death, in 1400. See Chapter XIV. He was influenced by 
favorites who oppressed the people; discontent, strife and tumult 
were prevalent throughout the realm during his short and 
troubled reign. 

Richard III. (1452-1485), King of England, the last monarch of the 
Plantagenet dynasty, a younger son of Eichard, third Duke of 
York, and a brother of King Edward IV., was born in Northamp- 
tonshire, England, in 1452. He was created Duke of Gloucester 
and appointed to the position of lord high admiral. He contrived to 
"remove" his brother George, Duke of Clarence, caused his 
nephews, Edward V. and Eichard, Duke of York, to be put to 
death, and then procured his own nomination to the crown in 
1483. He was defeated and slain at the battle of Bosworth 
Field in 1485, chiefly through the treachery of Lord Stanley, who 
joined his rival Henry, Earl of Eiehmond, to whom had descended 
the Lancastrian claim to the English crown. This decisive battle 
ended the long wars of the Eoses. Eiehmond ascended the throne 
as King Henry VII. "From various circumstances it seems 
possible that Eichard 's personal appearance as well as his moral 
character may have been grossly misrepresented and carica- 

Richelieu, Armand Jean Du Plessis (1585-1642), Due de, a cardinal 
and statesman, was born of a noble family at Paris. He studied 


at the Colleges of Navarre and Lisieux and chose the clerical pro- 
fession. In 1607 he obtained the bishopric of Lucon. He was 
also appointed grand almoner, and in 1616 made secretary of 
state. When Marie de Medicis fell into disgrace Eichelieu was 
banished to Avignon, where he wrote his "Method of Contro- 
versy." Being soon after recalled to court, he brought about a 
reconciliation between the king, Louis XIII., and the queen, for 
which he was rewarded with the dignity of cardinal and soon 
after appointed prime minister, in which situation he displayed 
extraordinary talents. He humbled the powerful nobility, made 
the monarchy absolute, restored the balance of power in Europe 
(which the ascendency of the House of Austria had disturbed), 
subdued the French Calvinists, granted them religious toleration, 
reduced Savoy, humbled Spain, struck terror to Austria, and com- 
manded the respect and admiration of all Europe. He main- 
tained the independence of the civil power against the encroach- 
ments or assumptions of the Church. He even supported with a 
subsidy the Protestants of Germany and ordered a large body of 
French troops to cooperate with the "sober-fanatical" Swedes 
on the Khine against the Catholics and Austrians. In 1635 he 
founded and endowed the French Academy, "the most splendid 
literary institution of Europe." During Eichelieu 's administra- 
tion Alsace was annexed to France. "Eichelieu was also a man 
of high and noble aims. His was one of the kingly natures that 
dominate an epoch, and stamp the intense significance of their own 
individuality deep in the annals of the world. He gave the final 
blow to the Feudal system, and was thus the true pioneer of the 
French Eevolution and the greatest statesman of the old mon- 
archy of France. He established the first important trading 
company in France. Grave errors, doubtless, not seldom per- 
vaded his policy, and his conduct was often unprincipled, 
revengeful and despotic; he extended on every side the bounda- 
ries of France; and he founded, endowed and transmitted to 
succeeding ages one of the most illustrious of European institu- 
tions, the French Academy, — the projection of which would itself 
sufiice to cover him with immortal honor. Let the errors and the 
crimes, then, be forgotten, and let the transcendent merits sur- 
vive." In the midst of this splendor he died, December 4, 1642, 
and was buried at the Sorbonne, where Girardon constructed a 
magnificent mausoleum to his memory. Eichelieu had some lit- 
erary taste, and was a liberal patron of authors and artists. He 
wrote several works; and he had also the ambition to be thought 
a great dramatic poet. The authenticity of the "Political Testa- 
ment," which passes under his name, is doubted by some writers. 
"Although Eichelieu was a great and successful statesman, he is 
not a general favorite with the French like King Henry IV. or 
King Louis XIV." 
Einucclni, John Baptist (1592-1653), Archbishop of Fermo, Italy, 
who acted a prominent part in Ireland between 1645 and 1649, 
was born in Eome. In 1645 he was sent by Pope Innocent X. as 


nuncio to the Confederate Catholics in arms in Ireland. The 
main object of his embassy was to secure the free exercise of the 
Catholic religion in Ireland. Leaving Kome in April, he spent 
some time in Paris, where he in vain sought an interview with 
Queen Henrietta, wife of King Charles I. of England. At 
Eochelle he bought the frigate San Pietro, freighted her with 
military stores, and embarked with his retinue. Having nar- 
rowly escaped capture by Parliamentary cruisers, he landed in 
Kenmare Bay, Ireland, October 22, 1645, and celebrated mass 
in a shepherd's hut. The Supreme Council sent troops to escort 
him to Kilkenny, which he entered in state on the 13th of Novem- 
ber. He resided chiefly at Kilkenny, Limerick, and Galway. 
Some of his letters are dated from Duncannon, Waterford, Bun- 
ratty, and Maryborough. It was Rinuccini's policy throughout 
to oppose all propositions for peace not providing for the open 
recognition of the Catholic faith in Ireland, and the appointment 
of a Catholic viceroy. He was consequently in continual opposi- 
tion to the Marquis of Ormond. He strenuously opposed the 
treaty of March 28, 1646, with the marquis. The nuncio received 
in Limerick Cathedral the captured standards sent by Owen Roe 
O'Neill after the decisive victory of Benburb in^June of that 
year. In August he induced O'Neill to come to the aid of the 
Waterford assembly, met to protest against the second treaty 
with Ormond, ratified on the 29th of July. In September he 
entered Kilkenny, with O 'Neill on the one hand and Preston on 
the other, imprisoned the old Confederate Council and called a 
Hew council, consisting of four bishops and eight laymen. He 
vainly endeavored to reconcile the bitter animosities between 
O 'Neill and Preston, which showed themselves before and during 
the abortive attack on Dublin. At Rinuccini's instance, a gen- 
eral assembly met at Kilkenny, January 10, 1647, from which a 
supreme council of twenty-four was elected. Most of the mem- 
bers were considered to be inflexibly opposed to making any 
terms with the enemy; yet after many negotiations, in April, 
1648, they gave their assent to a truce so distasteful to Rinuc- 
cini that he pronounced sentence of excommunication against all 
who should respect it, and against all districts in which it should 
be received or observed. His further efforts to carry on the war 
proved ineffectual, and in March, 1649, he sailed in the San 
Pietro for France. He died in December, 1653, and his remains 
were buried in the Cathedral of Fermo. A collection of the 
nuncio's documents and letters, entitled "The Embassy in Ire- 
land of G. B. Rinuccini, in 1645-49," translated by Anne Hutton, 
and published at Dublin in 1873, is a valuable contribution to the 
history of the time. See Chapters XXXV., XXXVL and XXXVH. 
"The verdict of history may condemn the nuncio for his impe- 
rious self-will and his too-ready recourse to ecclesiastical cen- 
sures; but of his zeal, his probity and his disinterestedness there 
can be," says McGee, "no second opinion." 


SrOchelle, fortified city and seaport of France, on the Atlantic, 296 
miles by rail southwest of Paris. The fortifications are three and 
one-half miles round, with seven gates and three towers, the 
oldest dating from 1384, and the "lantern tower" having seven 
stories. The harbor is the chief one on that coast, with an 
outer basin still protected by the historic stone mole of Eiche- 
lieu. Eochelle was formerly called Rupella (' ' little rock ") ; at the 
Eeformation it was a center of Calvinism; it endured a six and 
a half months' siege against the Catholic army, losing 20,000 
men, and afterwards another of eight months, before capitu- 
lating to Cardinal Eichelieu (1628). Three thousand of its 
citizens were lost to it by the Edict of Nantes, and its commer- 
cial prosperity was finally ruined when France lost Canada. 

Borne, capital of Italy, situated on the Tiber, about 17 miles from 
its mouth. Eome is surrounded by walls, in the main coincident 
■with the ancient circuit built by the Emperor Aurelian in 271 
and the succeeding years. Since 1870, and more especially since 
1882, the municipality has very greatly improved the city by 
deepening and straightening the Tiber, which winds through the 
city nearly three miles wuthin the walls, and is crossed by about 
a dozen bridges. In addition to being the civil capital of Italy, 
Eome was for ages the ecclesiastical center of the world, and is 
still the chief seat of the Catholic Church. There are some 350 
churches within the city limits. Amongst these the first place 
must be accorded to St. Peter's, near the Vatican, begun on the 
north side of Nero 's Circus, where so many Christian martrys 
perished, in the reign of Constantino the Great (first half of the 
4th century), but entirely reconstructed from designs by Bra- 
mante, Michael Angelo, and Maderna, between 1506 and 1626. 
Next after her churches, Rome's greatest architectural monu- 
ments are her palaces. The largest of these, and one of the 
largest palaces in the world, is the Vatican, which contains the 
residence of the Pope. According to tradition Rome was founded 
by Eomulus in 753 B. C. In the year 510 B. C. the city, already 
covering the "seven hills," threw oif the sway of the early 
kings and declared herself a republic. Then, having subdued the 
greater part of southern Italy, she measured herself against 
Carthage in a series of gigantic wars, in the course of which 
Eome herself was threatened by the great Punic general Han- 
nibal (264-146 B. C). Thenceforward her armies conquered 
region after region, until she became the mistress of a great 
part of the known world. But before this march of conquest 
was completed the city had passed through the throes of civil 
wars, arising out of the ambitions of her great commanders, and 
had taken unto herself an emperor in the person of Octavian 
(28 B. C). Constantino (324-337) forcing Christianity upon the 
empire, transferred the seat of government to Byzantium. Val- 
entinian I. divided his dominions (368) into the Eastern and the 
Western Empire. Eome was taken and plundered by Alaric the 
Goth in 410, and by Genseric the Vandal in 455. In 476 the 


Empire of the West came to an end, and Rome lost all lier privi- 
leges as capital. She was twice besieged (537 and 547) during 
the wars between the Ostrogoths and Belisarius, general of the 
Eastern Empire. In 554, when she was incorporated into the 
Eastern Empire, Rome had reached the lowest stages of impover- 
ishment. But the Bishop of Rome began to restore to the city 
something of her former importance, which rapidly increased 
after Rome was given to the Popes by Pepin and Charlemagne, 
in the 8th century, and especially after the latter in 800 assumed 
the (iron) crown of the ancient Roman empire. For the greater 
portion of four centuries, during part of which time the Popes 
reigned at Avignon in France, Rome was more or less the scene 
of lawless anarchy; and it was only after the return of the papal 
court, in the 15th century, that Rome was able to resume her 
position as a city of world-wide importance and reputation. She 
was, however, sacked once again by the Imperialists under the 
Constable de Bourbon in 1527. From 1809 till 1814 Rome was 
capital of the Department of Rome in the French Empire under 
Napoleon I., and at the latter date was given back to the Pontiff. 
The city was garrisoned by French troops from 1849 to 1870, 
after which she was occupied by Italian troops, and since that 
time has been the capital of the kingdom of Italy. Population 
(1901) 440,254. 
Roscommon, inland county of Connaught province, bounded north- 
east by County Leitrim, east by Counties Leitrim, Longford, and 
West Meath, southeast by King's County, southwest by County 
Galway, and northwest by Counties Mayo and Sligo. Greatest 
length, north and south, 59 miles; greatest breadth, east and 
west, 35 miles. The county has an area of 629,633 acres (26,321 
water), or 2.9 per cent of the total area of Ireland, and a popu- 
lation of 101,791, of whom 99,085 are Catholics, 2,273 Episco- 
palians, 250 Presbyterians, and 100 Methodists. The county is 
served by the M. G. W. R. and partly by the G. S. & W. R. 
The surface is diversified by hills (especially in the north), 
some fertile plains, bogs, and loughs. The river Shannon flows 
along the whole extent of the east boundary, and the Suck 
divides a great part of the county on the west from County 
Galway. The largest loughs are Allen, Boderg, and Ree, on the 
line of the Shannon, and Key, Gara, and Glinn, in the northwest. 
Sheep and cattle are reared in great numbers on the extensive 
grazing lands known as the "Plain of Boyle." Carboniferous 
limestone is the prevailing rock; old red sandstone occurs near 
Boyle in the north, and at Slievebawn on the east border. Iron 
ore and coal are found in the extreme north and marble is 
obtained in the south between Lough Ree and the river Suck. 
The county comprises 67 parishes, and part of eight others, and 
the towns of Boyle and Roscommon. For parliamentary pur- 
poses the county is divided into two divisions — North and South 
— each returning one member. These constituencies together 
contain 18,013 electors. 


Eoscommon, market and county town and parish, with railway 
station (M, G. W. E.), County Koscommon, 18 miles northwest of 
Athlone and 96 miles from Dublin. The parish has 9,819 acres, 
and a population of 3,192. The name of the town signifies 
Coman's Wood, and is derived from St. Coman, an Irish saint, 
who founded a monastery in 746 for Canons Kegular. Koscom- 
mon has also remains of a castle; the quadrangle of the castle 
measures 223 feet by 173 feet; it has five towers. The trade in 
cattle for Dublin and English markets is important. 

Ross, parish, County Cork, on Eoss Bay, has 13,350 acres, and a 
population of 3,064; contains Eoss Carbery. 

Ross, parish, Counties Galway and Mayo, between Loughs Corrib 
and Mask, eleven miles northwest of Oughterard, has 53,364 
acres, and a population of 3,708. 

Eoss, town, County Wexford, see New Eoss. 

BrOuen, an ancient city of France on the right bank of the Seine, 
70 miles northwest of Paris. Chief edifices, the Cathedral of 
St. Ouen (one of the most elaborate Gothic edifices in the 
world), the Palace of Justice, Archbishop's Palace, and the 
Museum. Eouen became the capital of the Normans in the 
beginning of the 10th century, and continued thenceforward 
to be the capital of Normandy. Here Prince Arthur was 
murdered by John of England; Philip Augustus seized it in 
1204. It was English again from 1418 to 1449, and during 
this period Joan of Arc was burned in its principal square 
(1431). Here was born the Chevalier de la Salle, the founder 
of the French colony of Louisiana. Population (1891) 112,100; 
including suburbs, 158,100. 

Bound Towers still exist in almost all the counties of Ireland. In 
ancient Ulster alone there are accounts of twenty-three Eound 
Towers, including those now remaining perfect and imperfect, 
and others which have fallen or been thrown down; and no 
doubt, in remote times, there were many more, of which there 
are now no records; many of those Eound Towers now remain- 
ing from barbarous neglect are falling into dilapidation and 
ruin, though if repaired they would stand for a thousand years 
to come. There are to be found throughout all the counties 
of Ireland ruins and remains of numerous abbeys, churches 
and castles. In County Louth the venerable ruins of the old 
abbeys of Drogheda, and of the great Cistercian abbey of Mel- 
lifont, together with the splendid stone crosses at Monasterboyce, 
near Drogheda, the largest found in Ireland, and superior to 
those even found at Clonmacnois, present extremely interesting 
memorials of former ages; but the ancient abbeys and churches 
so celebrated in former times at Armagh, Newry, Clogher and 
numerous other places have fallen into utter decay, under the 
hand of time, or the more destructive fury of fanaticism and 
war. In various parts of Ireland have been found, at different 
times, a vast number of antiquities buried in bogs, in the ram- 
parts of ancient fortresses, in lakes, etc., such as spears, hatchetg 


and arrow heads of stone, granite, basalt and flint; spears, 
swords and battle axes of bronze and iron; brazen war trum- 
pets and various musical instruments; large pots and other culi- 
nary utensils of bronze or brass; stone hand mills called querns; 
meathers, or large drinking vessels, made of yew; goblets and 
various ornaments of gold and silver; torques, or golden collars 
worn by kings and chiefs, gold chains, large rings, balls, brace- 
lets, crescents and gorgets of gold, belonging to remote ages, 
and showing an early acquaintance with arts and civilization. 
— C. and McD. 

Rupert, Prince (1609-1682), sometimes called Robert of Bavaria, 
Count Palatine of Rhine and Duke of Bavaria, afterwards Duke 
of Cumberland and Earl of Holderness, third son of Elizabeth 
(daughter of King James I. of England and Queen of Bohemia) 
and Frederic V., Elector Palatine, was born at Prague, in 
Bohemia. He was educated for the military service. Having 
previously served against the Imperialists in the Thirty Years' 
War in Germany, he entered the Royalist army in England 
during the civil war and distinguished himself by his energy 
and bravery at Worcester and other engagements. He became 
general of the royal forces, while his elder brother became a 
pensioner to the parliament. Prince Rupert adhered himself 
steadfastly to his uncle. King Charles I., and defeated the 
Parliamentarians in several engagements, for which Charles 
gave him the command of a regiment of cavalry and honored 
him with the Garter and made him a peer. In 16-18 he obtained 
command of the fleet and assisted the Marquis of Ormond on 
the coast of Ireland; and next year he was blockaded in Kinsale 
harbor, Munster, by the Parliamentary squadron, commanded by 
Admiral Blake. He managed to force his way out and escape to 
Portugal. Rupert subsisted for some time by piracy in the West 
Indies. After the Restoration he served with eminent success 
as admiral in the Dutch war, on the conclusion of which he led 
a retired life, occupied wholly in scientific pursuits. He invented 
many improvements in military affairs, and also excelled in 
mezzotinto engravings. He died in London, England, and was 
buried in Westminster Abbey. 

Russell, Sir William (1558 M613), first Baron Russell of Thorn- 
haugh, born probably in England, son of Francis Russell, second 
Earl of Bedford, commanded a company in Ireland in 1581, and 
was knighted the same year. The Russells claim descent from 
the Rozels of Normandy, France. He was lord-deputy of Ireland 
from 1594 until 1597. Russell relieved Enniskillen, which was 
besieged by the Irish leaders, Sir Hugh Maguire and Hugh Roe 
O'Donnell, and engaged, in cooperation with General Sir John 
Norris, in extending operations against Hugh O'Neill (Earl of 
Tyrone) and other Irish chieftains. In 1597 Russell surprised 
and defeated Feagh MacHugh O 'Byrne, called "the firebrand 
of the mountains. ' ' He returned to England in the same year 
and died at Northall. He was created Lord Russell of Thorn- 


haugh by King James I. of England. His son succeeded to the 
family titles and estates as fourth Earl of Bedford and was a 
popular leader at the opening of the contest between Charles 
I. and his Parliament. See Chapters XXVIII. and XXIX. 

Euvigny or De Ruvigny, Henry (1647-1720), was born in France in 
1647. His father (Henri de Massue, Marquis de Euvigny), was a 
French Huguenot general and able diplomat. Proscribed as a 
Protestant, the subject of this sketch retired to England about 
1685, and was made Earl of Galway for his services at the 
battle of the Boyne (1690) by King William III. of England. In 
the War of the Spanish Succession he commanded the English 
and allies who captured Madrid in 1706. Having been appointed 
general-in-chief he fought against the French at the battle of 
Alamanza (1707), in Spain, where he was wounded and defeated 
with great loss. He was again defeated at Gudina in 1709 and 
soon after recalled from the command for his ill success. In 
1715 he was lord justice of Ireland, and died five years later. 

St, Leger, Sir Anthony (1496?-1559), lord-deputy, was first sent to 
Ireland by King Henry VIII. of England, in 1537, as one of the 
commissioners for settling the waste lands on the borders of the 
English Pale. He was appointed lord-deputy of Ireland in 154-(^> 
and filled the offiee till 1546. He received the submission of tlj 
Earl of Desmond and other chiefs, and presided at the parlia- 
ment in which Henry VIII. was declared King of Ireland. As 
his portion of the spoil consequent on the suppression of the 
monasteries, he was granted Grany, in County Carlow, and 
other ecclesiastical lands. In tlip reign of King Edward VI., 
for successful expeditions against the O'Connors and O'Moores, 
he was granted estates in England. He died in Kent, England, 
in 1559. His grandson. Sir Warham St. Leger, received large 
grants of land in Munster, Irelavjd, during the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth. See Chapters XXIIl. and XXIV. 

St. Leger, Sir Warham (died in 1600), soldier, was born probably 
in England. He began service in Ireland, according to his own 
statement, about 1574, and was employed in the defense and 
government of Leix and Offaly. In August, 1584, Maryborough 
and Queen 's County were committed to his charge. In January, 
1589, he visited England to cure a wound which made him 
lame. While there Queen Elizabeth directed that he should be 
sworn of the Irish privy council. In 1597 he was sent on a 
mission to the Earl of Tyrone (Hugh O'Neill), was knighted 
and made governor of Leix. In September, 1599, he was one 
of the two to whom the government of Munster was entrusted 
pending the appointment of a president. February 18, 1600, he 
encountered Hugh Maguire, and a hand-to-hand engagement 
took place between the commanders which proved fatal to both. 
He was the grandson of Sir Anthony St. Leger and father of 
Sir William St. Leger (died in 1642), president of Munster. 
St. Leger must be distinguished from his uncle, Sir Warham 
St. Leger (1525-1597), provost-marshal of Munster, 1579-89. 


St. Moling, The Book of. This is an illuminated gospel MS. in 
Trinity College, Dublin, written in the seventh or eighth century. 
— Dr. P. W. Joyce. See Notes to Chapter I. 

St. Omer, a fortified town of France, defended by Fort Notre 
Dame, Department Pas-de-Calais. Since the 13th century St. 
Omer has had important manufactures of cloth. In the 7th 
century St. Omer was a village called * ' Sithiu, ' ' in which St. 
Omer founded three monasteries, one of which was made the 
cathedral (12th to loth century), containing works of art of the 
middle Ages and Renaissance. St. Omer was taken by Louis 
XIV. in 1677. Population 21,700. 

St. Patrick. Though the gospel had been preached in Ireland at 
a more early period, the general conversion of the natives had 
been reserved for the zeal of St. Patrick. This celebrated 
missionary was born on the farm of Enon, near Bonaven, in the 
district of Tabernia; that is, near Boulogne, France. This I 
think is clearly proved by Dr. Lanagan, from the ConfessioQ of 
St. Patrick. He commenced his labors in the year 432, and after 
a life of indefatigable exertion, died at an advanced age in 
473. His disciples appear to have inherited the spirit of their 
teacher. Churches and monasteries wer^ successively founded; 
and every species of learning known at that time was assidu- 
ously cultivated. It was the peculiar happiness of these ec- 
clesiastics to escape the visits of the barbarians, who in the 
fifth and sixth centuries depopulated and dismembered the 
western empire. When science was almost extinguished on the 
continent, it still emitted a faint light from the remote shores 
of Erin; strangers from Britain, Gaul and Germany resorted to 
the Irish schools; and Irish missionaries established monasteries 
and imparted instruction on the banks of the Danube and amid 
the snows of the Apennines. — John Lingard, D. D. See Chap- 
ter VI. 

St. Ruth (died in 1691), a French general and "persecutor of the 
Huguenots, noted for his cruelty." He was sent by King Louis 
XIV. of France to command the army in Ireland which fought 
for King James II. He had previously led some regiments of 
the Irish brigade at Savoy, France. Irritated at the capture of 
Athlone, Ireland, in 1791, he determined, soon after, to give 
battle at Aughrim to the British under De Ginkell in opposition 
to the advice of his Irish oflScers. The battle was stubborn 
and prolonged, but the critical moment of the decisive struggle, 
when victory seemed assured, St. Ruth 's head was shot off by 
a cannon ball, and "Aughrim was lost and won." See Chap- 
ters XLVI. and XLVII. 

Sacred Isle or Insula Sanctorum. Ireland before the introduction 
of Christianity was called by various Latin writers Insula Sacra 
or Sacred Island, probably from its being a celebrated or prin- 
cipal seat of Druidism; and this name by some is considered 
to have the same meaning as lerne — the usual Greek term for 
Ireland in pagan times. Ireland was named Insula Sanctorum 


or Sacred Isle in the early Christian ages on account of its 
great sanctity, etc. — C. and McD. See Ireland, Ancient Names 
of. See Chapter VI. 

Saintfield, market town and parish, with railway station (B. & C. 
D. E.), County Down, 11 miles by road and 15 by rail southeast 
of Belfast. The parish has 13,333 acres, and a population of 
3,073; the town has a population of 554. Linen is manufactured 
here. Was the scene of a skirmish in 1798. Saintfield House is 
one mile north of the town. 

Saratoga, Decisive Battle of (American Revolutionary War), was 
fought at Saratoga, N. Y., October 7, 1777, between the British, 
6,000 strong, under General Burgoyne, and the Americans, under 
General Gates. The Americans occupied a strongly entrenched 
position, which was attacked by Burgoyne. After a severe 
encounter, the attack was repulsed at all points, and the Brit- 
ish driven back upon their camp at Saratoga, with heavy loss, 
including General Eraser, mortally wounded. The Americans 
followed up their success by an assault upon the British camp, 
in which they succeeded in effecting a lodgment, and on the 
following day, Burgoyne withdrew, and took up a fresh posi- 
tion on the heights near the Hudson. On October 15, Burgoyne, 
surrounded by the Americans, and finding that no aid could 
reach him, surrendered with about 5,500 men, his total losses 
during the campaign having amounted to nearly 5,000. The re- 
sult of this great victory (probably the most important and de- 
cisive battle of the Revolutionary war) induced King Louis of 
France to throw the weight of his power on the side of America 
and England was finally compelled to surrender her western 

Sarcans, a name variously employed by mediaeval writers to desig- 
nate the Mohammedans of Syria and Palestine, the Arabs gener- 
ally, or the Arab-Berber races of northern Africa, who conquered 
Spain and Sicily, and invaded France. At a later date it was 
employed as a synonym for all infidel nations, against which 
crusades were preached. 

Saul, parish. County Down, on Lough Strangford, three miles 
northeast of Downpatrick, contains 4,260 acres, and a population 
of 655. 

Savoy, territory of Europe, on the west or French side of the Alps, 
south of the Lake of Geneva, forming, since 1860, the two French 
Departments of Savoie and Haute-Savoie. In the Roman era 
Savoy formed part of the vast territory of the Allobroges; the 
greater part of the country was ceded to Burgundy in 470. At 
the beginning of the 12th century the local Counts of Maurienne 
became Counts of Savoy, and gradually increased their power 
until they had built up a powerful state. Soon after the middle 
of the 16th century the sovereigns of Savoy transferred their 
seat of government to Turin. At the French revolution Savoy 
was declared to be the French Department of Mont Blanc, but 
the Congress of Vienna (1815) restored it to Sardinia. In 1860 


Victor Emmanuel, then King of Italy, ceded Savoy, the cradle 
of his dynasty, to France in recompense for the assistance 
afforded by Napoleon III. to the Italians in recovering Lombardy 
from the Austrians. 

Saxe, Maurice (1696-1750), Count de Saxe, soldier, was born at 
Dresden, Germany, being the natural son of Frederick Augustus 
II., Elector of Saxony and King of Poland, by the Countess von 
Konigsmarck. He entered the army at the age of twelve and 
distinguished himself in several battles against the Swedes and 
French. He bore a part in the decisive battle of Malplaquet, and 
in 1711 accompanied the King of Poland to Stralsund. He dis- 
tinguished himself in the war with Sweden, and in 1717 served 
against the Turks. In 1720 he entered the French service, and 
was for a time the favorite of the Duchess of Courland, who 
became Empress of Eussia in 1730. In 1741 he took Prague, in 
Bohemia, by assault; in 1744 he was appointed a marshal of 
France, and the next year he gained against the British and 
Germans the decisive battle of Fontenoy. This was followed by 
the capture of Brussels and the battle of Eaucoux, for which 
King Louis XV. of France made him marshal-general of his 
camps and armies. In 1747 Saxe won the victory of Laufeld over 
the allies, and in 1748 he took Maestricht. Marshal Saxe was 
loaded with honors by the French king, but he lived only about 
two years to enjoy the rewards of his valor and skill. The war 
was concluded the same year by the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. 
He had married the Countess of Loben in 1712, but he was 
divorced from her a few years later. Saxe wrote a work on 
military affairs entitled "My Eeveries. " His daughter, Madame 
Dupin, was the grandmother of George Sand, the famous French 
authoress. This able soldier was a man of large stature and 
remarkable personal strength. 

Saxons, see Anglo-Saxons. 

Scandinavia, a geographical, or rather an ethnographical term, 
comprehending in the wide sense Sweden, Norway, Denmark and 
Iceland. In the narrower sense it is confined to the peninsula 
of Norway and Sweden. See Danes and also Norway. 

Scattery, Isle of. County Clare in Eiver Shannon, two miles south- 
west of Kilrush. It contains 186 acres and 96 inhabitants. 
Here St. Senan, who died in 544, founded a monastery, and the 
island contains the ruins of six churches, a round tower and 
a holy well. On the south point of the island is a fine light, 50 
feet above high water, and seen 10 miles. 

Schomberg, Duke of, see Hermann, Frederick Armand. 

Schulenburg, Countess Ehrengard Melusina Von Der (1667-1743), 
Duchess of Kendal, was born in Saxony, Germany. She had 
formed a liaison with King George I. of England. In June, 1716, 
after having been naturalized, she was created Baroness of 
Dundalk, Countess and Marchioness of Dungannon, and Duchess 
of Munster in the peerage of Ireland. In March, 1719, she 
became Baroness of Glastonbury, Countess of Feversham, and 


Duchess of Kendal. Among other privileges granted her was 
the monopoly of coining halfpence for Ireland, which she sold 
to William Wood, an English iron merchant. She seems to have 
possessed neither striking beauty nor superior intellect. 

Scotia, or the Land of the Scots. Ireland is called Scotia by 
various Roman and other Latin writers. It got the name Scotia 
from the Milesian colony who came from Spain, and were called 
by the Irish Clanna Scuit, or Scuit, a name which was Latin- 
ized Scoti or Scotti, and Anglicised Scots, and hence the coun- 
try was called Scotia. Ireland is first mentioned by the name 
ef Scotia and its inhabitants as Scoti, in the third century by 
Latin writers; and from the third to the twelfth century, the 
country and its people are mentioned under those names by 
various writers. Giraldus Cambrensis in the twelfth century 
also calls Ireland Scotia, and says that North Britain likewise 
got the name of Scotia because the people were originally de- 
scended from the Irish. It has been fully demonstrated by 
Ussher and other learned men that the name Scotia was exclu- 
sively applied to Ireland until the eleventh century, when mod- 
ern Scotland first got the name of Scotia, its ancient name, 
given to it by the Irish and the natives, being Alba or Albain 
— Anglicised Albany. Scotland was called Caledonia by the 
Eomans, and North Britain by various writers. Many Scotch 
writers confounding ancient Scotia or Ireland with modern 
Scotia or Scotland, have consequently claimed as natives of 
Scotland many illustrious Irish saints, missionaries, and scholars, 
eminent throughout the continent of Europe, and mentioned as 
Scoti, or natives of Scotia, from the 5th to the 12th century. 
From the 12th to the 16th century, various Latin writers, to 
distinguish the two countries, mention Ireland as Scotia Vetus, 
or Old Scotia, and Scotia Major, or the Greater Scotia; and 
Scotland as Scotia Minor, or the Lesser Scotia; and the Irish 
were called Scoto-lerni and Scoto-Hiberni, or Hibernian Scots, 
and the people of Scotland, Scoti-Albani, or Albanian Scots. — 
C. & McD. 

Scotland, the northern portion of Great Britain, formerly an inde- 
pendent kingdom, since 1603 under the same crown as the 
other parts of the British Isles, divided into 32 counties. Scot- 
land is broadly divisible into three great regions, the Southern 
Uplands, the Middle Lowlands, and the Highlands. At the 
period of the Eoman invasion the northern part of Britain was 
divided among three peoples: the Brythons (Britons) mainly in 
the southeast; the Gaels in the southwest, both Celtic, and the 
Picts, as the aboriginal inhabitants were called, a non-Aryan 
race, but speaking a Celtic dialect who occupied the northern 
part of the country. The Roman dominion was extended, though 
not steadily maintained, over the southern part as far as the 
Forth and Clyde. During the 4th century the Scots, a Celtic 
tribe from the north of Ireland, began to make descents on the 
southwest coast, and in the beginning of the 6th century founded 


a colony in Argyllshire, from which grew the kingdom of Dal- 
riada, so named after the district whence they had migrated. 
About the 4th century also, Saxons and Angles formed settle- 
ments on the east coast. These were extended after the 
departure of the Romans, and in 547 A. D. were united by Ida 
into the kingdom of Bernicia — later included in that of 
Northumbria. The language of the settlers, which eventually 
spread over the whole Lowland region, supplanting the earlier 
Celtic, was one with that of northern England, and continued 
to be so in the 14th century. It was not till the 15th century 
that this dialect was called Scotch, that name having previously 
signified the Gaelic of the northern parts. At the beginning of 
the 7th century the country was divided into four kingdoms: the 
Picts, holding the greater part of the country north of the Forth; 
the Scots in Dalriada; the Britons in the southwest (Strath- 
clyde) ; and the Angles of Bernicia in the east. In the 7th 
century, Oswy, King of Northumbria, conquered Strathclyde and 
Dalriada, but the latter passed in the following century under 
Pictish rule. In 842 Kenneth MacAlpin became King of Dal- 
riada, and two years later conquered the Pictish country between 
the Spey and the Forth, afterwards known as the kingdom of 
Alban, thus laying the foundation of modern Scotland. Moravia, 
or Moray, northwest of the Spey, and the west coast were inde- 
pendent, while the Scandinavians got possession of the Orkney 
and Shetland islands, the Hebrides, and part of the northern 
mainland. In 945 Strathclyde was ceded to the Alban kingdom 
by Edmund, King of Wessex, and early in the 11th century the 
Northumbrian district between the Forth and the Tweed was 
added to Scotia, as the kingdom was now called. In 1056 Mal- 
colm Canmore ascended the throne. Hitherto the Celtic race had 
been dominant, but Malcolm represented in his own person 
Saxon as well as Scot. Saxon influences were further strength- 
ened by his marriage with Margaret, sister of Edgar Atheling, 
and by the many Saxons who sought refuge there after the 
Norman conquest. David I. (1124) extended his authority over 
Moray, and did much to consolidate the kingdom. He intro- 
duced Norman feudal institutions, and founded many royal 
burgs. Caithness was annexed by William the Lion in 1196, 
and in 1266 the defeat of the Norwegians in the battle of Largs 
increased the kingdom. The only territories still outstanding 
were the Orkney and Shetland islands; these were acquired in 
1469 by the marriage of James III. with the daughter of 
Christian I. of Denmark. Scotland has an area of 30,405 square 
miles, and a population (1909) of 4,877,648. 
Scots, who were chiefly Celt^ of Irish descent, came [to Ireland] in 
great numbers from the 10th to the 16th century, and settled in 
Ulster, mostly in Antrim, Down, and Derry; but on the planta- 
tion of Ulster with British colonists in the 17th century the new 
settlers in that province were chiefly Scots, who were a mixture 
of Celts and Saxons, thus the seven first colonists were a mixture 


of Celts, Scythians, and Phenicians; but the four last were mostly 
Teutons, though mixed with Celts; and a compound of all these 
races in which the Celtic blood is predominant, forms the present 
population of Ireland. — C. & McD. See Scotland, and also Celts. 
See Chapter V. 

Seymour, Jane (1509 M537), third queen of King Henry VIII. of 
England, born probably in England, was lady-in-waiting to Cath- 
erine of Arragon and Anne Boleyn. Privately married to King 
Henry, May 30, 1536, she died soon after the birth of her son, 
who became King Edward VI. 

Shannon, the largest river in Ireland, rises under Cuilcagh moun- 
tain. County Cavan, 258 feet above sea-level, and flows south- 
west to the Atlantic ocean at Loop Head, separating Connaught 
from Leinster and Munster; length 22-1 miles; the basin contains 
6,060 square miles. The largest loughs or expansions on its 
course are Allen, Boderg, Bofin, Eee, and Derg. Its principal 
branches are Boyle Water, the Suck, and the Fergus on the right 
bank; and the Camlin, Inny, Little Brosna, Nenagh, Mulkear, 
Maigue, and the Deel on the left bank. It is connected with the 
Eoyal Canal at Eichmond Harbor (County Longford), and with 
the Grand Canal at Shannon Harbor (King's County). The 
estuary of the Shannon extends from Limerick to Loop Head, a 
distance of 70 miles, and is navigable for vessels of upwards 
of 1,000 tons; and the main river is navigable for small craft 
throughout nearly the whole length of its course. Small trading 
steamers ply between Limerick and Athlone. 

Shrewsbury, Earl of, see Talbot, John. 

Sicily, an island in the Mediterranean Sea, is separated on the 
northeast from Naples by the Strait of Messina, Length, east to 
west, 185 miles; breadth, 120 miles. The chief mountain is the 
volcano of Mount Etna, near the east coast, 10,840 feet above the 
sea. Sicily was in ancient times, the seat of many flourishing 
Greek colonies, of which Syracuse and Agrigentum were the most 
famous, and boasts of some of the most magnificent remains of 
ancient art in the world. It fell successively under the Cartha- 
ginians, Eomans, Goths, Greek emperors, Saracens, Normans, 
French, Swabians, Austrians, and Spaniards. It was annexed 
to Naples in 1736. In 1847-49 unsuccessful attempts were made 
to shake off the Neapolitan government. Messina was bom- 
barded and taken by the Neapolitan troops in September, 1848, 
and Catania in April, 1849. The Sicilians again rose in insur- 
rection in 1860, and, with Garibaldi at their head, defeated the 
Neapolitans at Calatafimi, Palermo, and Milazzo. He then, at 
Naples, annexed the Two Sicilies to the new kingdom of Italy 
under Victor Emmanuel. 

Sidney, Sir Henry (died in 1586), born probably in England, lord 
deputy of Ireland, was knighted and sent ambassador to France 
by King Edward VI. of England and was lord justice of Ireland, 
1557-58. Early in the reign of Queen Elizabeth he again filled 
the latter post for a few months; was afterwards lord president 



of Celts, ScytLiiaiJS, and Phfi'' 
Teutons, though ;r;xed w;; 
races iu whicb <?><? <^«»)tic 1 
population of Ireland. — (' v 

See CL 


hut the four last were mofltJy 

ad a compound of all these 

leuominant, forms the present 

See Scotland, and also Celts. 

Seymour, i queen of King Henry "VIII. of 

Ej L and, was lady-in-waiting to Gath- 

er i hiyn. Privately married to King 

Ilf lUed soon %f ter^ the birth of her son, 

V- VI. 

Shaj' ,: Ireland, rises under CuiJeagh moun- 

/;■ leet above sea-levol, a^d dows Bouth- 
ean at Loop Head, separsting Couuaught 
uii i ALuJiater; length 224 miles; the basin contains 
miles. The largest loughs or expansions on its 
Kuutue are Allen, Boderg, Bofin, Kee, and Derg. Its principal 
tranches are Boyle Water, the Suck, and the Fergus on the right 
bank; and the Camlin, Inny, Little Brosna, Nenagh, Mulkear, 
Maigue, and the Deel on the left bank. It is connected with the 
Royal Canal at Kichmond Harbor (County Longford), and with 

the Grand Cr^iiai at -• ■>^(llt4'M^^8s3;fI'ipty). The 

ystuarv of the Sbari'i ?>..>n Ljroori'jk to Loop Head, a 

volcano of Mount Etna, ne. 
sea. Sicily was in ur ' 
Greek polonies, of wlii 


ginians, Konians, U": 
French, Swabians, A 
to Naples in 1736, 1-. 
to shake off the Ne; 
barded and taken by • 
and Catania in April, i>' 
rection in 1S60, and, with 
Neapolitans at Calatafimi 
Naploe, annexed the Two 
under Victor Emmanuel. 
Sidney, Sir Henry (died in 1.: 
deputy of Ireland, was ki. 
b)' King Edward VI, of Ei 
"^.'i' !58. Early in the rei- 
■ or post for a few m 

iS alH T.v: 

;.t rciaaius of 

: ^r the Cartha- 

"is, Normans, 

wMs annexed 

ota were made 

jua was bom- 

itember, 1848, 

iu insur- 

aled the 

then, at 

of Italy 

'England, lord 

ior to France 

■1: of Ireland, 

' i; again filled 

lord president 

■r.rrr**:^." /■."..■■ai'-.^^iL:-,-"/ 


of Wales, and was sent on a confidential mission to France. In 
1566 he returned to Ireland as lord deputy. He made immediate 
preparations against the Irish Chieftain, Shane 'Neill, in which, 
by the powerful aid of the O 'Donnells, Shane 's forces were 
defeated in May, 1567. Shane 's ruin was completed by the Scots 
of Antrim in the following June, when he was assassinated. In 
August, 1569, war broke out in Desmond, and Sidney, reinforced 
from England, hurried to the scene of action. He marched west, 
burning villages, blowing up castles, killing the garrisons, and 
putting every man to death whom he caught in arms, and garri- 
soning many strongholds. In 1571 he was recalled at his own 
request; but four years afterwards again accepted the govern- 
ment of Ireland. The reestablishment of the presidencies was 
one of Sidney 's chief alministrative acts during his second tenure 
of power. In 1578 it was apparent that at heart the Irish 
chieftains and people were more bitterly opposed than ever to 
the acceptance of the Keformed religion and English habits and 
laws, and Sidney, perhaps unable to encounter the expense in- 
volved by tenure of office under Elizabeth, made haste out of 
the country before the storm burst. He died in 1586. The well- 
known Sir Philip Sidney was his son. See Chapters XXV. and 

Simnel, Lambert (1472-1487), an English impostor, born at Oxford, 
England, about 1472, was the son of a joiner or baker. In 1486 
he pretended to be Edward Plantagenet, Earl of Warwick, a 
nephew of King Richard III., and was supported by many parti- 
sans of the House of York. The army of Simnel was defeated by 
the royal army at Stoke in 1487. Simnel was taken prisoner, but 
his life was spared. See Chapter XXI. 

Skeffington, Sir William (died in 1535), born probably in England, 
called "The Gunner," was appointed lord-deputy of Ireland, 
1529-32, and 1534-35, being recalled from Ireland by the influence 
of Gerald FitzGerald, ninth Earl of Kildare, in 1532, but again 
appointed after the latter 's fall in 1534. During the revolt of 
"Silken Thomas," Skeffington raised the siege of Drogheda, and 
reduced Maynooth by the aid of his heavy artillery. In 1535 he 
concluded a treaty with the Irish chieftain Con O'Neill, and 
died in Dublin. He was knighted by King Henry VII. of Eng- 
land. The Massareene family are his descendants. See Chapter 

Skreen Hill, in County Meath, about seven miles southeast of 
Navan, has an altitude of 507 feet. 

Slane, parish and village. County Meath, on river Boyne, two miles 
northeast of Beauparc railway station, and eight miles west of 
Drogheda. The parish has an area of 5,974 acres, and a popula- 
tion of 955; the village has a population of 297. Slane has 
remains of an abbey and of the hermitage of St. Eire, who 
founded the see of Slane at the beginning of the 6th century. 
Slane Castle, one mile west of the village, is the seat of the 
Marquis of Conyngham. 


Slane, hamlet, County of Antrim, five miles west of Glenarm. 

Slaney, river in Leinster province, rises in Lugnaquilia and Table 
mountains, County Wicklow, and flows southwest and south 
through Counties Wicklow, Carlow, and Wexford to Wexford 
Harbor. The river has a length of 60 miles; has valuable salmon 
fisheries. The Bann, the Derry, and the Derreen are among its 

Slemish Mountain, four miles southeast of Broughshane, County 
Antrim. Altitude 1,457 feet. 

Slieve Bloom, a range of mountains on the border of King's 
County and Queen 's County. Greatest altitude 1,733 feet. 

Slieve Mish, a mountain range in County Kerry, 14 miles long. 
Greatest altitude 2,796 feet. 

Sligo, a maritime county of Connaught province, bounded north by 
the Atlantic ocean, east by County Leitrim, southeast by County 
Eoscommon, south by Counties Eoscommon and Mayo, and 
west by County Mayo and Killala Bay. Greatest length, 
north and south, 38 miles; greatest breadth, east and west, 
36 miles; coast-line, about 60 miles. The county has an 
area of 452,356 acres (11,815 water), or 2.2 per cent of the total 
area of Ireland, and a population of 84,083, of whom 76,146 are 
Catholics, 6,415 Episcopalians, 662 Presbyterians, and 518 Meth- 
odists. The county is served by the M. G. W. E., the G. S. & W. 
E., and Sligo, Leitrim, and Northern Counties railway. The 
coast, along which are Donegal, Sligo, and Killala Bays, is low 
and sandy. The surface of the main body of the county gradu- 
ally rises from the coast to the ridges of the Ox mountains, 
whence it descends into the valleys of the Moy and other 
streams. The narrow district to the north of the town of Sligo 
is chiefly occupied with mountains, the surface shelving down 
to a low sandy waste, by the coast. The large loughs are Gill, 
Arrow, Gara, Easky, and Talt. The principal rivers are the Moy, 
the Easky, the Owenmore, and the Garrogue. Much of the soil is 
fertile, especially in the vicinity of Sligo. Coarse woollens and 
friezes are manufactured for home use. The coast fisheries are 
extensive, and the streams afford good angling. The county com- 
prises 36 parishes, and part of four others, and the town of 
Sligo. For parliamentary purposes the county is divided into two 
divisions — North and South — one member for each division. 
The parliamentary constituencies together contain 15,951 electors. 

Sligo, market and seaport town, municipal borough, and county 
town of Sligo, with railway station (M. G. W. E.); also served 
by G. S. & W. E. and Sligo, Leitrim, and Northern Counties rail- 
way. The town is situated on Sligo Bay, 48 miles west of Ennis- 
killen, and 134 miles northwest of Dublin by rail. The municipal 
borough has an area of 2,916 acres, and a population of 10,870. 
The town is finely situated on the banks of the Garrogue, a 
stream which runs from Lough Gill to Sligo Bay, and the sur- 
rounding scenery is beautiful and romantic. The old castle of 
Sligo was destroyed in 1277, and the abbey, situated near the 


town, is now an interesting ruin. Sligo is the most important 
seaport in the northwest of Ireland, and has large exports of 
live-stock, grain, butter, eggs, and pork. Steamers ply regularly 
between this port, Glasgow and Liverpool. There are flour and 
corn mills, sawmills, and a brewery. Sligo is the headquarters 
of a very extensive fishery district. It gives the title of marquis 
to the family of Browne. There are lighthouses on Black Rock 
and Oyster Island. 

Smerwick Harbor, a well-sheltered bay in County Kerry, four miles 
northwest of Dingle. It was the scene of a massacre of 600 
Spaniards and Italians who landed here in 1580 and surrendered 
unconditionally to Lord Deputy Grey. 

Somerset, Charles (died in 1526), first Earl of Worcester, "a man 
of eminent talents," born probably in England, the natural son 
of Henry Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, assumed the name of 
Somerset, and was by King Henry VII. of England constituted 
one of his privy council, admiral of the fleet, vice-chamberlain of 
the household, sent ambassador, with the Order of the Garter, to 
the Emperor Maximilian of Austria, and was with King Henry 
VIII. in the latter 's expedition to France. For his ability and 
success he had the ofiice of lord chamberlain bestowed on him 
for life, and was created Earl of Worcester in 1513. 

Somerset, Edward (1601-1677), sixth Earl and second Marquis of 
Worcester, titular Earl of Glamorgan, politician, and inventor of 
the steam engine, born probably in England, was styled Lord 
Herbert until the death of his father, Henry Somerset. He was 
firmly attached to the ancient religion and zealously maintained 
the cause of King Charles I. during the civil war, and about 1645 
the king sent him to Ireland to distribute honors, and make a 
secret treaty with the Confederate Catholics for service in Eng- 
land. He went to Paris as a voluntary exile in 1648, and on his 
return to England was imprisoned in the Tower of London till 
1655, In 1663 he published a curious work entitled "A Century 
of the Names and Scantlings of Invention." In this work he 
describes an engine made by himself. It appears to have been 
the first steam engine ever constructed, and he describes it as 
"an admirable and most forcible way to drive up water by 
fire." His attempts to bring his invention into notice were 
unsuccessful, as he was regarded with much disfavor by those in 
power, chiefly on account of his adherence to the Catholic faith. 
He was one of the greatest mechanical geniuses that ever lived. 
"The Life, Times, and Scientific Labors of the Second Marquis 
of Worcester, ' ' appeared at London in 1805. In 1866 volume of 
" Worcesterians" was also published. See Chapter XXXV. 

Southey, Robert (1774-1843), author, was born at Bristol, England, 
1774, his father being a linendraper of that city. He was sent to 
school when six years of age, to a Baptist minister; was subse- 
quently taught at Corston, near Newton St. Loe, and by a 
Welshman, from whom little scholarship was to be obtained. 
He began to write verse before he was ten years old; 


was subsequently placed at Westminster School (1788) by his 
maternal uncle, and finally at Oxford (1792), with the design of 
his entering the Established Church; but Southey's academical 
career closed in 1794. In the same year he published his first 
poems, in conjunction with Lovell, the two friends assuming the 
names of Moschus and Bion. About this time, too, he took part 
in the famous Pantisocracy scheme, to which all the eager con- 
tributors brought golden theories, but of more tangible coin so 
little, that the Utopian project was necessarily relinquished. 
At first a radical and republican in religion and politics, he 
gradually became a firm Conservative and a zealous member of 
the Anglican Church. In 1795, he married Edith Fricker, of 
Bristol, the sister of Mrs. S. J. Coleridge. In the winter of the 
same year, while the author was on his way to Lisbon, "Joan 
of Arc ' ' was published. He returned to Bristol in the following 
summer; in the subsequent year he removed to London. He 
passed part of the years 1800-1 in Portugal, and was for a short 
time resident in Ireland. His final residence at Greta, near 
Keswick, England, the most beautiful scenery in the lake 
country, took place in 1804. On the decease of Pye (1813), 
Southey was appointed poet-laureate; he received the degree of 
LL.D. from the University of Oxford 1821; received a pension 
of £300 a year from the government in 1835, and in 1839 con- 
tracted a second marriage with Caroline Anne (daughter of 
Charles Bowles), one of the most pathetic and natural among 
contemporary authors. The rest of his career is to be traced in 
the works which "he poured forth with unrivaled versatility, 
care, and felicity." The principal poems are, "Wat Tyler," 
"Joan of Arc," "Thalaba," "Metrical Tales," "Madoc," 
"The Curse of Kehama, " "Carmen Triumphale," and "Rod- 
erick." His poem, "The Falls of Ladore," the delight of our 
childhood, was found in all the school reading books of half a 
century ago. His prose works comprise translations of the poems 
of the "Cid," of "Amadis," and "Palmerin of England"; 
Essays, allowing the letters of ' ' Espriella, " "Sir Thomas More 's 
Colloquies," and the slighter "Omniana, " to bear his name; 
histories, among which are, "The Book of the Church," "The 
History of the Peninsular War," "The History of the Brazils"; 
criticism, including his voluminous and important contributions 
to the Quarterly Eeview; and biography. Foremost in this last 
department were "The Life of Nelson," — "one of the most 
popular and perfect specimens of its class which our language 
possesses, noble in feeling and faultless in style"; "The Life of 
Chatterton," "The Life of Kirk White," "The Life of Wes- 
ley," and "The Life of Cowper, " all of which are in different 
degrees valuable contributions to English literature. When King 
George III. died in 1820, Southey, as poet-laureate, wrote an 
extremely eulogistic poem, "The Vision of Judgment," on the 
exaggerated virtues of the late King, which called forth the 
famous "Vision" of Lord Byron, in which he says: 


**It seemed the mockery of hell to hold 
The rottenness of 80 years in gold." 

Southey, who for three years previous to his death had been in 
a state of mental imbecility, died in 1843. His erudition is 
happily shown in "The Doctor" (1834-7), and in his "Common- 
place Book," published after his death. His life, written by his 
son, the Kev. C. C. Southey, appeared in 1849-50. 
Spain, a country occupying about five-sixths of the southwestern- 
most peninsula of Europe, naturally bounded by the Pyrenees 
(separating it from France for a distance of 268 miles), the 
Atlantic (northwest, 607 miles), and the Mediterranean (east by 
southeast, 715 miles). From Portugal also, with which it has a 
common frontier of 495 miles, Spain is mostly naturally sepa- 
rated by rivers and mountains. S^ain is the fifth European 
nation in area. At the extreme southern point of a narrow 
peninsula, Puntade Europa, at the entrance of the Mediter- 
ranean the fortress of Gibraltar has belonged to England, since 
the 18th century. The country is divided now into 49 provinces, 
including the Balearic and Canary islands. Numerous prehis- 
torical monuments are to be met with in Spain. So-called 
Iberian and Celtic tribes are the first historical inhabitants of 
Spain. The Greeks had very rich colonies in Spain (Emporion, 
Ehodon, Sagonton). Phoenicians and Carthaginians established 
themselves on the littoral (Cadiz, Malaga, Cartagena) and in 
some mines (Betica). The Komans conquered Spain, 149-25 
B. C. Christianity was preached in the 1st century (Sant 
•ago?). Visigothic Empire, 6th to 8th centuries. Arab con- 
quest, 711-713. Spanish-Mohammedan civilization. Cordoba 
calif ate, 8th to 11th centuries. Christian reaction: Kingdoms 
of Asturias and Leon, 8th to 10th centuries; kingdoms of 
Sobrarbe, Eibagorza, Aragon, 7th to 8th centuries; county, 
afterwards kingdom of Navarre, capital Pamplona; counties of 
Barcelona, Catalonia, 8th century; kingdom of Castile, 11th cen- 
tury. The Arab Almuhades or Almoravides succeeded to the 
Ommaiades, at the end of the 11th century. Toledo became 
(1085) the capital of Castile and Leon. Saragossa (1118) became 
capital of Aragon. Battle of Navas de Tolosa fought against the 
Mohammedans by the kings of Castile, Aragon, Navarre, Portu- 
gal, in 1212. Conquest of Cordoba. Union of the kingdoms of 
Aragon, Castile, Leon, with which Catalonia was afterwards 
incorporated, 12th century. All Spain united under Isabel of 
Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon^ 1479. Conquest of Granada, 
expulsion of the Moors, 1469-92. Voyage of Columbus to Amer- 
ica, 1492-1503. Nationalization of the Inquisition, 15th to 16th 
centuries. Conquest of Navarre, 1511; Charles I. of Spain, Em- 
peror (Charles V.) of Germany, 1519-56; conquest of Mexico by 
Cortes, 1519; voyage from the Atlantic to the Pacific by Magel- 
lan, 1519-20; conquest of Peru by Pizarro and Almagro; founda- 
tion of the Society of Jesus 1534; conquest of Florida by De 


Soto, 1539. Union of Portugal to Spain under Philip II., 1580; 
great Spanish Empire: the Iberian Peninsula, the Low Countries, 
Milan, the two Sicilies, Charolais, Franche-Comte, Artois-Bur- 
gundy, India, Malacca, Philippine Islands, Moluccas, Ceuta, 
Tangier, Oran, Atlantic islands, West and East coasts of Africa, 
Mexico, Central and South America, 16th century. Portugal 
separated from Spain, 1640; Philip V. of Bourbon becomes 
King of Spain, 1700; War of Spanish Succession, 1700-13; Eng- 
land takes possession of Gibraltar, 1704; French invasion, 1808- 
1813; independence of the Spanish-American colonies, 1810-1823; 
first constitution proclaimed, Cadiz, 1812; revolution of 1868; 
Amadeus of Savoy becomes King of Spain in 1871; republic, 
1873; restoration of the Bourbon monarchy, 1874; Spanish- 
American war, 1898, after which Spain relinquished all claim 
to Cuba, Porto Eico and other islands under Spanish sovereignty 
in the West Indies, and the island of Guam in the Mariannes 
or Ladrones; and also the archipelago known as the Philippine 
Islands in the East Indies. Continental Spain has an area of 
190,050 square miles, and a population (1908, estimated) of 

Spenser, Edmund (1552?-1599), English poet, was a native of 
London, England. He was educated at Cambridge. His "Shep- 
herd's Calendar" appeared in 1579. "This was the earliest, and 
remains the greatest of English pastoral poems." In 1580 he 
was appointed secretary to Lord Grey, lord-deputy of Ireland, 
and in 1591 he obtained a grant of lands in County Cork, 
including the Castle of Kilcolman. Sir Walter Ealeigh intro- 
duced him to Queen Elizabeth; and early in 1590 appeared the 
first three books of his famous poem, the "Faerie Queene. " 
"The admiration of this great poem was unanimous and enthu- 
siastic." "The Faerie Queene" became at once "the delight 
of every reader, the model of every poet, the solace of every 
scholar." About 1595 Spenser presented to the queen (who 
granted him a pension) his "View of the State of Ireland," 
being then clerk of the council of the Province of Munster. 
In 1597 he returned to Ireland, but when the war with Hugh 
O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone, broke out, he was obliged to fly with 
such haste "that he left behind his infant child, who was burnt 
with the house." Spenser returned to England "with a broken 
heart," and died at Westminster. His remains were interred 
at the expense of the Earl of Essex in Westminster Abbey, 
where the Countess of Dorset raised a monument to his memory. 
There have been published several editions of the entire works 
of this famous poet. 

Staffarda, Battle of (War of the English Eevolution), was fought 
in Italy in 1690, between the French, under Marshal Catinat, and 
the Imperialists, under Victor Amadeus of Savoy. The Imperial- 
ists met with a crushing defeat. 

Stanhope, Philip Dormer (1694-1773), fourth Earl of Chesterfield, 
courtier, orator and wit, "renowned as a model of politeness 


and an oracle of taste," was born in London, England, in 1694. 
After a private education, he was sent to Trinity Hall, Cam- 
bridge, and at the age of 20 made the tour of Europe "during 
which he contracted an inveterate passion for gaming." In 
1715 he was appointed gentleman of the bed-chamber to the 
prince of Wales; and about the same time was elected into the 
House of Commons. In 1726, on the death of his father, he 
was sent to the Upper House. In 1728 he went as ambassador 
to Holland, and on his return was made high steward of the 
household and knight of the Garter; but he was deprived of 
the former station for his opposition to Walpole. In 1745 he 
was appointed lord-lieutenant of Ireland, where he was ex- 
tremely popular, from whence he returned the following year 
and was made secretary of state, which office he resigned in 
1748. He now became ambitious of literary honor, and paid 
some attention to Dr. Samuel Johnson, who inscribed to him 
the plan of his English Dictionary; but being neglected by 
Lord Chesterfield afterwards, he took no further notice of him, 
till the earl wrote two papers in the "World" in favor of the 
dictionary, whereupon the lexicographer, Dr. Johnson, sent him 
one of the severest letters that was ever written. Lord Chester- 
field died in 1773. He had no issue by his wife, who was the 
natural daughter of King George I. of England, but he had a 
natural son, to whom he wrote the celebrated "Letters," 
which show lax morality, but ' ' are admired for the beauty of 
the style and prized for the knowledge which they teach." 
These "Letters" were published in 1774, and were followed 
by two more volumes of miscellaneous works. 
Stanley, Edward G. S. (1799-1869), fourteenth Earl of Derby, 
British statesman and orator, the eldest son of Edward, Lord 
Stanley (afterwards the thirteenth Earl of Derby), was born in 
Lancashire, England, in 1799. His family name was Edward 
G. S. Stanley. He was educated at Oxford, and in 1820 was 
elected to Parliament, in which he soon attained eminence as a 
debater. He married, in 1825, Emma Caroline, a daughter of 
Lord Skelniersdale. From 1830 to 1833 he was chief secretary 
for Ireland, with a seat in the cabinet of Lord Grey. On the 
succession of his father to the earldom, in 1834, he received the 
title of Lord Stanley. Having served as colonial secretary a 
short time, he retired from office in 1834, and joined the Tory or 
Conservative party. On the accession of Sir Eobert Peel to 
power, in 1841, Lord Stanley was appointed secretary for the 
colonies. He was created Baron Stanley, and entered the British 
House of Lords, in 1844. He resigned in the autumn of 1845, 
because he would not support Sir Eobert in the repeal of the 
Corn-Laws; and when the Conservative party was divided into 
two parts (the Peelites and the Protectionists), about 1846, he 
became the leader of the latter, and directed the opposition to 
the ministry of Eussell, 1846-51. On the death of his father, in 
1851, he succeeded to the earldom. After the defeat of Eussell 


in the House of Commons, in February, 1852, Lord Derby formed 
a ministry, in which he was first lord of the treasury; but, failing 
to obtain the support of a majority for his financial measures, 
he resigned in December, 1852, and was succeeded by Lord 
Aberdeen. He was requested by Queen Victoria, in 1855, to con- 
struct a Conservative ministry; but he declined, thinking, per- 
haps, that he could not command a sufficient number of votes in 
the House of Commons. He maintained a general opposition to 
the ministry of Palmerston, who was compelled to resign in 
February, 1858. Lord Derby then accepted the place of prime 
minister. Among the important measures of his administration 
was the reorganization of the government of India. The agita- 
tion of the question of electoral reform also tended to make his 
position insecure, and, by a combination of Liberals, Peelites, 
and the Manchester party, he was driven from power in June, 
1859. In 1866, the Liberal ministry resigned, because the Eeform 
bill was rejected by the House of Commons, and Lord Derby 
again became prime minister. He attempted to form a coalition 
with certain Whig leaders, but his overtures were coldly received, 
and he was compelled to appoint an exclusively Tory cabinet. 
During his administration a Eeform bill, giving the right of 
suffrage to all householders in boroughs, became a law, and was 
signed by Queen Victoria, in August, 1867. He resigned in 
February, 1868, and was succeeded by Disraeli. Lord Derby 
issued a translation of Homer's "Iliad" in blank verse in 1865. 
"This version is far more closely allied to the original, and 
superior to any that has yet been attempted in the blank verse 
of our language." He died in October, 1869. His son (E. H. S, 
(Stanley), fifteenth Earl of Derby, was associated with Gladstone 
as colonial secretary in 1882. 

Staple, Edward (1490?-1560?), was born in England about 1490. 
At the request of King Henry VIII. of England, the Pope 
appointed him Bishop of Meath. In 1534 he was compelled 
to flee to England before the rebellion of "Silken Thomas" 
(Lord Thomas FitzGerald), 10th Earl of Kildare. He returned 
in the following year, and he and Archbishop George Browne 
became Henry VIII. 's principal instruments in introducing the 
Eeformation into Ireland. In August, 1553, he took part in 
the proclamation of Queen Mary, but in June, 1554, he was 
deprived of his office on account of his marriage. He, how- 
ever, remained in his former diocese, destitute and disliked, 
and died about 1560. 

Stewart, Sir Eobert (died in 1661), probably born in Scotland, was 
made Governor of Londonderry and Culmore by King Charles I. 
of England in 1643. On the 13th of June of the same year he 
defeated Owen Eoe O'Neill at Clones, taking prisoner several 
foreign officers who had accompanied O'Neill to Ireland. Soon 
afterwards he joined the Scottish movement against the English 
Parliament, and in his well-fortified stronghold of Culmore, pre- 
vented access by sea to Londonderry. In 1648 he was inveigled 


into attending a private baptism in Londonderry, seized by the 
Parliamentarian Coote, and compelled to give an order for the 
surrender of Culmore. By direction of Monk, the * ' King Maker, ' ' 
he was removed to London, where he lay imprisoned in the Tower 
for some years. After the Eestoration he was reinstated in his 
honors, and died Governor of Londonderry in 1661. 

Stoke, parish and village, Notts, England. The village has 164 
inhabitants, and is situated on river Trent, four miles south- 
west of Newark. In vicinity is Stoke Hall. The parish con- 
tains Stoke Field, the scene of Henry VIL 's defeat of Lambert 

Stone of Destiny, see Lia Fail and also see Chapter I. 

Stone, George (1708?-1764), born in England about 1708, was the 
son of a London banker. He took orders and accompanied the 
Duke of Dorset to Ireland (on the latter 's appointment as chief 
governor) as one of his chaplains. He was Anglican Bishop 
of Ferns and Leighlin, 1740-43; Bishop of Kildare, 1743-45; of 
Derry, 1745-47; Dean of Christ Church, Dublin, 1743-45; Arch- 
bishop of Armagh, 1747-64. He was also Irish privy councillor 
and lord-justice in 1747. He was excluded from the regency 
in 1756, but restored in 1758. Dr. Stone died in 1764 and was 
buried in Westminster Abbey. J. H. McCarthy says: "The 
grandson of a jailer, he (Stone) might have deserved admira- 
tion for his rise, if he had not carried with him into the high 
places of the church a spirit stained by most of the crimes 
over which his ancestor was appointed warder. In an age of 
corrupt politics, he was conspicuous as a corrupt politician; in 
a profligate epoch, he was eminent for profligacy. In the 
basest days of the Eoman Empire he would have been remark- 
able for the variety of his sins; and the grace of his person, 
which caused him to be styled in savage mockery the 'Beauty 
of Holiness,' coupled with his ingenuity in pandering to the 
passions of his friends, would have made him a serious rival 
to Petronius at the court of Nero." 

Strafford, Earl of, see Wentworth, Sir Thomas. 

Strangford Lough, a large and long sea-lough, County Down, has 
an entrance six miles long by one-half to one mile broad, 
through which the tide flows at eight or nine miles an hour, 
an interior expanse about 19 miles long, and from two to five 
miles broad, and contains many small islands. 

Strongbow, Eichard, see De Clare, Eichard. 

Stuart, James Francis Edward (1688-1765), commonly called in 
history of the period, the Chevalier de St. George, or the First 
Pretender, was the son of King James II. of England, by Mary 
of Modena. On the death of his father, in 1701, he was acknowl- 
edged King of Great Britain by King Louis XIV. of France 
and by the King of Spain, the Pope, and the Duke of Savoy. 
In 1708, with the aid of King Louis, he made an unsuccessful 
attempt to invade England from Dunkirk. Of this proceeding 
Queen Anne of England is said to have been cognizant; and 


upon her death he asserted his claim to the English throne; 
and in September, 1715, his standard was set up by the Earl 
of Mar, at Brae-Mar; and a widespread spirit of disaffection 
prevailed against tht accessior of the House of Hanover in 
several parts o. Englana. December 22, 1715, the Pretender 
landed at Peterhead, in Scotland; there was some desultory 
fighting there and in England, but before long, seeing his case 
hopeless, he fled back to France, from where he was afterwards 
obliged to remove to Italy, and thence to Spain. In 1719 he 
married the Polish princess, Maria Clementina Sobieski (grand- 
daughter of John Sobieski, King of Poland), by whom he had 
two sons, Charles Edward, the Young Pretender, and Henry 
Benedict, who entered the priesthood and rose to the rank of 
cardinal. His death, in 1807, "ended the direct line of the 
Stuarts. ' ' The subject of this sketch died at Eome in 1765. 
Stuart, Mary (1542-1587), Queen of Scotland, commonly called 
Mary, Queen of Scots, was born in the palace of Linlithgow, 
Scotland. She was daughter and heiress of King James V. of 
Scotland, by Mary of Guise (or Lorraine), and was only eight 
days old at the death of her father, on which a great contest 
took place among the nobility about the guardianship, which 
at last was entrusted to the Earl of Arran. At the age of six 
years she was taken to France, where, in 1558, she was mar- 
ried to the son of King Henry II., the Dauphin Francis, who 
left her a widow two years afterwards, without issue, on which 
she returned to Scotland. Great changes had taken place in 
Scotland during the years of Mary's absence in France. The 
ancient church had been overthrown, its worship forbidden, and 
the Protestant system of government established by Parliament, 
in spite of the steady refusal of the queen. In 1565 she mar- 
ried Henry Darnley, who had been previously created Earl of 
Eoss and Duke of Eothsay. By him Mary had one son, who 
was afterwards King James VI. of Scotland, and James I. of 
England. In February, 1567, Henry Darnley was murdered, and 
in May following Mary was married to John Hepburn, Earl 
of Bothwell, a man of infamous character, who, with other 
conspirators, brought about that cruel deed. Bothwell, how- 
ever, was soon afterwards obliged to leave the kingdom; and 
the queen was sent prisoner to the Castle of Lochleven, from 
whence, after a confinement of eleven months, she escaped to 
Hamilton Castle. An open war now ensued between her and 
the regent, Murray; but Mary's forces, being undisciplined, 
were soon defeated, and she threw herself on the protection 
of her cousin and rival. Queen Elizabeth of England, who, after 
keeping her in custody eighteen years, caused her to go through 
the forms of a trial for conspiracy. Mary defended herself with 
great courage and ability, and, though friendless and unaided 
by counsel, exposed with spirit and skill the gross illegality 
and injustice of the charges brought against her. She was, 
of course, found guilty, and executed in the Castle of Fother- 


ingay, February 8, 1587. "The meekness with which she re- 
ceived her sentence, and the fortitude with which she suffered, 
formed a striking contrast to the despair and agony which not 
long afterwards darkened the death-bed of the English queen." 
She was a firm believer and defender of the Catholic faith, 
and "to that circumstance her death must be ascribed." "Mary 
Stuart was undoubtedly a very remarkable woman. The 
extraordinary vicissitudes of her life, her protracted and cruel 
captivity, and her tragical death, have rendered her life an 
object of deep and romantic interest to all succeeding ages. 
In the opinion of her contemporaries she was the most beautiful 
woman of her day; and the loveliness of her face and elegance 
of form, combined with her quick though restless intellect, her 
lively imagination, generous but excitable temperament, indomi- 
table courage, polished and insinuating manners, and varied 
and extensive accomplishments, have been eulogized alike by 
her friends and her enemies. Her moral character was unfortu- 
nately not equal to her intellectual endowments. She was 
hasty in temper, imperious, self-willed, and vindictive; rash 
and imprudent in her intimacies; and sudden, violent, and im- 
moderate in her attachments. The question of her guilt or 
innocence in regard to her foreknowledge or approval of her 
husband's murder has been the subject of an apparently 
interminable controversy, in which many devoted admirers 
have eagerly espoused her cause. But no candid writer can 
deny that she was guilty of grave errors, if not of foul crimes. 
Her early training at the licentious court of France, and the 
difficult position she occupied in her own country, may no 
doubt be pleaded in extenuation of her conduct; but her mis- 
fortunes may to a great extent be traced directly to her own 
follies and faults. This unhappy princess perished in the forty- 
fifth year of her age, and in the nineteenth of her captivity." 
One of the most pathetic and dramatic narrations in English 
literature is the graphic account of Mary, Queen of Scots' 
imprisonment, trial and death, in Dr. Lingard's impartial and 
reliable History of England. 

Sulr, river in Munster province, rises in the Devil's Bit moun- 
tains. County Tipperary, and flows south through County Tippe- 
rary, east between Counties Tipperary and Waterford, and 
southeast between Counties Kilkenny and Waterford, to a con- 
fluence with the Barrow in Waterford Harbor. The Suir is 85 
miles long, and is navigable for barges to Clonmel. 

Sumter, Fort, a defensive work in the harbor of Charleston, S. C. 
It is noted for being the place where the United States Civil 
War began, April 12, 1861, and as the scene of several military 
and naval conflicts during the war. 

Surrey, Earl of, see Howard, Thomas. 

Sussex, Earl of, see Eadcliffe, Thomas. 

Swartz, or Schwartz, Martin (died in 1487), captain of mercenaries, 
was chosen leader of the band of 2,000 Germans which Margaret, 


Dowager Duchess of Burgundy, sent over from the Low Coun- 
tries to aid Lambert Simnel, the Pretender to the English Crown, 
in 1487. The Earl of Lincoln joined the expedition before it 
started, and they landed in Ireland in May, 1487. A few days 
afterwards Lambert was duly crowned King of England, and set 
out to gain his kingdom. The little army which Schwartz com- 
manded was joined by a number of Irish under Thomas Fitz- 
Gerald ("not, as is sometimes stated, the Earl of Kildare"). 
King Henry VII., with his forces, settled down to await them at 
Kenilworth. Schwartz and his men landed in Lancashire, and 
then began to march south. Henry moved towards them, and the 
two armies met at Stoke, where Simnel 's army was routed, and 
Schwartz among others was slain, June 16, 1487. 

Sweden, the kingdom which forms the east portion of the Scandi- 
navian Peninsula. The area is nearly double that of Great 
Britain. The head of the government is a hereditary consti- 
tutional monarch. The responsible executive is vested in a 
council of seven ministers. The legislative functions are en- 
trusted to a parliament of two chambers, one (nearly 150 
members) elected for nine years by the provincial councils and 
the municipal councils of certain large towns; the other con- 
sists of close upon 230 members, who are elected directly or 
indirectly by the rural districts and the towns. Of the towns, 
Stockholm (the capital) and Gothenburg each has a population 
exceeding 100,000. For about 120 years after the opening of 
the 17th century Sweden, under Gustavus Adolphus and Charles 
XII., played a conspicuous part in the politics of Europe; but 
since the loss of Finland in 1809 her territory has been con- 
fined to the Scandinavian Peninsula. After some negotiations 
and the meetings of the Swedish and Norwegian Parliaments, 
a separation of the two countries was amicably agreed to, and 
in October, 1905, the union was canceled, and Norway was 
again an entirely distinct and independent state. 

Swilly (the "Lake of Shadows"), sea-lough. County Donegal, 
enters from the Atlantic between Fanad Point and Dunaff 
Head (four miles across), and extends about 25 miles inland 
between the peninsula of Inishowen and the main body of the 
county. The average width is three miles. It has a lighthouse 
on Dunree Head, v/ith fixed light seen 13 miles, and one on 
Fanad Point, with group occulting light seen 17 miles. 

Swilly, rivulet. County Donegal, rises in the Glendowan moun- 
tains, and flows 10 miles east to Lough Swilly. 

Swinburne, Algernon Charles (1837-1909), poet, born in London, 
April 5, 1837. He studied in France and at Oxford, which he 
quitted without a degree; spent some time in Florence, Italy, 
with Walter Savage Landor. His first publications were the 
following poetical dramas: "The Queen Mother and Eosa- 
mond," 1861; "Atalanta in Calydon," 1864; and "Chaste- 
lard," 1865. In 1866 appeared his "Poems and Ballads," which 
were fiercely criticised on the score of immorality. Swinburne 


published a vigorous answer to his critics in a pamphlet entitled 
"Notes on Poems and Eeviews, " 1866. Among his other works 
are "Songs Before Sunrise," 1871; "Bothwell, " a tragedy, 
1874; "Essays and Studies," 1875; "Erechtheus," a tragedy, 
J876; "A Note on Charlotte Bronte," 1877; "Poems and Bal- 
lads," second series, 1878; "Tristram of Lyonesse, " 1879; 
"Studies in Song," 1880; "Mary Stuart," 1882; and "A Cen- 
tury of Eoundels," 1883. "Marino Faliero," a tragedy, 1885; 
"Miscellanies," 1886; "Poems and Ballads" (3d series), 1889; 
Studies in Prose and Poetry," 1894; "Eosamond, Queen of the 
Lombards," 1899. He was the author of many other works 
in prose and verse and died in 1909. 
Syria, with Palestine, the region lying between the east end of 
the Mediterranean Sea and- the Arabian desert. Its area 
probably exceeds 55,000 square miles, or is but little less than 
the area of England and Wales. For long periods the coast-belt 
in the north was known as Phoenicia, whilst farther south the 
districts next the sea were called Philistia and also Palestine. But 
it is customary to extend the name Palestine so as to include 
along with Philistia also the hilly country behind it, which has 
borne, and still bears, the various designations of the Land 
of Canaan, Land of Israel, Land of Judaea, and the Holy Land. 
The principal industry is the manufacture of silk in Lebanon, 
also at Damascus. Situated between two of the most highly 
civilized regions of the ancient world, Egypt and Babylonia 
(Assyria), the people of Syria borrowed from both, though they 
were not without original initiative, as the nautical enterprise 
and the commercial and industrial skill of the Phoenicians 
testify. The northern parts of Syria probably belonged to 
the empire of the Cheta or Hittites prior to the decay of their 
power in the 12th century B. C. But from the 8th century B. C. 
onwards, Syria was generally subject to one or other of the 
great empires on either side of it; first it was to the Assyrians 
(8th century B. C), then to the Greek Seleucides (4th century 
onwards), after then to the Eomans (1st century B. C. to 7th 
century A. D.), and the Arabs (7th century to 12th century). 
For some time it was in part divided among the crusading 
principalities (Latin kingdom of Jerusalem, etc.), until they 
were overthrown by the Mongols, who struck (1260) the first 
real blow at the prosperity of the country. The next came when 
Syria was wrested by the Turks (its modern lords) from the 
hands of the Egyptian Mamelukes in 1516. The history of 
Palestine agrees in the main with that of Syria proper, except 
during the long period when it was occupied by the Israelites 
(13th century to 6th century B. C). The population is estimated 
to number (1888) 2,185,000. The bulk of the peasantry are, 
no doubt, of Aramaean descent, or, in other words, the original 
native (Semitic) race. But there is, besides them, a great 
variety of peoples — Arabs in the villages, Turks around Antioch 
and in the large towns, Kurds in the Kurd-Dagh, Bedouin 


(noraad Arabs) in the deserts, and Maronites and Druses in 
Lebanon and El-Bekaa. Arabic is the language commonly 
spoken; and the prevailing religion is Mohammedanism, with 
various sects of Christianity. See Baedeker's "Syria," by Dr. 
A. Socin, and the nine volumes of the Palestine Exploration 

Tacitus, Caius Cornelius (55-120?). Eoman historian, was born 
about 55 A. D. The events of his early life have not been 
recorded. He entered the public service in the reign of Ves- 
pasian, and married a daughter of C. Julius Agricola, the 
famous Eoman general, in 78 A. D. He was an intimate friend 
of Pliny the Younger, from whose letters we derive a large 
part of the knowledge which we have of his life. In the year 
88 he obtained the office of prtetor. He was one of the most 
eloquent orators of his time. In the reign of Nerva he became 
consul, 97 A. D., and about the same date he wrote his work on 
Germany, — "On the Situation, Customs, etc. of Germany." 
Tacitus and Pliny conducted the prosecution against Marius 
Priscus, who was convicted of cruelty and other crimes in 100 
A. D. Among his earlier works is a "Life of Agricola," which 
is much admired. After the death of Nerva, he wrote "The 
Histories," which treat of the period from 68 to 96 A. D. This 
work is lost, except the first five books. His reputation is chiefly 
founded on his "Annals," in sixteen books, which record the 
history of the Eoman empire from the death of Augustus, 14 
A. D., to the death of Nero, 68 A. D. This excellent work is 
extant, except the seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth books, and 
parts of three other books. His "Annals" were completed 
about 116 A. D. The exact date of his death is not known. He 
was a Stoic in philosophy. According to Edward Gibbon, "Taci- 
tus was the first historian who applied the science of philosophy 
to the study of facts." "He displays profound insight into the 
motives of human conduct and the dark recesses of character. His 
style is eminently concise and vigorous." "Of the Latin histo- 
rians," says Macaulay, "Tacitus was certainly the greatest. In 
the delineation of character, Tacitus is unrivaled among histo- 
rians, and has very few superiors among dramatists and novel- 
ists." "Tacitus," says Eev. F. W. Farrar, "towered like a 
giant above all his contemporaries, isolated and unapproachable. 
The little we know of his private life is in perfect accord with 
the noble standard of his recorded sentiments." 

Tailtean, Assemblies of, were held on the plains of Tailtean, now 
Teltown, situated along the Blackwater river, between Navan 
and Kells, in Meath. Tailtean got its name from Tailte, daugh- 
ter of the King of Spain, wife of Eochy, the last Firbolg King. 
Tailte was buried at this place, and Louy, surnamed the Long- 
handed, one of the Tuatha De Danann Kings, having been in his 
youth fostered and educated by Tailte, he, in honor to the 
memory of that queen, instituted the assemblies at Tailtean, 
which were held annually at the beginning of autumn, and were 


continued for fifteen days. The assemblies of Tailtean were 
attended by vast numbers from all parts of Ireland, and were 
said to resemble the Olympic games of Greece, in the practice of 
various athletic exercises, feats of strength and activity, such as 
running, leaping, wrestling, throwing the stone, ball, etc., foot- 
ball, dancing, together with horse and chariot racing. The 
assemblies were also remarkable for the arrangement of matri- 
monial alliances or match-making, and the ratification of mar- 
riage contracts. These assemblies were held for many ages, but 
were frequently interrupted during the disastrous period of the 
Danish wars; they were renewed at intervals by various kings, 
and some of them are mentioned as late as the 12th century; 
and it is stated that in July, A. D. 1126, the great assembly of 
Tailtean was revived, after it had been discontinued for a 
century. It appears that the meetings of Tailtean were entirely 
abandoned after the Anglo-Norman invasion. — C. & McD. See 
Tara, Conventions or General Assembly of. 

Talbot, John (1373-1453), first Earl of Shrewsbury, soldier, second 
son of Eichard, Lord Talbot, of Goodrich Castle, was born in 
Shropshire, England. In the second year of the reign of King 
Henry V. he was appointed lord-lieutenant of Ireland, where he 
suppressed a rising. He next served in the wars in France with 
King Henry V. To the conquest of a large part of that country 
he greatly contributed. In the next reign (King Henry VI. of 
England) he laid siege to Orleans, France, where his name 
struck terror into the French soldiers, till the appearance of the 
heroine, Joan of Arc, turned the scale, and the English army 
retreated. The battle of Patay (or Patai) completed the British 
disaster, and Lord Talbot fell wounded in the hands of the 
French. At the end of three years and a half he was exchanged, 
created commander-in-chief and captured several towns in 
France, for which he was elevated to the dignity of Marshal of 
France. In 1443 he concluded a treaty with the French King, 
and the following year again went to Ireland for the third time 
as lord-lieutenant; but he was recalled to serve in France and 
again taken prisoner in 1449, where he fell three years later 
while attempting to raise the siege of Castellan. He was made 
Earl of Shrewsbury in England, Earl of Waterford and Wexford 
in Ireland. See Chapter XIX. 

Tallaght, parish, village, and seat, in county and six miles west of 
Dublin, near river Dodder. The parish has 21,868 acres, and a 
population of 2,820; the village has a population of 299. 

Taney, Eoger Brooke (1777-1864), American jurist, born in Calvert 
county, Maryland, in 1777. He graduated at Dickinson College, 
Pennsylvania, in 1795, studied law, and was admitted to the bar 
in 1799. He was elected a Senator of Maryland in 1816, and 
became a resident of Baltimore about 1822. He was originally a 
Federalist; but he became a partisan of General Jackson, who 
appointed him attorney-general of the United States in 1831. 
About September, 1833, he was nominated secretary of the 


treasury, in place of William J. Duane (who was dismissed from 
the Cabinet because he refused to remove the public deposits 
from the Bank of the United States), but he was rejected by the 
Senate. He was nominated associate justice of the Supreme 
Court by President Jackson in 1835; but this nomination was 
not confirmed by the Senate. In 1836, he was appointed chief 
justice of the Supreme Court, in the place of John Marshall, 
deceased. In 1857, Judge Taney, yielding to the ever-encroach- 
ing and aggressive spirit of slavery, pronounced an important 
decision in the case of Dred Scott, a slave, who had been carried 
by his master from Missouri into Illinois, thence to Wisconsin, 
and back to Missouri. Dred Scott brought suit for his freedom. 
Judge Taney affirmed that for more than a century before the 
Declaration of Independence the negroes "had been regarded 
as beings of an inferior order, and altogether unfit to associate 
with the white race, either in social or political relations, and so 
far inferior that they had no rights which the white man was 
bound to respect, and that the negro might justly and lawfully 
be reduced to slavery. ' ' He further affirmed that the ' ' Missouri 
Compromise" was unconstitutional, and that the suit must be 
dismissed for want of jurisdiction. He died in 1864. 

Tara, parish and hamlet, County Meath, near river Boyne, three 
miles northeast of Kilmessan and six miles southeast of Navan; 
has 3,364 acres, and a population of 161. Tara Hill (507 feet), 
where the ancient kings of Ireland had their seat and held their 
assemblies up to 560, has earthworks and other antiquities. Here 
the kings were enthroned on the Lia Fail, or Stone of Destiny, 
which is said to have been carried over to Scotland and which is 
now in the coronation chair at Westminster. Another Lia Fail, 
six feet in height, is still at Tara. On this hill St. Patrick 
preached, and the Danes were defeated close by in 980; the 
insurgents lost a battle here in 1798, and O'Connell held a 
monster meeting at Tara in 1843. 

Tara, Conventions or General Assembly of. The great conventions 
or legislative assemblies of Tara were instituted by the celebrated 
Ollav Fola, a king whose reign is placed by our annalists and 
chronologists about seven centuries before the Christian era. 
This Ollav Fola was of the Irian race, and was King of Ulster, 
and monarch of Ireland; and his name signifies the Sage of 
Ireland, derived from Ollav, a sage or learned man, and Fola, 
which was one of the ancient names of Ireland. Ollav Fola is 
celebrated in ancient history as a sage and legislator, eminent 
for learning, wisdom, and excellent institutions; and his historic 
fame has been recognized by placing his medallion in basso 
relievo with those of Moses, and other great legislators, on the 
interior of the dome in the Four Courts of Dublin. The conven- 
tion of Tara was ordained by Ollav Fola to be held every third 
year in the royal residence at Tara, and was attended by the 
provincial kings, princes, and chiefs — the Druids, or pagan 
priests, the Brehons, or judges, and the Bards in the pagan times; 


and after the introduction of Christianity, by the bishops, abbots, 
and superior clergy; and great numbers of the people also 
attended at the assemblies, which were held every third year in 
the month of November. The ancient records and chronicles of 
the kingdom were ordered to be written and carefully preserved 
at Tara by Ollav Fola, and these formed the basis of the ancient 
history of Ireland, called the Psalter of Tara, which was brought 
to complete accuracy in the reign of the monarch Cormac, in the 
third century; and from the Psalter of Tara and other records, 
was compiled, in the latter end of the 9th century, by Cormac 
MacCullenan, Archbishop of Cashel and King of Munster, the 
celebrated work called the Psalter of Cashel. The monarch 
Cormac was celebrated as a legislator, and at the conventions 
held in his palace at Tara the provincial kings are stated to have 
sat in the following order — the monarch himself sitting on a 
throne in the middle of the assembly hall, the King of Ulster 
sitting on his right hand, the Kings of the two Munsters on his 
left, the King of Leinster in front, and the King of Connaught 
behind the throne; the princes, chiefs, Druids, Brehons, and 
Bards, arranged in due order. These triennial legislative assem- 
blies at Tara, which were the parliaments of ancient Ireland, 
were held there for many centuries, and continued down to about 
the middle of the 6th century, the last convention of the states 
being held A. D. 560, in the reign of the monarch Dermod Mac- 
Carroll. — C. & McD. See Chapter III. 
Tara, Psalter of. The Psalter of Tara was a record of the chief 
events in Ireland, from the most remote times, compiled by order 
of the illustrious King Cormac, in the 3rd century, and from this 
was chiefly composed, in the latter part of the 9th century, by 
Cormac MacCullenan, Archbishop of Cashel, the great work 
called the Psalter of Cashel. — C. & McD. See Chapter III. and 
notes to Chapter I. 
Teltown, parish and seat, County Meath, on river Blackwater, two 
miles southeast of Kells, has 4,266 acres, and a population of 457. 
Texel, an island in Holland at the mouth of the Zuider Zee. It 
contains a town and several villages. Off the Texel, on July 31, 
1653, the English fleet under Monk defeated the Dutch under 
Van Tromp, who was killed during the action. 
Thomas of Lancaster (1388?-1421), Duke of Lancaster and Clar- 
ence, second son of King Henry IV. of England, and Mary de 
Bohun, was born in London. In 1401 he was made lord lieutenant 
of Ireland, and reached Dublin in November of that year. The 
difficulties of the government in Ireland were great, and the boy 
governor added to the cares of his guardians. In September, 
1403, it was decided that Thomas should return to England, and 
a deputy was appointed in his place, though he nominally re- 
mained lieutenant. He again returned to Ireland in 1408. His 
first act was to arrest the Earl of Kildare and his sons; and in 
the autumn he made a raid into Leinster, in the course of which 
he was wounded at Kilmainham. In January, 1409, he held a 


parliament at Kilkenny, but in March was recalled to England 
by the news of his father's illness. In 1412 he was made Dake 
of Clarence. He was defeated and slain at Beauge, France, while 
attacking the enemy with his cavalry. 

Thomond, an ancient kingdom in Ncrth Munster, consisting at the 
time of the Anglo-Norman invasion, of Clare and Limerick 
(except the town of Limerick). 

Thurles, market town, urban district and parish, with railway 
station (G. S. & W. E.), County Tipperary, on river Suir, 29 
miles north of Clonmel, 78 miles northeast of Cork, and 87 miles 
southwest of Dublin. The parish has 8,268 acres, and a popula- 
tion of 5,194; the urban district has 1,274 acres, and a popula- 
tion of 4,411. Thurles is situated in a rich and populous district. 
It contains the cathedral of the Catholic archbishopric of Cashel, 
and several convents and colleges. 

Tiber, a river in central Italy, rises in the Tuscan Apennines, 
enters the Mediterranean 17 miles below Eome. Its banks are 
not picturesque; and the stream, usually sluggish, is rapid in 
spring, and brings down with it a colored muddy deposit, which 
caused it anciently to be termed the "Yellow Tiber." Length 
244 miles. 

Tichborne, Sir Henry (1581-1667), born probably in England, was 
for some time governor of the Castle of Lifford, Ireland, and 
was knighted by King James I. of England in 1623. On the 
outbreak in Ireland of the civil war of 1641-52 he was made 
governor of Drogheda, and defended the town against the Con- 
federate Catholics for four months. After the retirement of the 
Irish he followed them to Ardee and took Dundalk by storm. In 
1642 he was made one of the lords-justices of Ireland. Eeturning 
to England he was made prisoner by order of the British Par- 
liament, but being liberated he again became governor of Drog- 
heda and obtained a grant of Beaulieu, County Louth. 

Tigearnach, Annals of. The Annals of Tigearnach, compiled in the 
11th century by Tigearnach, abbot of Clonmacnois, whose death 
is recorded in the Four Masters at A. D. 1088. He was one of 
the most learned men of that age, and his Annals are considered 
as one of the most authentic works on ancient Irish history; they 
contain the history of Ireland from the reign of Kimbaoth, King 
of Emania and monarch of Ireland, who flourished about 350 
years before the Christian era, down to the death of the author, 
in the 11th century. The Annals of Tigearnach are partly in 
Irish and partly in Latin, and there is a copy of these Annals 
in the library of Trinity College, Dublin. — C. & McD. See notes 
to Chapter I. 

Tipperary, an inland county of Munster province, is bounded north 
by County Galway and King's County, east by Queen's County 
and County Kilkenny, south by County Waterford, and west by 
Counties Cork, Limerick, and Clare. Greatest length, north and 
south, 66 miles; greatest breadth, east and west, 40 miles. The 
county has an area of 1,062,963 acres (13,687 water), or 5.1 per 


cent of the total area of Ireland, and a population of 160,232, 
of whom 150,332 are Catholics, 8,702 Episcopalians, 465 Presby- 
terians, and 560 Methodists. The greater part of the surface is 
level, and much of the soil is very fertile, especially in the 
Golden Vale, which is calcareous loam. The prevailing rock is 
carboniferous limestone. The mountains of Knockmealdown 
(2,609 feet) extend about 15 miles along the south border, the 
Galtees (3,015 feet) are in the southwest, and the Slievenaman 
(2,564 feet) rise in the southeast, while the Keeper and Devil's 
Bit ranges stretch about 18 miles northeast and southwest, along 
the south of the north division of the county. The principal 
rivers are the Shannon, the Suir, and the Nore. Wheat, oats, 
barley, are grown; dairy farms are numerous, and butter is 
exported in large quantities. Milk condensing is a thriving 
industry at Clonmel. The county is divided into North and 
South Eidings, and comprises 180 parishes, and part of 16 
others, and the towns of Clonmel, Tipperary, Carrick-on-Suir, 
Nenagh, Thurles, Cashel, Templemore, Roscrea, Caher, and Fet- 
hard. For parliamentary purposes the county is divided into 
four divisions — North, Middle, South, and East — each returning 
one member. The representation of Tipperary in parliament was 
increased from two to four members in 1885. The parliamentary 
constituencies contain 22,979 electors. 

Tipperary, market town, urban district and parish, with railway 
station (G. S. & W. E.), County Tipperary, on river Arra, 25 
miles southeast of Limerick. The parish has an area of 4,362 
acres, and a population of 4,762; the urban district has 794 acres, 
and a population of 6,281. The town has a good market for corn, 
butter, and other agricultural produce. Tipperary acquired con- 
siderable notoriety during the "Plan of Campaign," on account 
of the boycotting of Smith Barry, and the subsequent abortive 
attempt to found New Tipperary by the discontented portion of 
the tenantry. 

Tiptoft, John (1427?-1470), Earl of Worcester, was born in Cam- 
bridgeshire, England, and educated at Oxford. He was the son 
of Lord Tiptoft and Powys, and was created Earl of Worcester 
on being appointed deputy of Ireland by King Henry VI. He 
was also made Knight of the Garter by King Edward IV., and 
constituted constable of the Tower and lord treasurer. While 
deputy of Ireland, in 1467, he executed the Earl of Desmond 
and two of his infant sons; and, as constable of England, 1462-67, 
and 1470, was guilty of great cruelties. He was styled the 
"butcher of England." When he visited Eome, for the purpose 
of inspecting the Vatican, he delivered a Latin oration to the 
Pope. After this he went on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and on 
his return presented many valuable manuscripts to the Univer- 
sity of Oxford. He was beheaded, on a charge of high treason, 
October 18, 1470. This earl was a patron of Caxton, who 
printed his translation of "Cicero de Amicitia," and other 


Tirconnell, an ancient territory in the northwest of Ireland, now 
County Donegal. 

Tory Island, County Donegal, nine miles northwest of Dun- 
fanaghy, about three miles long and one-half mile broad. Has 
remains of an ancient tower. 

Touchet, James (1617-1684), Baron Audley of Hely, third Earl of 
Castlehaven, was born probably in England. In 1638 he returned 
from Eome to attend King Charles I. of England in his cam- 
paign against the Scots, and afterwards served in the Nether- 
lands. After the execution of Strafford he retired to Ireland, 
He offered his services to the government on the outbreak of 
the civil war of 1641, but his offer was declined, he being a 
Catholic. He was afterwards imprisoned on the charge of high 
treason, but he escaped and joined the army of the Irish Confed- 
erates, and performed brilliant and useful services. He was 
bitterly opposed to the party of the nuncio and favored the 
peace of 1646. Failing to prevent the progress of Cromwell's 
forces or the capitulation of Limerick in 1651, he retired to 
France, After commanding an Irish regiment in the Spanish 
service and taking part in many engagements, he returned to 
England at the Eestoration. He died in Tipperary, Ireland. See 
Chapter XXXIV. and the succeeding ones on the war of 1641-52, 

Tower of London, east of the city of London, on the left bank of 
the Thames, used as a palace, a state prison, as well as a fortress, 
now a repository for the regalia of England and much ancient 
armor. The Tower of London was, according to tradition, orig- 
inally built by Julius Csesar, but the nucleus of the present 
building was begun in 1078 by William the Conqueror, who 
erected the part now known as the White Tower to take the 
place of a portion of the walls and towers of the city which had 
been washed away by the Thames. This tower was completed in 
1098 by William Eufus, who also began the St. Thomas Tower 
and the Traitor's Gate. Additions were made at various periods, 
especially by King Henry III., who used it frequently as a 
residence; and it now occupies an area of 13 acres surrounded 
by a moat, constructed in 1190, enclosing a double line of forti- 
fications, behind which is a ring of buildings consisting of 
various towers, and the barracks and military stores, while in 
the center is the massive quadrangular White Tower, with 
Norman arches and windows, and adorned with a turret at each 
corner. The St. John's Chapel in this tower is one of the finest 
and most complete specimens of Norman architecture in England. 
The execution of the long list of important political prisoners 
confined in the Tower took place on the neighboring Tower Hill, 
and most of them were buried in the Chapel of St. Peter Ad 

Townshend, George (1724-1807), fourth Viscount and first Marquis 
Townshend, was brigadier -general under General Wolfe in the 
Quebec, Canada, expedition in 1759, and on the death of Wolfe 
on the Plains of Abraham took chief command. He became 


fourth Viscount Townshend in 1764 and lord-lieutenant of Ire- 
land in 1767. Hitherto, owing largely to the non-residence of 
the viceroy, the government had slipped almost entirely into 
the hands of a small group of large landowners and borough 
proprietors known as "undertakers." Their government, 
though notoriously corrupt, possessed certain negative merits 
which rendered it popular. Townshend at once threw himself 
with characteristic vehemence into the task of breaking the 
power of the undertakers, and forming a party in parliament 
wholly dependent on the crown. To this end new peerages were 
created, places extravagantly multiplied, and despite the royal 
promise, new pensions granted. His administration was ridi- 
culed and he himself held up to scorn as a second Sancho Panza 
in a series of powerful letters after the style of those of 
Junius by Sir Hercules Langrishe, Flood and Grattan, afterwards 
collected in a volume, entitled ' ' Baratariana. ' ' Townshend held 
resolutely to his determination to break the power of the under- 
takers by the purchase of a majority in the House of Commons. 
When public indignation had reached fever heat, however, he 
was recalled, in September, 1722, having done more to corrupt 
political life in Ireland than any previous governor. 

Tralee, market and seaport town, urban district and parish, with 
railway stations (G. S. & W. E.) and Tralee and Dingle railway. 
County Kerry, at mouth of river Lee, on Tralee Bay, 32 miles 
northeast of Dingle by rail. The parish has 4,604 acres, and a 
population of 9,092; the town and urban district, extending into 
Eatass parish, has a population of 9,867. By means of a ship 
canal vessels of about 200 tons can reach the quay; larger 
vessels discharge at Fenit, eight miles west of the town. Grain 
and butter are the chief exports; coal, iron, and timber are 
imported. Tralee is the largest seaport in the southwest of 
Ireland. There are large barracks for infantry. Tralee Castle 
is in vicinity. The town returned one member to parliament 
until 1885. 

Trim, market and assize town, urban district and parish, with 
railway station (M. G. W. E.), County Meath, on river Boyne, 29 
miles northwest of Dublin. The parish has 13,425 acres, and a 
population of 2,895; the urban district has a population of 1,513. 
Trim is the capital of County Meath, and an ancient seat of the 
Irish Parliament. It contains a monument erected in honor of 
the Duke of Wellington, who received a portion of his education 
here. The remains of an abbey and a castle and other historical 
ruins are also to be found at Trim. 

Tuatha de Dananns. ' ' The earliest story of Ireland, ' ' according to 
W. S. Gregg, "is purely mythological, but," he adds, "it is 
probable that an invasion from the Spanish peninsula really took 
place about 1,000 years B. C, when Solomon was King of Israel, 
and about 300 years before the foundation of Eome. " Tradition 
also assigns to the De Dananns the credit of introducing a 
knowledge of metals and the practical arts of life into Ireland. 


The mighty De Dananns, magic-workers in Erin, once deemed 
immortal, "who could at will control the powers of earth, air 
and sky," have long since degenerated, or faded into the "good 
people," or fairies of Irish folk-lore, dwelling in the lakes, hills, 
and mountains, and at the bottom of the sea. "The Tuatha 
De Dananns," say Connellan & McDermott, "considered by 
some to be Celto-Scythians, by others Chaldeans, Persians, Phe- 
nicians or Pelasgians, arrived about 1,200 years before the birth 
of Christ, and conquered the Firbolgs. The De Dananns came 
from the East, some say from Greece, to Scandinavia or Den- 
mark, and thence to North-Britain and Ireland. They were 
located chiefly at Teamur or Tara, and Tailtean or Tailton, in 
Meath, at Cruachan in Connaught, and at Aileach in Donegal. 
Their kings ruled over Ireland 197 years, and this people being 
represented as highly skilled in the arts, they are by some 
antiquaries supposed to have built the Bound Towers." See 
Chapters I. and II. 

Tullamore, market and assize town, and urban district, with rail- 
way station (G. S. & W. K.), King's County, on Tullamore river 
and Grand canal, 16 miles northwest of Portarlington and 58 
miles west of Dublin. The urban district has 841 acres, and a 
population of 4,639. 

Tullamore, seat, three miles northwest of Nenagh, County Tip- 

Turenne, Vicomte de, see D 'Auvergne, Henri de la Tour. 

Turgesius (died in 845), Danish King of North Ireland. He has 
been identified with Eagnar Lodbrok, the half -mythical King of 
Denmark and Norway. This theory is supported by several 
striking coincidences, but cannot be said to be proved. He 
arrived in Ireland with a royal fleet in 832, took Dublin in the 
same year, and afterwards assumed the government of all the 
Northmen in Ireland. Great Danish fleets arrived about the 
same time, and it was apparently with their help and that of 
almost annual reinforcements of his countrymen that he took 
advantage of the civil strife then prevailing to extend his 
dominion over the whole North of Ireland. He apparently aimed 
at the suppression of Christianity in Ireland and the substitu- 
tion of heathenism. He organized an expedition to Lough Kee, 
and from there attacked Connaught and Meath, possibly as a 
step towards the subjugation of all Ireland. At first successful, 
his career was abruptly cut short in 845. He was taken prisoner 
by Malachy I., King of Meath (afterwards monarch of Ireland), 
and drowned in Lough Ennell in West Meath. His dominion in 
Ireland lasted, according to some authorities, thirteen years, but 
nearly thirty as Giraldus Cambrensis states. If Turgesius be 
rightly identified with Eagnar Lodbrok, he was the ancestor of 
Olaf Sitric, son of the Hy Ivar of the line of the Danish kings 
of Dublin and Deira. See Chapter VII. 

Tyburn, was anciently the name of the parish in London, England, 
now known as St. Marylebone. Until 1868 executions in the 


United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland were performed, 
in London for the most part (until 1783) at Tyburn. The gallows 
at Tyburn was a permanent erection on three posts, "Tyburn's 
triple tree," and wooden galleries near it accommodated the 
crowds of spectators. The scandalous scenes, however, attending 
the procession of the condemned person from Newgate to Tyburn 
caused the place of execution to be changed in 1783 to the area 
in front of Newgate prison. 

Tyrone, an inland county of Ulster province, is bounded northeast 
by County Londonderry, east by Lough Neagh, southeast by 
County Armagh, south by County Monaghan, southwest by 
County Fermanagh, and northwest by County Donegal. Greatest 
length, northwest and southeast, 48 miles; greatest breadth, 
northeast and southwest, 38 miles. The county has an area of 
806,65G acres, or 3.9 per cent of the total area of Ireland, and 
a population of 150,567, of whom 82,404 are Catholics, 33,896 
Episcopalians, 29,656 Presbyterians, and 3,211 Methodists. The 
county is served by the G. N. I. E., partly by the Donegal rail- 
way, and the Clogher Valley railway. The surface in general is 
hilly and irregular; it rises into mountains on the northeast 
border (Sawel 2,240 feet), and becomes level towards Lough 
Neagh on the east. The soil in the lower districts is very 
fertile and highly cultivated. Flax is largely grown. Coal is 
worked near Lough Neagh and in the neighborhood of Dungan- 
non; marble is quarried near the boundary with Monaghan. The 
chief manufactures are linens, woolens, and coarse earthenware; 
it has also milling and shirt factories. The principal rivers are 
the Foyle, Blackwater, Mourne, and the Ballinderry. The county 
comprises 30 parishes, and part of 13 others, and the towns of 
Omagh (the capital), Strabane, Dungannon, Cookstown, and 
Aughnacloy. For parliamentary purposes the county is divided 
into four divisions — North, Middle, East, and South — each 
returning one member. The representation of Tyrone was in- 
creased from two to four members in 1885. The parliamentary 
constituencies contain 30,282 electors. 

Ufford, or De Ufiford, Sir Ealph (died 1346), became lord-justice of 
Ireland in 1344, and held that office until his death in 1346. He 
married Maud, daughter of Henry, Earl of Lancaster, and widow 
of William de Burgh, Earl of Ulster. His grandfather, Kobert de 
Ufford, attended King Edward I. of England on his crusade and 
was lord-justice of Ireland, 1276-81, and built Roscommon Castle. 
See Chapter XVIII. 

Uisneach, Hill of. Conventions of the states or legislative assem- 
blies were held at the Hill of Uisneach (situated a few miles 
from Mullingar, in West Meath), which was a celebrated seat 
of Druidism. These assemblies were convened in the month of 
May, and, after the abandonment of Tara, this was probably one 
of the chief places for legislative meetings. — C. & McD. See 
Tara, Conventions of. 


Ulidia and the Ulidian Kings. After the conquest of the Kings of 
Emania, by the Clan Colla [or three Collas] in the [early part 
cf the] 4th century [of our era], the ancient Kings of Ulster, of 
the Irian race, lost the greater part of that province, and were 
confined to Ulidia, which name they gave to the territory, more 
anciently called Dalaradia, and which comprised the present 
County Down and southern parts of [County] Antrim, over 
which some of the Irians, of the race of Conall, Kearnach, and 
others of the tribe of Dalfiatach, ruled as kings, princes and 
chiefs, from the 4th century till the Anglo-Norman invasion and 
conquest of a great part of Ulster by John de Courcy and his 
followers, in the latter end of the 12th century. The Kings of 
Ulidia had their chief residence and fortress at Eath-Celtcar, 
which was afterwards called Downpatrick. — C. & McD. See 
Chapters V. and XV. 

Ulster, northern province of Ireland, is bounded west and north 
by the Atlantic Ocean, east by the North Channel and the Irish 
Sea, south by Leinster, and southwest by Connaught. Greatest 
length, north and south, 110 miles; greatest breadth, east and 
west, 130 miles; coast-line about 380 miles. Area, 5,484,724 acres, 
or 26.3 per cent of the total area of Ireland. Population, 1,582,- 
826, of whom 44.2 per cent are Catholics, 22.8 Episcopalians, 26.9 
Presbyterians, and 3.0 Methodists. Ulster was the ancient seat 
or principality of the O'Neills, and in the reigns of Queen Eliza- 
beth and James I. most of the province was confiscated and 
thrown open to English and Scottish settlers, and for the purpose 
of promoting colonization the Honorable Irish Society was incor- 
porated in 1613. The rank of baronet was instituted by James I. 
in 1611, nominally for the defense of the new settlement. The 
linen manufacture is still large, but has not increased of late 
years. The cultivation of flax has greatly declined. The province 
comprises nine counties — Antrim, Armagh, Cavan, Donegal, 
Down, Fermanagh, Londonderry, Monaghan, and Tyrone. 

Ulster, Annals of. "The Annals of Ulster," say Connellan & 
McDermott, "a celebrated work on Irish history and antiquities, 
of which a Latin translation was made by the learned Eev. Dr. 
Charles O 'Conor, and published in his great work, the 'Eerum 
Hibernicarum Scriptores Veteres. ' Charles Maguire, an eminent 
ecclesiastic and learned man, collected and compiled those annals 
in the latter part of the 15th century. The Annals of Ulster 
contain the history of Ireland from the first to the latter end 
of the 15th century, being carried down to the time of the 
author's death; but some additions were afterwards made to 
them, and they were continued to A. D. 1541 by the learned 
Eoderic O'Cassidy, Archdeacon of Clogher. " "The Annals of 
Ulster," according to Dr. P. W. Joyce, "are also called The 
Annals of Senait Mac Manus, and were written in the little 
island of Senait Mac Manus, now called Belle Isle, in Upper 
Lough Erne. They treat almost exclusively of Ireland from 
A. D. 444. The original compiler was Cathal [Cahal] Maguire, 


who died in 1498, and they were continued to 1541 by Eory 
O'Cassidy and by a third writer to 1604. There are several 
copies of these annals, one in a vellum MS. at Trinity College, 
Dublin." See notes to Chapter I. 
United States, a country of North America extending from Canada 
to Mexico and the Gulf of Mexico, and from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific, and the most importai-t republic in the world. Prom July 
4, 1776, to March, 1781, there was no written constitution, the 
government being carried on by the Continental Congress, which 
had been summoned to remonstrate with Great Britain; it acted 
under "implied war powers." On March 1, 1781, the Articles 
of Confederation established a government without any express 
division of powers, all of which was concentrated in a single 
organ, called the Congress of the United States. The weakness 
of this government, which did not have the right of taxing the 
states, proved the necessity for a strong federal government. A 
constitution, drawn up by a convention at Philadelphia in 1787, 
was ratified the following year. April 30, 1789, General George 
Washington was inaugurated as President. Legislative power is 
vested in a Congress, consisting of a Senate and a House of 
Eepresentatives. Each State has two Senators, and a Eepresen- 
tative in proportion to population. Executive power is vested 
in a President, chosen by an Electoral College, to hold office for 
four years. Judicial power is vested in District Courts, Circuit 
Courts, a Circuit Court of Appeals, and a Supreme Court. The 
United States came into existence on July 4, 1776, when the 
Congress of the thirteen colonies of Great Britain signed the 
Declaration of Independence, dissolving all political connection 
between them and the latter country. The Revolutionary War 
ended in 1783 with the Treaty of Paris, by which Great Britain 
surrendered her claim to the territory south of the Great Lakes 
between the Atlantic and the Mississippi. Disputes over boun- 
daries and the impressment of American seamen occasioned a 
second war with Great Britain in 1812; by the Treaty of Ghent 
in 1814, a recognition of sovereignty was secured. In 1803 
Louisiana was purchased from France for $15,000,000, an increase 
of 1,200,000 square miles west and north of the Mississippi. In 
1819 Florida was purchased from Spain for $5,000,000 (59,268 
square miles). In 1845 Texas, having declared its independence 
of Mexico, was annexed by Act of Congress, an addition of 
262,290 square miles. A consequence of this annexation was a 
war with Mexico, 1846-48; by the Treaty of Guadalupe, Hidalgo, 
New Mexico, and Upper California were ceded to the United 
States (522,568 square miles) for $15,000,000. In 1853 a second 
Mexican purchase secured 47,330 square miles. In 1846 the 
claim to 58,800 square miles north of the Columbia river was 
acknowledged by England. In 1867 Alaska was purchased from 
Eussia for $7,000,000 (577,390 square miles). The expansion of 
the national territory involved the extension of slavery. This 
was opposed by the Northern States and upheld by the Southern, 


whose industrial prosperity they claimed depended on the system. 
In 1820 the Missouri Compromise admitted Missouri to statehood 
with slavery, but prohibited it forever in all remaining territory 
of the United States north of 36° 30' north latitude. In 1860 the 
election to the Presidency of Abraham Lincoln, convinced the 
South of the threatening supremacy of the anti-slavery policy of 
the North. Eleven States — South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, 
Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennes- 
see, North Carolina — seceded from the Union, and formed a new 
government, under the name of the Confederate States of 
America, with its capital at Kiehmond, Va. A war of four years 
resulted in the restoration of the Union, and in the addition of 
the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the Constitution, abol- 
ishing slavery, giving citizenship to the negroes, and prohibiting 
refusal of the suffrage on account of race, color, or previous con- 
dition of servitude. The total area belonging to or under the 
jurisdiction of the United States in 1909 is estimated by the 
U. S. Coast and Goedetic Survey at 3,743,344 square miles. This 
area includes Alaska, the Philippine Islands, Hawaiian Islands, 
Porto Eico, Panama Canal Zone, Guam, and the Tutuila Group, 
Samoa. The United States on January 1, 1904, consisted of 45 
States, six Territories, one District, and insular possessions. The 
population of the country in 1910 was over 93,000,000. 

Valencia, island and parish. County Kerry, four miles southwest of 
Cahirciveen. The parish has 6,371 acres, and a population of 
1,864. The island, seven miles long and two miles broad, is 
separated on the north from the mainland by Valentia Harbor, 
and on the east by a strait less than one mile wide. It nearly 
all belongs to the Knight of Kerry. The station of the Anglo- 
American Telegraph Company is situated on this island. 

Viking, a name given to the piratical Northmen, Danes or Scandi- 
navians generally, who infested the coasts of the British Islands 
and of France in the 8th, 9th, and 10th centuries. 

Victoria Alexandrina (1819-1901), styled "Queen of Great Britain 
and Ireland, and Empress of India," was born at Kensington 
Palace, May 24, 1819. She was the only child of Edward, Duke 
of Kent (a son of King George III. of England) and Maria 
Louisa Victoria of Saxe-Coburg, Germany, who was a sister of 
King Leopold I. of Belgium. Her education was directed by the 
Duchess of Northumberland. She received instruction in political 
affairs and principles from Lord Melbourne. On the death of her 
uncle. King William IV. of England, she succeeded to the throne 
on the 20th of June, 1837, and was crowned June 28, 1838. Lord 
Melbourne, who was prime minister when she became queen, 
resigned in May, 1839, and Victoria then requested Sir Eobert 
Peel to form a new ministry. He consented to take office, but 
insisted that she should dismiss the "ladies of her bed-cham- 
ber" (who were Whigs), which she refused to do. The result 
of this affair was that Lord Melbourne returned to power. In 
February, 1840, she was married to Prince Albert of Saxe- 


Coburg-Gotha, Germany, with whom she lived happily and in 
whom she found a prudent counsellor. The Whig ministry, hav- 
ing been defeated in Parliament, resigned in August, 1841, and 
Sir Kobert Peel became prime minister. Among the events of 
1841 was the birth of her son Albert Edward, Prince of "Wales. 
Between 1840 and 1843 three several attempts were made to 
assassinate her. Victoria visited Louis Philippe, King of the 
French, in 1843, and traveled with Prince Albert in Germany in 
1845. The year 1846 was rendered memorable by the repeal of 
the corn laws after a long and exciting contest. Lord John 
Eussell was prime minister from July, 1846, to February, 1852, 
and was succeeded by Lord Derby, a Conservative. Lord Derby 
having resigned, a coalition ministry was formed by the Earl of 
Aberdeen in December, 1852. To maintain the integrity of 
Turkey against the encroachments of Russia, the British ministry 
formed an alliance with France, and waged war in the Crimea 
and Baltic against the Czar in 1854 and 1855. Lord Palmerston 
became prime minister in February, 1855, the queen visited 
Napoleon III., Emperor of the French, at Paris in August, and the 
allies took Sebastopol in September of that year. The Crimean 
war was ended by a treaty in the spring of 1856. A great mutiny 
of the Sepoys broke out in India in 1857. Lord Palmerston 
resigned office in February, 1858, to the Earl of Derby, who 
remained in power until June, 1859, and was succeeded by Lord 
Palmerston. In December, 1861, occurred the death of Prince 
Albert, by which the queen was deeply affected, and subsequently 
she lived a life of comparative retirement, although she did not 
neglect the actual duties of her position. Among the more 
important events of the recent years of her reign were the 
passage of Disraeli's Reform Bill of 1867, the Gladstone minis- 
try's great measures, including the disestablishment of the Angli- 
can or "Irish Church" (1868-74), the passage of the Irish Land 
Acts, the Ballot Act, the Elementary Education Act, and the 
abolition of purchase in the army, the ministry of Beaeonsfield 
(1874-80), during which the queen was proclaimed Empress of 
India (January 1, 1877), and the Home Rule movement in Ire- 
land, during the premiership of Gladstone. In the more recent 
years of her reign occurred several minor foreign wars, as in 
Ashantee, Afghanistan, Zululand, the Transvaal, and Egypt. A 
work entitled ' ' The Early Days of His Royal Highness the 
Prince-Consort" (1867), by General C. Grey, was prepared under 
the supervision of the queen. The "Leaves from the Journal of 
Our Life in the Highlands" (1869), and "More Leaves from the 
Journal of Our Life in the Highlands, from 1862 to 1882" (1884), 
were from the queen's pen. The "Life of the Prince-Consort," 
by Sir T. Martin (5 vols., 1874-80), was prepared under her 
direction. In 1899 the great Boer war in South Africa broke 
out and was still raging when Victoria passed away. The queen 
was the mother of nine children, — the Prince of Wales, the 
Dukes of Edinburgh, Connaught, and Albany, the Princes8*Eoyal 


of Prussia, the Princess of Hesse, the Princess of Schleswig- 
Holstein, the Marchioness of Lome, and the Princess Beatrice. 
She had very extensive real estate interests, which, together 
with her enormous salary, brought her yearly income up to nearly 
£1,000,000, or $5,000,000. She died January 22, 1901, and was 
succeeded by her eldest son (Albert Edward, Prince of Wales), 
as King Edward VII. Victoria is usually lauded highly as a 
daughter, wife, mother, and sovereign, but her comparative indif- 
ference to the horrors and sufferings of the Great Irish Famine 
of 1845-50 is hardly ever even noticed. During her reign (the 
longest in English history) it is estimated that from 30 to 50 
millions of her subjects in India perished by starvation. 

Vienna, capital of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, situated on 
the right bank of the Danube, at its confluence with the river 
Wien at the west end of the level plain known as the March- 
feld. Vienna is the seat of the civil and military government 
of Austria, and the see of an archbishop. The Vienna Univer- 
sity, founded in 1365, is one of the oldest and largest in the 
world. Its medical school is of great ranown. The Vienna 
Academy of Science is also famous. The center of the Inner 
Town is occupied by the celebrated Cathedral of St. Stephen, 
founded in 1144, one of the finest specimens of mediasval archi- 
tecture. Vienna was founded by Celtic tribes. Here the Emperor 
Marcus Aurelius died in 180 A. D. The town having been 
destroyed by the Germani in the 4th century, the Eomans then 
fortified Vienna and made it their headquarters in that region. 
In the following century, however, it was destroyed by the 
Eugii, and it was not before the middle of the 12th century that 
Vienna again came into prominence, when it was refounded by 
Henry Jasomirgott, the first Duke of Austria. The Emperor 
Frederic 11. made it a free imperial city in 1237, and in 1276 it 
became the residence of the Hapsburgs. Vienna was besieged 
in 1529 and 1683 by the Turks. In 1805 and 1809 it was occupied 
by French troops. In 1815 the famous Vienna Congress took 
place. Population (1890), 1,364,500. 

Vinegar Hill, near Enniscorthy, County Wexford. The insurgents 
were here defeated by General Lake in 1798. 

Wakefield, a city in Yorkshire, England, nine miles south of Leeds, 
has a population of 41,190. A curious relic of antiquity is the 
chapel on the bridge which spans the Calder, built by King 
Edward IV. in memory of his father, Eichard, Duke of York. 
Wakefield was the scene of a battle in 1460, in which Eichard, 
Duke of York, was defeated and slain; it was also the scene of 
frequent strife during the English civil war. 

Wales, the smallest division of Great Britain, comprising the west 
peninsula, is divided into twelve counties, six in North Wales 
and six in South Wales. In early times it was peopled by vari- 
ous tribes, some Celtic, as is supposed, non-Aryan. Under Eoman 
rule Wales formed chiefly the division Britannia Secunda. Later, 
when the Saxons established themselves in Britain, they drove 


the ancient inhabitants westward, designating them the 
"wealas, " or "foreigners," and hence that part of the country 
in which they were most numerous was called "Wealas, " or 
Wales. The Celtic language gradually acquired predominance, 
and by the beginning of the 7th century it had replaced the 
other dialects and was spoken throughout nearly the whole of 
Wales. The history of the country till its final conquest by 
England is mainly a record of internecine feuds, and of the 
brave, though unsuccessful struggle for independence. Popula- 
tion (1901) about 1,750,000. 

Warbeck, Perkin (1474-1499), a Yorkist Pretender, who landed at 
Cork, Ireland, in 1491 and claimed to be Eichard, Duke of York, 
son of King Edward IV. of England. He became assured of the 
support of the great Irish-Norman Earls of Desmond and Kil- 
dare. He subsequently went to France and Vienna and was 
recognized as Eichard IV., King of England. He next accom- 
panied King James IV. of England on a raid into Northumber- 
land and again sailed for Cork in 1497. Eeturning to Cornwall, 
England, he advanced to Exeter with several thousand insur- 
gents to enforce his claims to the crown, but was taken prisoner. 
In October, 1497, he confessed his imposture and was sent to the 
Tower of London and hanged in 1499. See Chapter XXI. 

Ward, Hill of, three miles east of Athboy, Coun,ty Meath. Alti- 
tude 390 feet. 

Warren, Sir John Borlase (1753-1822), British admiral, was born in 
Nottinghamshire, England. He defeated a French squadron in 
April and August, 1794; and in October, 1798, intercepted and 
defeated the French fleet under Admiral Bompart off the coast 
of Ireland. He was made rear-admiral in 1799 and admiral in 

Washington, capital of the United States, in the Federal District 
of Columbia, on the Potomac river, 34 miles southwest of Balti- 
more, and 226 miles southwest of New York. The site was 
suggested by General Washington. The city is planned on a 
grand scale and is noted for its "magnificent distances." The 
avenues and principal streets are 130-160 feet wide. Public edi- 
fices are among the most splendid in the Union. Next to the 
Capitol itself the Library of Congress is the most important 
structure in Washington. This was completed in 1897, and cost 
the government $6,374,000. It contains the great national 
library and 45 miles of shelving, sufficient to hold over 2,000,000 
volumes. The Catholic University of America, established in 
1887, is just outside the city limits. The magnificent monument 
to General Washington, with a temple at the base, and a shaft 
555 feet high, stands in the center of a park of 45 acres". Wash- 
ington became the seat of the Federal government in 1800. 
Population about 250,000. 

Waterford, a maritime county of Munster province, is bounded 
north by Counties Tipperary and Kilkenny, east by County Wex- 
ford, south by the Atlantic Ocean, and west by County Cork. 


Greatest length east and west, 51 miles; greatest breadth, north 
and south, 28 miles; coast-line, about 50 miles. The county has 
an area of 458,108 acres (5,773 water), or 2.2 per cent of the 
total area of Ireland, and a population of 87,187, of whom 82,556 
are Catholics, 3,685 Episcopalians, 323 Presbyterians, and 223 
Methodists. The county is served by the G. S. & W. K., D. W. 
& W. E., and Wexford and Tramore railway. The coast is for 
the most part low and dangerous, and is broken by the inlets of 
Waterford Harbor, Tramore Bay, Dungarvan Harbor, and You- 
ghal Bay. About two-thirds of the surface is hilly or mountain- 
ous; the Comeragh and Knockmealdown mountains are along 
the north border with County Tipperary. The Drum hills occupy 
a part of the southwest; the east district is flat, and much of it 
is marshy. In some parts the soil is very fertile, but dairy 
farming is much more practiced than tillage. Large quantities 
of butter and bacon are exported. Copper has been worked at 
Knockmahon; there are valuable quarries of marble near Cap- 
poquin and Whitechurch. The coast and river fisheries are of 
considerable value; shell-fi^h is especially abundant on the coast. 
The principal rivers are the Suir and the Blackwater, which are 
navigable, and the Bride. The county comprises 63 parishes, and 
part of 10 others, the parliamentary and county borough of 
Waterford (one member), the urban district of Dungarvan, and 
the town of Lismore. For parliamentary purposes the county is 
divided into two divisions — West and East — each returning one 
member. The parliamentary constituencies together contain 
8,407 electors. 
Waterford, city, county and parliamentary borough, seaport, seat 
of a diocese, and county of itself, with railway station (G. S. & 
W. K.), and the Manor Station of the Waterford and Tramore 
railway. The D. W. & W. E. also serves the town. The city is 
in northeast County Waterford, on river Suir, 77 miles southeast 
of Limerick, 82 northeast of Cork, and 110 southwest of Dublin 
by rail. The parliamentary borough has an area of 9,937 acres, 
and a population of 29,181; the county borough has 1,435 acres, 
and a population of 26,769. Waterford, situated at the conflu- 
ence of St. John's river with the Suir, and 15 miles from the 
sea, was founded by the Danes in the 9th century; was the 
place where Henry II. landed in 1172; unsuccessfully besieged by 
Cromwell, but was taken by Ireton in 1650; and was the place 
where James II. embarked for France in 1690. The city is con- 
nected with the small suburb of Ferrybank, in County Kilkenny, 
by a wooden bridge of 39 arches. It contains several fine public 
buildings, including literary, scientific, educational, and chari- 
table institutions. Eeginald's Tower, first built by Eeginald the 
Dane in 1003 and rebuilt in 1819, was one of the ancient city 
fortifications. Vessels of 2,000 tons can reach the quays, which 
possess convenient floating stages. The exports consist chiefly 
of agricultural produce, including bacon, pork, butter, grain, 
flour, cattle, sheep, and pigs. Steamers sail regularly between 


Waterford and the ports of Cork, Dublin, Glasgow, Liverpool, 
and Plymouth. The railway traffic passing through Waterford is 
very extensive, there being direct communication with Limerick, 
Cork and Dublin. Charles Kean, actor (1811-1868), and W. Vin- 
cent Wallace, musical composer (1814-1865), were natives. 
Waterford returns one member to parliament; it returned two 
members until 1885. The parliamentary constituency contains 
3,504 electors. 

Waterford Harbor, between County Waterford and Counties Kil- 
kenny and Wexford, is formed by the channel of the river Suir 
from Waterford city to its confluence with the Barrow, a dis- 
tance of six miles, and thence by the joint estuary of these 
rivers to the sea, a further distance of 15 miles. The harbor 
is two and one-half miles wide at the entrance, and is protected 
on the east side by the strong fort of Duncannon. 

Welsh-Normans. The first Norman invaders of Ireland from Wales 
(in the reign of King Henry II. of England), led by Strongbow 
and Dermot MacMurrough (1169-70), are properly called Welsh- 
Normans. They are commonly, but erroneously, confounded with 
the Normans of England (or Anglo-Normans), later invaders of 
Ireland direct from England, and led by King Henry II. in 
person in 1171. See Chapters XI. and XII. See Anglo-Normans. 

Wentworth, Sir Thomas (1593-1641), Earl of Strafford, politician, 
was born in London, England. He was educated at Cambridge, 
on leaving which he traveled abroad, and at his return received 
the honor of Knighthood. He succeeded to the baronetcy and a 
large estate in 1614, and the following year was nominated 
keeper of the archives for the West Eiding, in the room of Sir 
John Savile. Soon after this, the Duke of Buckingham, by inter- 
esting himself in favor of Savile, laid the foundation of that 
animosity which rose between him and Strafford. The latter, on 
being elected to parliament for the County of York, acted with 
the popular party in a determined opposition to the court, and 
was a principal advocate of the famous Petition of Eights. But 
this period of patriotism was of short duration, and he was 
gained over to the royal side by a barony, with the promise of 
higher advancement. He became a personal and political friend 
of Archbishop Laud. He was made president of the council of 
York, and next lord-deputy of Ireland. In 1639 he was created 
Earl of Strafford, make Knight of the Garter, and appointed 
lord-lieutenant of Ireland, which he governed in a tyrannical 
manner. He now directed his energies to the formation of a 
standing army, and boasted that in Ireland "the king was as 
absolute as any prince in the whole world." All these things 
increased the number and malignity of his enemies in the 
British Parliament, who (when the earl was summoned to Lon- 
don by King Charles I.) carried an impeachment against him, 
and he was imprisoned in the Tower of London. A bill of 
attainder was hurried through both Houses of Parliament and he 
was beheaded on Tower Hill, May 12, 1641. He was ambitious. 


energetic, hauglity, and unscrupulous. His "Letters and Des- 
patches" were published in 1739 in two volumes. See Chapter 

West Indies, or Antilles, an extensive system of islands in the 
Atlantic Ocean between North and South America. They form 
the northern and eastern boundary of the Carribbean Sea, and 
stretch in crescentic form from near the northeast extremity of 
Yucatan, Mexico, and southeastern Florida to the Gulf of Paria, 
in Venezuela, and from this point westward along the north 
coast of South America to the Gulf of Venezuela. They com- 
prise the Bahamas, Cuba, Haiti, Jamaica, Porto Eico, Trinidad, 
Martinique, Guadaloupe, Barbados, Grenada, etc. The climate 
is tropical, but modified by the surrounding ocean and the 
elevated surface of many of the islands. The population is 
6,000,000. The West Indies were so called because they were 
at first believed to be a part of India. 

West Meath, an inland county of Leinster province, is bounded 
east by County Meath, south by King's County, west by Counties 
Longford and Roscommon, being separated from the latter by 
Lough Eee and the river Shannon, and north by Counties Cavan 
(a small part of) and Meath. Greatest length, northeast and 
southwest, 44 miles; greatest breadth, northwest and southeast, 
26 miles. The county has an area of 454,104 acres (21,797 water), 
or 2.2 per cent of the total area of Ireland, and a population of 
61,629, of whom 56,673 are Catholics, 4,271 Episcopalians, 319 
Presbyterians, and 215 Methodists. The county is served by the 
M. G. W. R., and a branch of the G. S. & W. R. The surface, 
with the exception of some bog in the south, is finely diversified 
with low hills, gentle undulations, and picturesque lakes. The 
land, both pasture and arable, is exceedingly fertile. The 
largest lakes are Loughs Eee, Dereveragh, Ennel, Owel, Lene, 
and Iron; they afford splendid sport for the angler, the fish 
being usually large, especially in Lough Owel. The principal 
rivers are the Shannon, Brosna, Inny, and the Dale. Manufac- 
tures include frieze, flannel, and linen; there are several lime- 
stone quarries. The county is traversed by the Royal canal. 
West Meath comprises 57 parishes, and part of seven others, and 
the towns of Athlone and Mullingar. For parliamentary pur- 
poses the county is divided into two divisions — North and South 
— each returning one member. The parliamentary constituencies 
contain 10,443 electors. 

Wexford, a maritime county of Leinster province, bounded north 
by County Wicklow, east by St. George's Channel, south by the 
Atlantic Ocean, and west by Counties Waterford, Kilkenny, and 
Carlow. Greatest length, from Hook Head northeast to Croghan 
Mountain, 54 miles; greatest breadth, east and west, 30 miles; 
coast line about 90 miles. The county has an area of 576,757 
acres (3,714 water), or 2.8 per cent of the total area of Ireland, 
and a population of 104,104, of whom 95,434 are Catholics, 7,859 
Episcopalians, 271 Presbyterians, and 342 Methodists. Wexford is 


served by the D, W. & W. E. and G. S. & W. Ry. The coast is 
low and dangerous from sandbanks; the principal openings are 
Wexford Harbor, Ballyteige Bay, Bannon Bay, and Waterford 
Harbor. The Salter Islands lie oif the south coast. The surface 
for the most part is levelj Mount Leinster (2,610 feet), summit 
of Blackstairs mountain range, and other summits, rise along the 
border with County Carlow; Mount Croghan is on the Wicklow 
border. The country generally has a verdant and luxuriant 
appearance; the soil is in some parts light and sandy, and in 
others of a stiff clay. The principal rivers are the Slaney and 
the Barrow, both of which are navigable for a considerable 
distance. The fisheries are extensive, the chief districts being 
Gorey (Courtown) and Wexford. The county comprises 138 
parishes and parts of seven others, and the towns of Wexford, 
New Eoss, Enniscorthy, and Gorey. For parliamentary purposes 
the county is divided into two divisions — North and South — each 
returning one member. The parliamentary constituencies con- 
tain 17,726 electors. 

Wexford, seaport, municipal borough, and the capital of County 
Wexford, at mouth of river Slaney, on Wexford Harbor, with 
railway station (D. W. & W. R. and G. S. & W. E.), 15 miles 
southeast of Enniscorthy and 93 miles south of Dublin by rail. 
The town has 481 acres, and a population of 11,168. Wexford 
was a settlement of the Danes in the 9th century; was taken by 
the Welsh-Normans under FitzStephen in the reign of King 
Henry II.; was sacked by Cromwell in 1649; and was the head- 
quarters of the insurgents in 1798. Several parts of the old walls 
and the ruins of ancient abbeys still remain. There are several 
convents and eminent educational institutions. The harbor is 
very capacious, but its entrance is impeded by a bar of sand; 
vessels, drawing not more than ten feet of water, can cross this 
bar; larger vessels anchor nine miles southeast at Eosslare 
Harbor, with which Wexford has railway connection. Steamers 
sail weekly between Wexford and the ports of Bristol and Liver- 
pool. TBe exports are considerable, and consist chiefly of agri- 
cultural produce, live stock, malt, and whisky. There is a ship- 
building yard, and manufactures of implements and cement. 
Many of the inhabitants are employed in the salmon, herring, 
and oyster fisheries. Wexford returned one member to parlia- 
ment until 1885. 

Whately, Eichard (1787-1863), Anglican Archbishop of Dublin, was 
born in London, England, February 1, 1787. He was educated at 
Oriel College, Oxford, graduated B. A. in 1808, and M. A. in 1812. 
In 1811 he was elected to a fellowship of Oriel, then considered 
the highest honor in Oxford, except the provostship of the same 
college. In 1822 Whately was Bampton lecturer, and the same 
year was presented to the rectory of Halesworth, Suffolk. In 
1825 Lord Grenville, chancellor of Oxford, recalled him to the 
university as principal of St. Alban 's Hall, on which occasion he 
accumulated the degrees B. D. and D. D. In 1830 he was elected 


professor of political economy in the university. In 1831, on the 
death of Archbishop Magee, Earl Grey appointed Dr. Whately 
to the archiepiscopal see of Dublin; and, in 1846, on the death of 
Dr. Charles Lindsay, he succeeded to the bishopric of Kildare 
also, that see having been united with Dublin by the Church 
Temporalities Act. He was also visitor of Trinity College, 
Dublin, prebendary in St. Patrick's Cathedral, vice-president of 
the Eoyal Irish Academy, and chancellor of the order of St. 
Patrick. For more than twenty years he was one of the com- 
missioners of national education in Ireland, and during that 
period he bent all his energies to its advancement and defense; 
his secret desire being, as his correspondence (published since his 
death) shows, to destroy, by underhand and hypocritical means, 
the influence of the ancient faith in Ireland. He endowed the 
professorship of political economy in the University of Dublin. 
He was the author of many theological and controversial works, 
and died in Dublin, October 8, 1863. 
Wicklow, a maritime county of Leinster province, is bounded north 
by County Dublin, east by St. George 's Channel, south by County 
Wexford, and west by Counties Carlow and Kildare. Greatest 
length, north and south, 40 miles; greatest breadth, 33 miles; 
coast-line, about 35 miles. The county has an area of 500,216 
acres (1,413 water), or 2.4 per cent of the total area of Ireland, 
and a population of 60,824, of whom 48,083 are Catholics, 11,354 
Episcopalians, 502 Presbyterians, and 614 Methodists. The county 
is served by the D. W. & W. E. and G. S. & W. E. The coast is 
comparatively unbroken, and is rendered dangerous by sand- 
banks. Nearly the entire surface is hilly, rising into mountain 
groups in the interior, where valleys, glens, and lakes afford the 
most romantic scenery. Lugnaquilia is the highest summit (alti- 
tude 3,039 feet). The most romantic glens or valleys are the 
Dargle and the Downs in the north, the Devil's Glen in the 
center, and the Vale of Avoca in the south. Eoundwood reser- 
voir, the source of the Dublin water supply, is in this county. 
Other large lakes are Loughs Bray, Luggela, Dan, and Glenda- 
lough. The rocks consist of granite, mica-slate, clay-slate, trap, 
and porphyry; lead and copper are obtained in the center; gold 
has been found in the south, and the exportation of pyrites con- 
taining sulphur, chiefly from the Avoca district, has been very 
considerable. Cordite is manufactured at Arklow. The soil in 
the low tracts by the river courses is very fertile, but in general 
it is light and poor. The principal rivers are the Slaney, the 
Avoca, the Vartry, and the Liffey. The Murrough, a bank of 
shingle, extends along the coast from Wicklow to the vicinity of 
Greystones; the D. W. & W. E. runs along it. The fisheries are 
valuable, but have been comparatively neglected. The county 
comprises 49 parishes, and part of 11 others, and the towns of 
Arklow, Bray, and Wicklow. For parliamentary purposes the 
county is divided into two divisions — West and East — each re- 


turning one member. The parliamentary constituencies together 
contain 9,342 electors. 

Wicklow, market, assize, and seaport town, and capital of County 
Wicklow, with railway station (D, W, & W. K.), at mouth of 
river Vartry, which is here crossed by a bridge of eight arches, 
28 miles south of Dublin by rail. The town has an area of 757 
acres, and a population of 3,288. Wicklow is situated at the 
south extremity of a narrow creek, which is sheltered from the 
sea by a long peninsula, called the Murrough. A new harbor and 
pier enclosed by a breakwater have been constructed at a cost of 
£50,000. Large waterworks have also been built. Lead ores and 
explosives are the principal exports. The environs of Wicklow 
are very fine, and there are many seats in the neighborhood. 
The ruin of Black Castle stands on an eminence near the mouth 
of the Vartry. Wicklow gives the title of earl to the Howards, 
of Shelton Abbey. 

William I. (1025-1087), surnamed The Conqueror, King of England, 
born at Falaise, in Normandy, France, in 1025, was a natural son 
of Eobert, Duke of Normandy. He succeeded his father in 1035, 
as William II. of Normandy, and during his minority gave proof 
of his energy and courage by reducing to submission the rebel- 
lious Norman barons. He gained the favor of his kinsman, 
Edward the Confessor, King of England, who, having no issue, 
formed a secret intention to adopt William as his heir. His chief 
competitor was Harold, a Saxon prince, whom a majority of the 
people of England preferred to the Duke of Normandy. On the 
death of Edward (January, 1066) Harold ascended the throne, 
without opposition. William now laid his claim to the English 
crown before the Pope and the Western nations and his claim 
was approved. William, by his power, his courage, and his abili- 
ties, had long maintained a preeminence among the haughty 
chieftains of Western Europe. Having resolved to invade Eng- 
land, he soon assembled a fleet of 3,000 vessels and an army of 
60,000 men. Several powerful barons of adjoining countries, with 
their retainers, were attracted to his standard by the grandeur 
and audacity of the enterprise. The Norman army landed at 
Pevensey, in Sussex, about the 28th of September, and totally 
defeated the English, commanded by Harold, at Senlac, near 
Hastings, on the 14th of October, 1066. Harold was killed in this 
battle, which was one of the most decisive and important that 
occurred in the Middle Ages. William lost nearly 15,000 men. 
He followed up his victory with celerity and vigor, encountered 
little opposition in his march to London, and was crowned King 
of England in Westminster Abbey on the 25th of December. 
Edgar Atheling, who had been proclaimed king at the death of 
Harold, renounced his claim and submitted to William. The 
Conqueror appeared at first willing to conciliate his new subjects 
by mildness; but he confiscated the estates of those partisans of 
Harold who had been killed at Hastings, and took care to place 
all real power in the hands of the Normans. While he was absent 


on a visit to Normandy, in 1067, conspiracies were formed 
against him, and hostilities began in many places. William 
returned about the end of 1067, and maintained his power by acts 
of excessive cruelty. He ordered his army to lay waste by fire 
the extensive tract between the Humber and the Tees. The 
majority of the proprietors of land were deprived of their estates 
by confiscation, and all the natives were reduced to a state not 
much better than slavery. During a visit of William to the 
continent, in 1074, several Norman barons revolted against him, 
and were defeated. He had become the most powerful sovereign 
of Europe, when Pope Gregory VII. wrote him a letter, requiring 
him to do homage for the kingdom of England to the see of 
Eome, and to send the tribute which his predecessors had been 
accustomed to pay to the Pope. By the tribute he meant Peter's 
pence. William replied that the money should be remitted as 
usual, but he refused to pay homage. About 1078 his son Robert 
levied war against William in Normandy. During this war 
Robert happened to encounter the king, whom he wounded and 
unhorsed. Struck with remorse on discovering that he had 
wounded his father, Robert asked his pardon, and made peace 
with him. In the latter part of his reign he ordered a general 
survey of all the lands in the kingdom, their extent in each 
district, their proprietors, tenure, and value. This monument, 
called "Domesday Book," is the most valuable piece of antiquity 
possessed by any nation. He had married Matilda, a daughter of 
Baldwin, Earl of Flanders. On the approach of death, he realized 
the vanity of all human grandeur, and was filled with remorse for 
his cruelties. He died at Rouen, France, in 1087, leaving three 
sons, Robert, William, and Henry. He left Normandy to his son 
Robert and England to William. 

Wingfield, Sir Richard (died in 1634), born probably in England, 
was the eldest son of Sir Richard Wingfield, Governor of Ports- 
mouth, England, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. His mother 
was a sister of Sir William FitzWilliam, lord-deputy of 
Ireland. Wingfield was deputy vice-treasurer of Ireland, 
1580-861 He served in the Netherlands in 1586, and in Brit- 
tany in 1591, under Sir John Norris. Returning to Ireland in 
1595 he was knighted. The next year he acted as colonel in 
Essex's expedition to Cadiz, Spain. Wingfield returned to Ire- 
land with Lord Mountjoy in 1600 and was made marshal of the 
army and a privy-councillor. He served in the province of 
Ulster and at the celebrated siege and battle of Kinsale; and 
was M. P. for Downpatrick in 1613. Created first Viscount 
Powerscourt in 1619, he was rewarded (in 1609) by a grant of 
the district of Fercullen in County Wicklow, erected into the 
manor of Powerscourt in 1611. 

Winter, Sir William (died in 1589), English admiral, born prob- 
ably in England, was surveyor of the British navy, 1549-89, 
and master of ordnance of the navy, 1557-89. See Chapter 


Wogan, Edward (died in 1654), royalist captain, born probably in 
England, who deserted the parliament 's service in 1648 and 
joined the royalist Ormond in Ireland. He was governor of 
Duncannon, which fortress he held against Henry Ireton, the 
Parliamentarian general who was sent to Ireland by Oliver 
CromweU in 1649. Wogan fought at Worcester, England, on 
the side of King Charles I. and, on the defeat of the latter, 
escaped to France. In 1653 he returned with several companies 
and joined Middleton 's Highland force. He died from a wound 
received in a skirmish. 

Wolsey, Thomas (1475?-1530), cardinal, courtier and statesman, 
was born about 1475 at Ipswich, England. His origin was rather 
obscure. He was the son of a butcher, according to tradition. 
He was educated at Magdalene College, Oxford, of which 
society he became a fellow and tutor. In 1508, being then 
chaplain to King Henry VII., he was made Dean of Lincoln. 
Soon after the accession of King Henry VIII. he was made 
almoner to the king, he became a privy-councillor, canon of 
Windsor, registrar of the Garter, and Dean of York. He was 
also appointed chancellor of the Garter, and given a grant of 
the revenue of the bishopric of Tournay, in Flanders. Having 
excellent qualifications as a courtier, he gained an absolute 
ascendency over the young king by flattering his passions and 
sharing his amusements. In 1514 he was consecrated Bishop 
of Lincoln, and within a few months afterwards was elevated 
to the see of York, and the dignity of cardinal. In 1516 he 
was appointed papal legate, and at the same time was made 
lord chancellor. In 1519 he obtained the temporalities of the 
see of Bath and Wells, to which were added those of Worcester 
and Hereford, with the rich Abbey of St. Alban's. In 1528 
he exchanged the diocese of Durham for Winchester. He was 
now the prime favorite and chief minister of King Henry VIII. 
"He had superior talents for business, and understood the public 
interests, which he seems to have promoted except when they 
interfered with his ambitions." A cloud now arose, occasioned 
by the king's dissatisfaction with Wolsey 's slow conduct in 
negotiations to obtain the divorce which Henry was bent on 
securing. Accordingly, while the cardinal sat in the Court 
of Chancery, an indictment was preferred against him, in con- 
sequence of which the great seal was taken from him and all 
his goods were seized. The prosecution, however, was stayed, 
and he received the king's pardon, but while he was endeavor- 
ing to reconcile himself to his fallen state at Cawood Castle, 
he was again arrested, but his health was broken and before 
his trial began he died, at the Abbey of Leicester, November 30, 
1530. He founded Christ Church at Oxford, and another col- 
lege at Ipswich, which last was seized and dissolved. Wolsey 
aspired to the papacy and was a candidate for the tiara at the 
death of Pope Leo X. in 1521, but without success. 


Wood, William (1671-1730), an English iron merchant, who is said 
to have owned large copper and iron works in the West of 
England. He obtained a patent in 1722 for the sole privilege 
of coining halfpence and farthings for circulation in Ireland, 
which aroused such a great opposition that he had to surrender 
the patent in 1725. He also held a patent to make halfpence, 
pence and twopence for English colonies in America, 1722-23. 
See Chapter LI. 

Worcester, Earl of, see Tiptoft, John, 

Worcester, Earl of, see Somerset, Charles; and Somerset, Edward. 

Yorktown, village in York County, Virginia, 56 miles southeast 
of Eichmond. Here the Eevolutionary War was terminated in 
1781, by the surrender of Lord Cornwallis to General Washington. 

Youghal, market and seaport town, urban district and parish, with 
railway station (G. S. & W. E.), County Cork, on west side of 
mouth of river Blaekwater, at Youghal Harbor, 27 miles east 
of Cork. The parish has 4,830 acres, and a population of 5,915; 
the urban district has 1,088 acres and a population of 2,501. 
Youghal is a place of great antiquity; received its first charter 
from King John in 1209, and was the headquarters of Cromwell 
in 1649. Sir Walter Ealeigh was mayor of Youghal in 1588, and 
his mansion, now called Myrtle Grove, is still occupied as a 
residence. More than half of the old walls are still standing, 
including the Water Gate, by which Cromwell entered the town. 
The harbor is safe and commodious, but the entrance is ob- 
structed by a bar. The port has become a sub-port to Cork. 
The exports consist chiefly of agricultural produce, bricks, and 
earthenware. The salmon fishery is of considerable value. 
Youghal returned one member to parliament until 1885, 


[These early dates are mythical]. 

A. M. 

2242. This date is given by the Four Masters as that of the coming 
of Cessair to Ireland — forty days before the Flood. 

2520. Given as the date at which Partholan came to Ireland. 

2530. The Fomorians defeated by Partholan at Magh Ithe, County 

2820. Partholan 's people die of the plague. 

2850. Neimheadh came to Ireland. 

3066. The Ftfmorian Tower of Conainn (on Tory Island) is de- 
stroyed by the race of Neimheadh; only thirty of the race 
of Neimheadh escape. 

3266. Arrival of the Firbolg. 

3303. The Tuatha De Danann invade Ireland. Battle of Magh 

Tuireadh (Moytura, Cong, County Mayo). 

3304. Eeign of Breas. 

3310. Breas resigns the sovereignty to Nuada Airgeadlamh "of the 
Silver Hand." 

3330. Second battle of Magh Tuireadh (Moytura, County Sligo). 

Nauda is slain by the Fomorians. 

3331. Eeign of Lugh Lamhfhada "Long handed." He establishes 

the Fair of Taillte (Teltown, County Meath). 
S370. Lugh is slain at Caendruim (Hill of Uisneach, County West 

3371. Eeign of Dagda Mor. 
3471. Joint reign of the last three kings of the Tuatha De Danann 

— MacCuill, MacCeacht, and MacGreine. 

3500. Arrival of the Milesians. Battle of Sliabh Mis and Taillte 

fought, and the three princes killed. 

3501. Emher and Eremon (Heber and Heremon) divide Ireland be- 

tween them. A battle is fought between them at Geisill 
(King's County), and Heber is slain. Heremon gives Tara 
to his wife, Tea, as her dowry and burial place. It is 
named from her Tea-mur, (Tara) — the town or fort of Tea. 

3580-3656. Eeign of Tighernmas. He first smelts gold in Ireland. 
He introduces ornaments on dress. He is slain at Sam- 
hain when worshiping the Crom Cruach, or chief idol of 

3664-3667. Eeign of Eochaid Eadgadhach. He requires each class 
to wear different colors in their dress. 


3882-3922. Eeign of Ollamh Fodhla (Fodhla the Learned). He 
first established the Feis of Tara. He appointed chieftains 
over fixed districts, and bruighfers, or farmers, over each 
townland, vi^ho acknowledged the central authority of Tara. 

4532. Macha, a princess, seizes the severeignty from Dithorba and 
Cimbaoth, two brothers, who had reigned in turn. She 
marries Cimbaoth, and expels Dithorba to Connaught. 
She forces the captive sons of Dithorba to build the fort 
of Emain Macha. It was under Cimbaoth that Emain 
Macha became the capital of Ulster. 

A. M. 

4567-4607. Eeign of Ugaine Mor. He exacted oaths by all the ele- 
ments, visible and invisible, that the men of Ireland would 
never contend with his race for the sovereignty. 

4607-4608. Eeign of Laegaire Lore, the ' ' Murderer, ' ' son of Ugaine 
Mor: murdered by his brother, Cobthach, at Carmen (in 

4658. Cobthach is murdered by Labraid Maen, with thirty chiefs, 
at Dind Eigh, on the Barrow. 

5017-5031. Eeign of Congal Claringnech, son of Eudraighe (Eury). 

5042-5047. Eeign of Fachtna Fathach, the "Wise," son of Eoss, 
son of Eury. He is, in some of the stories of the Ulster 
champions, supposed to be the father of King Conchobhar 
(Conor) and the deeds of Cuchulain and the Eed Branch 
champions take place about this time. 

5058-5063. Eeign of Eoehaid Feidlech, the "Constant Sighing." 
He divided Ireland into five provinces. 

5070-5084. Eeign of Eoehaid Aireamh, the "Grave-digger." He 
first had graves dug in Ireland. He was buried at Fream- 
hain (County West Meath). 

5085-5089. Eeign of Eterscel. He is slain at Allen (County Kil- 
dare) by Nuadha Neacht, who reigns half a year. 

5091-5160. Eeign of Conaire Mor, son of Eterscel. He is slain by 
his pirate foster brothers at Bruighen Da Derga. 

5166-5191. Eeign of Lugaidh Sriabh-na-Dearg, of the "Eed 
Stripes." He died of grief from the death of his wife, 

5192-5193. Conchobhar Abhradhruadh, Conor of the "Eed Eye- 
brows." Slain by Crimthann. 

5193 to A. D. 9. Eeign of Crimthann. He dies on Howth Hill after 
returning from a foreign expedition with great spoils. 

A. D. 

10. Eeign of Cairbre Cinneait ("Cat-headed"), the leader of the 
insurrection of the Aithech Tuatha, in which nearly all 
the nobility of Ireland were killed. An evil reign for Ire- 
land. Morann the Wise lived at this time and was chief 
15-36. Eeign of Fearadhach Finnfeachnach the "Eighteous, " son 
of Crimthann. He oppressed the Aithech, who, however, 


were troublesome for some time afterwards and incited 
rebellion against the succeeding monarchs. 
76-106. Eeign of Tuathal Teachtmar, the "Legitimate." He 
fought many battles against the Aithech and reduced them 
to obedience. He preserved the province of Meath for the 
support of the High-King and celebrated the Feis of Tara, 
at which he caused all his chieftains to swear that they 
would never contest the sovereignty of Ireland with him 
or his descendants. In his reign the Boromha was first im- 
posed on Leinster. 

111-119. Eeign of Feidhlimid Eeachtmhar ("Phelim the Legal"), 
Great wars between Leinster and Munster. 

120-123. Eeign of Cathaire Mor. He was slain by Conn Cedcat- 

123-157. Eeign of Conn Cedcathach of the "Hundred Battles." soa 
of Feidhlimid Eeachtmar. In his time Ireland was divided 
into two parts, Leth Cuinn (Conn's half) and Leth Mogha 
(Mogh's half). Battle of Magh Lena (Moylena) between 
Conn and Eoghan Mor (Owen the Great), King of Munster. 
Establishment of the Fianna Eirinn. 

166-196. Eeign of Art the Solitary, son of Conn of the Hundred 
Battles. Olioll Olum, King of Munster. Battle of Ceann- 
feabhrat, in which Maecon is defeated by his step-father, 
Olioll Olum. Maecon flees to Britain for help, and re- 
turns after some time to Galway with auxiliaries. Art 
meets him and is killed in the battle of Magh Mucramha. 
Maecon usurps the throne of Tara. 

227. Eeign of Cormac Mac Art. Battle of Crinna. Death of 
Olioll Olum. Cormac wars in Ulster, Connaught, Meath, 
and Munster. Expulsion of Cormac across the sea. 

265. Cormac 's eye put out, and his law-giver and son mortally 

wounded by the thrust of a lance by Angus of the "Terri- 
ble Spear" (Gaibhuaibhatach). Cormac fought and 
gained seven battles over the Deisi in revenge, and he ex- 
pelled them to Munster, where Olioll Olum gave them a 
district to settle on. They were descended from the 
brother of Conn of the Hundred Battles. 

266. Cormac died at Cleiteach (Cletty) on the Boyne from a sal- 

m-on-bone sticking in his throat. 
268-284. Cairbre Liffeachair, of the "Liffey," son of Cormac Mac 

Art, King of Ireland. 
271-276. Seven battles fought against Munster, and Angus of the 

Terrible Spear killed. 

283. Finn, son of Cumhall (Finn MacCool), was killed by Aich- 

leaeh, a fisherman, with his fishing-gaff, at Ath-Brea on the 
Boyne. Caoilte MacEonain, a follower of Finn, revenged 
his death on Aichleach. 

284. Cairbre Liffeachair fell at the battle of Gabhra-Aichle 

(Gaura), near Tara. This battle was fought by Mogh- 
corb, son of Cormac Cas, King of Munster, who came to 


avenge the death of Mogh Nuadhat, his grandfather, who 
had been murdered in his tent by Goll, leader of the Clanna 
Morna or Fianna of Connaught. With Moghcorb were the 
Clanna Baoisgne or Fianna of Leinster, who had taken 
refuge in Munster. In this battle Osgur, son of Oisin 
(Ossian) also fell. 

323-326 (9). Eeign of CoUa Uais, who was expelled into Alba 
(Scotland), by Muiredhach Tireach. 

327-356. Eeign of Muiredhach Tireach. 

327. The three CoUas return to Ireland from Alba. They enter 
into a friendly treaty with Muirediach. 

331. The three Collas conquer large territories in Ulster, from 
Lough Neagh and the Newry river westwards, and destroy 
its capital, Emain Macha. 

358-365. Eeign of Eaochaid Mughmheadhoin, son of Muiredhach, 
who had two wives, Mongfind of Munster, and Cairenn, 
mother of Niall of the Nine Hostages. 

366-378. Eeign of Crimthan, brother of Mongfind. He was poisoned 
by his sister in the hope that her son Brian would succeed, 
but he did not do so. Crimthan wars in foreign lands. 

379-405. Eeign of Niall of the Nine Hostages. He carried on for- 
eign wars and made incursions into Britain. Stilicho, the 
general of the Emperor Claudian, sent against him, Niall 
had fourteen sons, some of whom settled in Meath and 
others in Ulster. It was in his reign and by one of his 
legions that St. Patrick was carried off to Ireland as a 
slave. Niall treacherously killed by the son of the King of 
Leinster at the river Loire in Gaul. 

405-428. Eeign of Dathy, son of Eochaid Mughmheadhoin. He 
was killed by a flash of lightning in the Alps. His body 
is said to have been brought home to Ireland and buried 
at Eathcroghan, in Connaught. 


(The events printed after a star (*) are other than those occurring 
in Ireland.) 

432 (or 445). Arrival in Ireland of St. Patrick. 

444 (or 448). Foundation of the see and priory of Armagh by 

St. Patrick. 
450. Foundation of the abbeys of Inniscathery, Downpatrick, 

Saul, Trim, Ardagh, Duleek, Drumshallon, and Louth by 

St. Patrick. 
465. Death of St. Patrick. 
480. Foundation of an abbey at Antrim by Dartract, a disciple 

of St. Patrick. 
Foundation of an abbey at Cloger by St. Aid. 
484. Foundation of the nunnery and abbey of Kildare by St. 

500. Foundation of a monastery at Swords by St. Columb. 


Foundation of a priory at Castle-Dermot by St. Dermot. 

Foundation of the abbey of Lough Deary, County Donegal 
(St. Patrick's Purgatory), by St. Dabeoc. 
510. Foundation of the abbey of Emly by St. Ailbe. 
530. Foundation of the abbey of Glendalough by St. Kevin. 
540. Foundation of an abbey at Clones by St. Tigernaeh. 

Foundation of the abbey of Roscommon by St. Colman. 
544. Foundation of the abbey of the island of All-Saints, in 

Loughrea, by St. Kieran. 
546. Foundation of abbeys at Derry and Durrow by St. Columb. 

548. Foundation of the abbey of Clonmacnoise. 

549. Foundation of the abbey of Clonard by St. Kieran. 

550. Foundation of the abbey of Muckamore, County Antrim, 

by St. Colman. 

Foundation of the abbey of Aghmacarte by O'Dempsey. 
555. Foundation of the abbey of Drumlane, County Cavan. 

Foundation of the abbey of Kells by St. Columb. 

Foundation of the abbey of Bangor by St. Comgall. 
563. St. Columbkill preaches Christianity in the Western Isles. 
570. Foundation of a monastery at Ardfert by St. Brendan. 

Foundation of the abbey of Innisfallen by St. Finian the 

Foundation of the abbey of Aghadoe by St. Canice. 
572. St. Columbanus. 
590. *Gregory the Great, Pope of Rome. 

Foundation of a monastery at Drumcliffe by St. Columb. 
600. *St. Augustine converts Ethelbert, King of Kent. 
620. Foundation of a monastery at Kilmacduagh, County Gal- 

■T^ay, by St. Colman. 
627. *Conversion of Edwin, King of Northumbria, by St. Paulinus. 
630. Foundation of the abbey of Lismore by St. Mochuda. 

Foundation of the priory at Fore, Westmeath, by St. Feehin. 
634. *St. Aidan, from lona, reintroduces Christianity at Lindis- 

650. *Irish missionaries on the Continent. 
660. Foundation of a monastery at Cong, County Mayo, by St. 

665. Foundation of a monastery at Mayo by St. Coiman. 
745. Feargal (Virgilius) flourished. 
787. *The Northmen invade England. 
795. The Northmen invade Ireland. 
800. *Charles the Great, Emperor of the West. 

Foundation of the abbey of Inistioge, County Kilkenny. 
815. Arrival of Turges. 
844. His death. Massacre of the Northmen by the Irish. 

849. Fresh incursions of Northmen. 

850. Joannes Scotus Erigena flourished. 

853. Arrival of Amlaf. Nose-money is collected. 

872. The Northmen invade Scotland from Ireland. 

879. *Peace of Wedmore between King Alfred and the Northmen. 


900. Eeign of Cormac McCulinan, king of Leinster. 
937. *Amlaf, with a contingent of Northmen from Ireland, de- 
feated at Brunanburgh by Athelstan. 
948. Conversion of the Northmen in Ireland. 

St. Mary's Abbey, Dublin, founded by the Northmen. 
968. Battle of Sulchoid. 

Brian Boru succeeds to the throne of Munster. 
980. The Northmen defeated at Tara by Malachy, King of 
all Ireland. 
Foundation of the priory of Holmpatrick, County Dublin, 
by Sitric. 
983. Brian extends his rule over Leinster. 
997. Struggle between Brian and Malachy. 

1001. Seizure of the throne of Tara by Brian. 

1002. *Massacre of Northmen in England by the Saxons. 

1003. *Invasion of England by Sweyne. 

1013. Eebellion of Leinster in conjunction with the Northmen. 

1014. Battle of Clontarf. Death of Brian. 
Eestoration of Malachy. 

1016. Malachy defeats the Northmen. 

1017. *Canute King of England. 

1022. Death of Malachy. 

1023. Teige and Donchad, sons of Brian, joint rulers of Munster. 
Murder of Teige by Donchad. 

1038. The priory of Christchurch, Dublin, founded by Sitric, 

Danish Prince of Dublin. 
Donchad marries a daughter of Earl Godwin. 
1051. Harold takes refuge with Donchad after his rebellion 

against Edward the Confessor. 
1058. Donchad becomes titular king of all Ireland. 

1063. Donchad defeated by Turlough, son of Teige. 

1064. Turlough titular king of all Ireland. 
1066. *Battle of Hastings. 

1086. Death of Turlough. He is succeeded by his son, Murker- 


1087. *William II. of England succeeds. 

1088. Tigernach, abbot of Clonmacnoise, writer of the "Annals 

of Tigernach," dies. 
1100. *Henry I. of England succeeds. 
1106. Foundation of a monastery at Lispool by McNoel McKen- 

1111. Synod of Eath Bresail. 
1119. Death of Murkertach. 
1121. Death of Donald O'Loghlin. 
1132. Struggle between Connor O'Brien of Munster and Turlough 

O'Connor of Connaught. 
1135. *Stephen of England succeeds. 

1142. Abbey of Mellifont founded by O 'Carroll of Argiel. 
1148. Abbey of Bective founded by O'Malachlin of Meath. 


Abbey of Baltinglass founded by Dermot McMurrough. 
Abbey of Monasternenagh, Limerick, founded by O'Brien. 

1151. Foundation of a nunnery at Kilcleeheen, County Kilkenny, 

by Dermot McMurrough. 
Battle of Moinmor. 
Turlough O'Connor titular king of all Ireland. 

1152. Synod of Kells. 

A Cistercian monastery founded at Athlone. 

1153. A Cistercian monastery founded at Newry by O'Lochlin. 
Abduction of O'Kourke's wife by McMurrough. 

1154. *Henry II. cf England succeeds. Pope Adrian IV. grants 

Ireland to Henry II. of England. 
Conflict of Turlough O'Connor with O'Lochlin of Ulster. 
Foundation of a monastery at Odorney in Kerry. 
1156. Death of Turlough O'Connor. 
1159. Foundation of the monastery of Inis Connagh, Tipperary, 

by Donnell O'Brien. 
1161. O'Lochlin titular king of all Ireland. 

Foundation of the abbey of Boyle, Koscommon, by Maurice 
O 'Dubhay. 
1166. Death of O'Lochlin. 

Eory 'Connor titular king of all Ireland. 
Foundation of the priory of All-Saints, Dublin, by Dermot 

1168. Flight of Dermot McMurrough. 

1169. *His bargain with Strongbow. 

Arrival of FitzStephen. Capture of Wexford. 
Invasion of Ossory. Arrival of Raymond le Gros. 
Capture of Waterford. 

Arrival of Strongbow. His marriage with Eva McMur- 
Capture of Dublin. 

1170. Synod of Armagh and manumission of English slaves. 

Death of Dermot McMurrough. 
Siege of Dublin. 
Strongbow returns to England and makes his peace with 

*Becket murdered. 
Monastery founded at Fermoy. 

1171. Henry II. arrives. 

He receives the submission of the chieftains. 

1172. Synod of Cashel. 

Government organized by Henry at Dublin. 
He returns to England. 

Foundation of the abbey of St. Thomas, Dublin, by William 

1174. Capture of Limerick. 

Foundation of the priory of Kilmainham by Strongbow. 

1175. Treaty between Henry and Eory O'Connor. 
1177. Prince John, Lord of Ireland. 


1178. Foundation of an abbey at Astrath, County Donegal, by 
Eoderick O 'Cananan. 
Foundation of an abbey at Dunbrody, County Wexford, by 
Hervey Mountmorres. 

1180. Foundation of an abbey at Jerpoint, Kilkenny, by McGila- 

patrick of Upper Ossory. 
Foundation of an abbey at Middleton, Cork, by the Barrys. 
Foundation of an abbey at Inniscourcy, Down, by Sir John 

De Courcy. 

1181. Foundation of Holy Cross Abbey by Donnell O'Brien. 

1183. Foundation of an abbey at Abbeyleix by Cuchry O 'Moore. 

1184. Prince John lands at Waterford. 
Mutiny of the chieftains. 

1185. Foundation of the priory of St. John at Waterford by 

Prince John. 

1189. Foundation of a monastery at Monastervan, Kildare, by 

O 'Dempsy. 
*Death of Henry II. 

Kichard I., 1189-1199. 

1190. Foundation of a monastery at Knockmoy, Galway, by 

Cathal O'Connor. 
Foundation of the nunnery of Grace-Dieu, County Dublin, 

by John Comin, Archbishop of Dublin. 
1193. Foundation of the priory of Kells, County Meath, by Walter 

De Lacy. 
Foundation of the priory at Kells, County Kilkenny, by 

Geoffrey Fitz-Eobert. 
Foundation of the Gray Abbey, Down, by Africa De Courcy. 
Foundation of the monastery of Corcumroe, County Clare, 

by Donogh O'Brien. 
Death of Kory O'Connor. 
1195. Foundation of the abbey of Clare by Donald O'Brien. 

John, 1199-1216. 
1200. Foundation of Tintern Abbey, Wexford, by William, Earl 

Foundation of a nunnery at Grany by Walter de Eiddles- 

Foundation of a monastery at Kilcooly, Tipperary, by 

Donogh O'Brien. 
Foundation of a monastery at Kilbeggan by the Daltons. 
Foundation of the Commandery of St. John for Hospitallers, 

at Wexford, by William, Earl Marshal. 
1202. Foundation of the priory of Great Connall, Kildare, by 

Meyler Fitz-Henry. 
Foundation of the priory of St. Wolstans, Naas, by Adam 

de Hereford. 
1205. Foundation of the abbey of Abingdon, Limerick, by Theo- 
bald Walter. 
Surrender of two-thirds of Connaught by Cathal O'Connor 

to King John. 


Disgrace of De Courcy. 

1206. Foundation of the priory at Newtown by Simon Eochford. 
Foundation of the priory for Crouched Friars at Castle- 

Dermot by Walter de Eiddlesford. 

1207. Foundation of the Commandery of St. John for Hospitallers 

at Any, County Limerick, by Geoffrey De Marisco. 
Foundation of the Crouched Friary at Ardee by Eoger De 

1208. Foundation of the friary of St. Saviour 's, Dublin, by Will- 

iam, Earl Marshal. 

1210. King John in Ireland. He divides it into counties. 

1211. Foundation of St. John's Abbey, Kilkenny, by William, 

Earl Marshal. 

1213. Foundation of the monastery at Tralee by Lord John Fitz- 

Thomas Fitzgerald. 

1214. Foundation of the Gray friary, Cork, by Dermot McCarthy 


1215. *The Great Charter signed in England by John. 

Henry IIL, 1216-1272. 

1216. The privileges of the Great Charter extended to Irish 


1220. Foundation of the abbey of the Holy Trinity at Tuam by 

the De Burghs. 

1221. Grant of Connaught to De Burgh by Henry III. 

1224. Foundation of the abbey of Tracton by Maurice McCarthy. 
Foundation of the Dominican friary at Drogheda by Luke 

Netterville, archbishop of Armagh. 

Foundation of the priory of Aughrim by Theobald Butler. 

Foundation of the priory of Ballybeg, Cork, by Philip De 

Foundation of the priory of Athassal, Tipperary, by Will- 
iam Fitzaldelm. 

Foundation of the priory of Nenagh, Tipperary, by the 

Foundation of a Franciscan friary at Youghal by Maiirice 

1225. Foundation of the Black Abbey, Kilkenny, by William, 

Earl Marshal. 

1226. Foundation of the convent of St. Saviour's, Waterford, by 

the citizens. 

1227. Foundation of the priory of Mullingar by Ealph le Petit, 

Bishop of Meath. 
1229. Foundation of St. Mary's Convent, Cork, by Philip Barry. 
1232. *Fall of Hubert De Burgh. 

Foundation of a convent at Carrickfergus by Hugh De 
1234. Foundation of the Franciscan friary at Kilkenny by Rich- 
ard, Earl Marshal. 
Richard, Earl Marshal, declared a traitor and treacherously 


1235. Foundation of the monastery of St. Francis, Dublin, by 

Ealph le Porter. 

1236. Foundation of the monastery of Multifarnam, Westmeath, 

by William Delamare. 

1237. Foundation of the monastery at Mullingar by the Nugents. 

1240. Foundation of the Gray priory at Drogheda by the Plunkets. 
Foundation of the Franciscan friary at Waterford by Sir 

Hugh Purcell. 
Foundation of the Cistercian monastery at Ennis by Don- 

ough Carbreach O'Brien. 
Foundation of a convent at LismuUen, County Meath, by 

Alicia De la Corner. 

1241. Foundation of a convent at Athlone by Cathal O'Connor. 
Foundation of the Dominican friary at Athenry by Meyler 

De Bermingham. 
1244. Foundation of the Dominican friary at Coleraine by the 

1252. Foundation of the Dominican friary at Sligo by Maurice 


1253. Foundation of the Dominican friary of St. Mary, Eoscom- 

mon, by Felim O 'Connor. 
Foundation of the Dominican friary at Athy by the Hogans. 
Foundation of a monastery at Limerick by O 'Brien. 
Foundation of Hacket 's Abbey, Cashel, by William Hacket. 
Foundation of the Gray friary, Dundalk, by De Verdon. 
Foundation of the Franciscan friary at Ardfert by Thomas, 
Lord of Kerry. 

1257. Foundation of a monastery at Athy by the Hogans. 

1258. *The Provisions of Oxford. 

1259. Kising of the McCarthys of Desmond. 
Massacre of the Geraldines. 

Foundation of monastery of Holy Trinity, Dublin, by the 

1260. Foundation of the Gray Abbey at Kildare by De Vesci. 

1263. Foundation of the abbey of St. Mary Trim by Geoffrey De 

Foundation of a monastery at Armagh by Archbishop 

1264. Foundation of a monastery at Arklow by Theobald Fitz- 

*Battle of Lewes. 
Contest between the Geraldines and the De Burghs. 

1265. *Battle of Evesham. 

1268. Foundation of a monastery at Eossibercan, Kilkenny, by 

the Graces and Walshes. 
Foundation of a monastery at Youghal by the Baron of 

1269. Foundation of a monastery at Leighlin Bridge by the 



Foundation of a monastery at Lorrah, Tipperary, by Walter 
De Burgh. 

Edward I., 1272-1307. 
1272. The Irish petition for the extension to them of the English 
Foundation of Hore Abbey, Cashel, by Archbishop Mc- 
1274. Foundation of the abbey of Eathbran, Mayo, by the 

1277. De Clare invades Thomond. 
1280. Feuds between the Geraldines and De Burghs. 

1290. Quarrel between De Vesci and the Baron of Offaly, 
Foundation of a monastery at Clare-Galway by John De 

Foundation of a monastery at Buttevant by David Oge 

Foundation of a monastery at Galbally, Limerick, by 

O 'Brien. 
Foundation of a monastery at Ross, Wexford, by Sir John 

Foundation of a monastery at Clonmines by the McMur- 

Foundation of a monastery at Dungarvan by John Fitz- 

Thomas Fitzgerald. 
Foundation of the Carmelite convent at Dublin by Sir 

Richard Bagot. 
Foundation of the Carmelite convent at Ardee by Ralph 


1291. Foundation of a Dominican friary at Kilmallock by Gilbert 

1296. Foundation of the Franciscan friary at Galway by Sir 
William De Burgh. 
*Battle of Dunbar. 
1298. *Battle of Falkirk. 

1300. Foundation of a monastery at Cavan by O'Reilly. 
1302. Foundation of a Franciscan friary at Castle-Dermot by 
Lord Oflfaly. 

Edward II., 1307-1327. 

1307. Foundation of the Gray friary at Castle Lyons, Cork, by 

John De Barry. 

1308. Piers Gaveston lord-lieutenant. 

1312, Foundation of monastery at Tullow, Carlow, by Simon 
Lombard and Hugh Tallon. 

1314. Robert Bruce takes refuge in Ireland. 
*Battle of Bannockburn. 

1315. Foundation of an Augustinian friary at Adare, Limerick, 

by Earl of Kildare. 
Edward Bruce lands at Carrickfergus. 
Rising of the Ulster Irish and the discontented English 

of Meath. 


Bruce 's success. Rising in Connaught. 
Bruce is crowned at Dundalk. 

1316. Battle of Athenry. 
Arrival of Eobert Bruce. 

He advances to Dublin. Famine. 
He retires into Scotland. 

1317. Foundation of a Carmelite convent at Athboy by William 

de Londres. 

1318. Battle of Dundalk. Death of Edward Bruce. 

1320. Foundation of a monastery at Bantry by O 'Sullivan. 

A university at Dublin projected by Archbishop Bicknor. 
Edward III., 1327-1377. 
1327. Civil war between the De Burghs and the Butlers and the 
Fitzgeralds of Desmond. 
Eising of the McMurroughs. 

1329. Unsuccessful petition by the Irish for recognition by Eng- 

lish law. 
Eisings in Thomond, Westmeath, and the south. 

1330. Maurice Fitz-Thomas Fitzgerald created Earl of Desmond 

and granted the palatinate of Kerry. 
He renders assistance to the lords justices against the Irish. 
Eisings in Leinster. 

1331. Arrest of Desmond, De Birmingham, and Mandeville. 
1333. Murder of the Earl of Ulster. 

Partition of his estates. 
1336. Eelease of the Earl of Desmond. 

1338. *Beginning of the war with France. 

1339. Eisings in Munster subdued by Desmond. 

1341. The king proposes to resume the estates of the great land- 


1342. Parliament summoned to meet at Dublin. 
Convention held at Kilkenny. 

Petition to the king, who gives way. 
1344. Sir Ealph Ufford seizes some of Desmond's estates. 

Desmond surrenders, and is bailed. 

Kildare is arrested. 
1346. *Battle of Crecy. 

'Surrender of Calais. 

1348. Kildare and Desmond pardoned. 

1349. The black death. 

1356. Foundation of a friary at Knocktopher by James, second 

Earl of Ormonde. 
1361. Lionel, Duke of Clarence, lord lieutenant. 

Eising in Munster. 
1367. Statute of Kilkenny. 
1369. Eisings in Wicklow and Limerick. 

Eiehard IL, 1377-1399. 
1379. Ordinance against absentees. 

1385. Eobert De Vere, the king's favorite, made Marquis of Dub- 
lin and Duke of Ireland. 


1387. The king comes of age. 

1392. Rising of Art McMurrough in Leinster. 

1394. Eichard II. lands at Waterford. 
Submission of the chieftains. 

1395. Eichard at Dublin. Eeforms the judicial bench. Eeturns 

to England, leaving the Earl of March lord lieutenant. 
Eising of McMurrough and the 'Byrnes of Wicklow. 
Defeat and death of the Earl of March. 

1399. Eichard 's second expedition to Ireland. 
*Landing of Bolingbroke at Eaveuspur. 

The king embarks for Milford Haven. 
Henry IV., 1399-1413. 

1400. Immigration of Scots into Antrim. 

Foundation of an abbey at Longford by O'Farrell. 

1401. Eisings in Wicklow. 

Henry V., 1413-1422. 
1413. Fresh struggles between the English and the natives. 
1415. *War with France. 

An Irish contingent with the king in Normandy. 
*Battle of Agincourt. 
1418. Art McMurrough captured. 
1421. Eisings in Leix. 

Henry VI., 1422-1461. 
1433. Wars between the 'Neils and O'Donnels. 

1438. Statutes against absentees. 

The sixth Earl of Desmond marries Catharine McCormac, and 
is expelled from his estates by his uncle. 

1439. Fitzstephen 's moiety of the kingdom of Cork granted to the 

Seventh Earl of Desmond. 

1449. Eichard, Duke of York, lord lieutenant. 

1450. Eisings in Westmeath. 

1454. *Duke of York appointed protector. 

1455. *First battle of St. Albans. 

1459. *The fight at Blore Heath. 

*The panic at Ludlow and flight of the Yorkists. 
Duke of York takes refuge in Ireland. 

1460. *Battle of Wakefield. 
♦Battle of Towton. 

Foundation of New Abbey, Naas, by Sir Eowland Eustace. 
Foundation of the Franciscan friary, Enniscorthy, by Donald 

Edward IV., 1461-1483. 

1461. The eighth Earl of Desmond founds the College of Youghal. 
1465. Foundation of a monastery at Glenarm, Co. Antrim, by Robert 

Foundation of a Franciscan monastery at Kilerea, County 
Cork, by McCarthy Mor. 
1467. The Earl of Desmond is charged with treason, and executed. 
J472. Institution of the Brotherhood of St. George. 


1478. Gerald, eighth Earl of Kildare, lord deputy for fourteen 

Edward V., 1483. 
Eichard III., 1483-1485. 
1484. Foundation of the Augustinian friary at Naas. 
Henry VII., 1485-1509. 

1487. Lambert Simnel crowned in Dublin. 
Kildare suspected of treason. 
Battle of Stoke. 

1488. Kildare is pardoned. 

1489. Fighting in Desmond. 
Fighting in Ulster. 

1490. Perkin Warbeek arrives in Cork. 
1492. Fall of Kildare. 

1494. Sir Edward Poynings lord deputy. 
Crushes the adherents of Warbeek, 
Parliament at Drogheda, Poyning's Act. 

1496. Arrest of Kildare. 

He is pardoned and made lord deputy, and governs Ireland 
tiU 1513. 

1497. Warbeek again in Ireland. 

Fighting betwen the natives and the Bourkes of Connaught. 
Battle of Knocktow. 

Henry VIII., 1509-1547. 
1513. Death of Kildare. His son is elected lord justice in his room. 

1515. *Wolsey created a cardinal and made lord chancellor. 

1516. Feuds in Desmond. 

Feuds in the Ormonde family. 

Feuds between Ormonde and Kildare, and Ormonde and Des- 

1519. Kildare summoned to London. 

*He marries a daughter of the Marquis of Dorset. 

1520. *He is present at the Field of the Cloth of Gold. 

1521. Eisings in Leix and Offaly. 

1523. Kildare returns. 

*Wolsey begins a visitation of the English monasteries. 

1524. Desmond holds a treasonable correspondence with Francis I. 

of France. 
Kildare lord deputy. He is ordered to arrest Desmond, and 
fails to do so. 

1526. Kildare again summoned to England, and lodged in the Tower. 
He is released on bail. 

1527. *Henry raises the question of divorce. 

1528. Eising of O 'Connor of Offaly. 

He captures Lord Delvin, the lord deputy. 

1529. Desmond's treasonable correspondence with Charles V. 
His death. 

*Fall of Wolsey. 

1530. Kildare sent back to suppress 'Connor 's rising. 


1531. *The "submission" of the clergy in England. 

1532. *Henry marries Anne Boleyn, 

Kildare made lord deputy. 

He makes a treaty with O'Connor and O 'Carrol. 

1534. He is summoned to England, and lodged in the Tower. 
His son, Lord Thomas, rebels. Besieges Dublin Castle. 

*Kildare dies in the Tower. 

1535. Skeffington captures Maynooth. 

Flight of Lord Thomas. Submission of O'Connor. 

Lord Thomas surrenders. 
*Act of Supremacy (English). 
*Thomas Cromwell appointed vicar-general. 

1536. Lord Leonard Gray lord deputy. 
*Suppression of the lesser monasteries (English). 

1537. Lord Thomas Fitzgerald and his five uncles executed. 
Lord Leonard Gray's campaign in Limerick. 

He destroys O'Brien's Bridge. 

The supremacy supported in Ireland by Archbishop Brown, 

and opposed by Archbishop Cromer. 
The proctors are expelled from Parliament. 
Act of Supremacy (Irish). 
Act for Suppression of Eeligious Houses (Irish). 

1538. Destruction of relics, etc. 

1539. ^Dissolution of the greater monasteries (English). 
*Law of the Six Articles. 

Lord Leonard Gray's expedition into Ulster. 

Battle of Belahoe. 

His campaign in Munster. 

Commission for the suppression of religious houses. 

1540. Sir Anthony St. Leger negotiates with the chieftains. 
Submission of the Irish chieftains and Anglo-Irish lords. 
Distribution of Church lands. 

1541. Title of King of Ireland conferred on Henry. 

1542. Submission of O'Neil and O'Donnel. 

1544. *Irish contingent present at the siege of Boulogne. 
General peace in Ireland. 

Edward VI., 1547-1553. 

1547. *Duke of Somerset Protector. 

Disturbances in Leix and Offaly. 

1548. O 'Moore and O'Connor sent to England as prisoners. 

Civil war betwen the chieftains and the Tanists in Tyrone. 
Tyrconnel, and Clanricarde. 

1549. *First Prayer-book of Edward VI. 

1551. Introduction of the new liturgy. 

Conference with the clergy in St. Mary's Abbey. 
Pillage of Clonmacnoise. 

1552. Arrest of the Earl of Tyrone (Con Mor). 

War between the Baron of Dungannon and Shane O'Neil. 
*Second Prayer-book of Edward VI. 


Mary, 1553-1558. 
1553. Archbishop Dawdal recalled. 

Dismissal of the Conforming bishops. 
Operations against Leix and Offaly. 
Restoration of the young Earl of Kildare. 

1555. Fighting in Thomond for the succession. 
Continued immigrations of Scots into Antrim. 

1556. Act in explanation of Poyning's Act. 

1558. Death of the Baron of Dungannon. 
Reduction and Plantation of Leix and Offaly. 

Elizabeth, 1558-1603. 

1559. Death of Con Mor, Earl of Tyrone. 

Shane O'Neil assumes the sovereignty of Ulster. 
Sir Henry Sidney marches against him. 
Negotiations ensue. 

1560. Act of Uniformity (Irish). 
Continued strife in Thomond. 

Shane captures O'Donnel and his wife. 

1561. Sussex is defeated by Shane. 
Plots to secure his murder. 
Shane goes to England. 

Death of second Baron of Dungannon. 
Elizabeth and Shane come to terms. 

1562. Shane returns to Ireland. 

1563. Peace signed between Elizabeth and Shane. 
Shane massacres the Scots of Antrim. 
Struggle between Desmond and Ormonde. 
Desmond is taken prisoner. 

1566. Renewal of the war with Shane. 
Hugh O'Donnel joins the English. 

1567. Shane defeated at Letterkenny. 
Is murdered by the McDonnels. 
Turlnugh Luinagh becomes "the O'Neil." 

Sidney m.akes a progress through IMunster and Connaught. 

He arrests Desmond, and his brother, Sir John, and the sons 
of the Earl of Clanriearde. 
*Murder of Darnley; Mary, Queen of Scots marries Bothwell. 
*She is compelled to abdicate. 

1568. *She takes refuge in England. 

Scheme for planting Desmond. 

Sir Peter Carew claims estates in Cork and Carlow. 
*Insurrection in the Netherlands begins. 
Rising of Sir James Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald ; Lord Clancarty ; 

and Sir Edmund, Sir Piers, and Sir Edward Butler in Mun- 


1569. Attainder of O'Neil and confiscation of his Ulster territory. 
Ormonde detaches his brothers from the Munster insurgents. 
Sir Edward Fitton President of Connaught. 

1570. Rising of the Bourkes. 

Sir James Fitzmaurice captures Kilmallock. 


Ormonde reduces Munster. 

*Pope Pius V. releases Elizabeth's subjects from their alle- 
Sir Thomas Smith endeavors to make a plantation in Down. 

1571. Sir John Perrot hunts Fitzmaurice into the Vale of Aherlow. 

1572. Clanriearde is liberated and Connaught pacified. 
Surrender of Sir James Fitzmaurice. 

*Massacre of St. Bartholomew. 

1573. Walter Devereux, Earl of Essex, obtains a grant of territory 

in Ulster, and endeavors to make a plantation, 

1574. Massacre of Eathlin Island. 

Escape of the Earl of Desmond from Dublin. 

1575. *The Netherlanders offer the sovereignty to Elizabeth. 

1576. Death of Essex. 

Sir William Drury President of Munster, 
Sir Nicholas INIalley President of Connaught. 
3577. Sidney levies illegal taxes on the Pale. 
Kem«nstranee of the loyal English. 
Eory 'Moore, the outlaw, in Leix and Kildare. 
Massacre of Mullaghmast. 

1579. Sir James Fitzmaurice lands at Smerwick, 
Eising of the southern Geraldines. 
Death of Sir James Fitzmaurice, 
Successes of the rebels. 

Death of Sir William Drury. 
Desmond joins the rebels. 
Youghal is burned. 

1580. *Campion and Parsons, the Jesuits, in England. 

Campaign of Ormonde and Sir William Pelham in Munster. 

Eisings in Wicklow. 

Lord Gray de Wilton defeated at Glenmalure. 

The Spaniards land at Smerwick. 

Lord Gray's campaign in Munster. 

Massacre of the Spaniards, 

Eisings in the Pale. 

Executions in Dublin. 

1581. Death of Dr. Saunders, the Pope's legate. 

1582. Death of Sir John and Sir James of Desmond, 
Suppression of the Munster rebellion. 

1583. Death of Desmond. 

1585. *Treaty between Elizabeth and the Netherlanders, 

1586. Attainder of the Munster rebels and confiscation of their es- 

Plantation of Munster, 
Seizure of Bed Hugh. 

1587. *Exeeution of Mary Queen of Scots. 

1588. *Destruction of the Spanish Armada. 

Arrest of Sir John 'Dogherty and Sir Owen McToole. 

1589. Confiscation of Monaghan. 
1591. Tyrone marries Bagnal's sister. 


1592. Escape of Eed Hugh. 

3595. Confederation of the Ulster chieftains. 

Death of Turlough Luinagh. Tyrone assumes the title of the 

1597. Fighting on the Blackwater. 
Anarchy in Connaught. 
Death of Lord Burgh. 

1598. Blockade of the Blackwater fort. 
Battle of the Yellow Ford. 

General rising. The Sugan Earl in Munster. 

1599. Lord Essex arrives with a large army. 
His campaign in Munster. 
Concludes a truce with Tyrone. 

Is recalled. 

1600. Mountjoy lord deputy. He reforms the army. 
Sir George Carew President of Munster. 

Sir Henry Docra occupies Derry. 

1601. Capture of the Sugan Earl. 
Arrival of the Spaniards at Kinsale. 
Battle of Kinsale. 

1602. Flight of O 'Donnel. 
Carew reduces Munster. 

Famine brought on by the wholesale destruction of the crops. 

1603. Tyrone surrenders. 
Death of Elizabeth. 

James I., 1600-1625. 
1603. The Popish clergy ordered to leave Ireland. 

*Peace concluded with Spain. 
1605. Abolition of the laws of Tanistry and gavelkind. 

*The Gunpowder Plot. 

1607. Flight of Tyrone and Tyrconnel. 

1608. Rising of Sir Cahir O'Dogherty. 
Confiscation of six counties in Ulster. 

1610. Abolition of the Brehon law. 

1611. Persecution of Roman Catholics. 
The plantation of Ulster. 
Creation of the order of baronets. 

1612. The plantation of Wexford. 

1613. Parliament summ.oned. Creation of boroughs. 

1614. Attainder of Tyrone and the Ulster chieftains. 
Repeal of the old statutes against the Irish. 

Iftl9. Plantation of Longford and Ely O 'Carroll. 

Plantation of Westmeath. 
1622. Plantation of Leitrim and parts of King's and Queen's coun- 
1624. *War declared with Spain. 

Transplantation of native septs to Kerry. 

Confiscations in Wicklow. 

Projected planting of Connaught. 


Charles I., 1625-1649. 
1626. Composition made by the Connaught land-owners. 

"The Graces" promised. 
1628. *The Petition of Right supported by Wentworth and Pym. 
*Wentworth is made president of the north. 
*Charles' third Parliament is dissolved. Sir John Eliot sent 
to the Tower. 
1632-1636. Compilation of the "Annals of Ireland" by the Four 

1633. Wentworth is appointed lord deputy. 
*Laud is made Archbishop of Canterbury. 

1634. Wentworth dragoons the Irish Parliament. 

1635. Commission of "defective titles" in Connaught. 
Sentence on Lord Mountnorris. 

1636. Introduction of the linen manufacture. 

1637. *The Scots resist the new liturgy. 

*Decision of the English Court of Exchequer on ship-money. 

1638. *The Covenanters prepare for war. 

1639. *The pacification of Berwick. 

*The Scottish Parliament abolishes episcopacy and prepares 
for war. 

1640. Wentworth created Earl of Strafford and Lord Lieutenant of 

Augmentation of the Irish army. 
*The Scots invade England. Battle of Newburn. 
*Negotiations at Eipon. 
*The Long Parliament commences sitting. 
*Strafford and Laud impeached. 

1641. *Bill of attainder against Strafford. He is executed. 

Ormonde and Antrim plot to seize the Irish government in 

support of Charles. 
Eory 'Moore's plot to seize the Castle. 
Eising and massacre in Ulster. 
The Eoman Catholic Anglo-Irish join the rebels. 
Siege of Drogheda. 

1642. Eisings in Connaught and Munster. 
*Charle8 raises his standard at Nottingham. 

Arrival of Colonel Owen O 'Neil and Colonel Preston. 
Synod at Kells. 
Battle of Kilrush. 
Confederation of Kilkenny. 
Battle of Edgehill. 
*The king in winter-quarters at Oxford. 

1643. Battle of Eoss. 
Ormonde made a marquis. 

*Battle of Eoundaway Down. 
*Essex relieves Gloucester. 

Cessation agreed upon between Ormonde and the rebels. 
*First battle of Newbury. 
*Parliaraent take the Covenant. 


The war continued on behalf of the Parliament by the Scots 
in Ulster, by Broghill and Inchiquin in the south, and by 
Sir Charles Coote in Sligo. 

1644. Ormonde lord lieutenant. 

*The Irish contingent cut off at Nantwich. 

*Deputations from the two parties in Ireland to the king at 

*Battle of Marston Moor. 
*Seeond battle of Newbury. 
Negotiations with the rebels. 

1645. *Negotiations between the king and the Parliament at Ux- 

Glamorgan despatched by Charles to make terms with the 

*Battle of Naseby. 

Arrival of Kinueini, the Pope's legate. 
Glamorgan concludes a secret treaty. 
Its discovery. Glamorgan is arrested. 

1646. He is liberated. 

Divisions among the Confederates. 

A treaty signed between Ormonde and the Confederates. 
*Charles surrenders to the Scots. 
Battle of Benburb. 
Einueini and Owen Koe seize the government at Kilkenny. 

1647. *Presbyterianism established in England. 
*Confliet between the Parliament and the army. 
*The king seized at Holmby. 

Ormonde surrenders Dublin to the Parliament. 
Battle of Dungan Hill. 
Inchiquin takes Cashel. 
Battle of Knocknanoss. 

1648. Inchiquin deserts to the Confederates. 
Kinueini takes refuge with Owen Roe's army. 
Strife among the Confederates. 

*Eoyalist risings in Kent, Essex, and South Wales. 
Eeturn of Ormonde. 
Eupert and his fleet arrive at Kinsale. 
*The Scottish army invades England, and is defeated at Preston 

and Wigan. 
*Colonel Pride expels the Presbyterian majority from the 
House of Commons. 

1649. Peace published between the king and the Confederates. 
*Death of the king. 

The Eepublic, 1649-1653. 
1649. Prince Charles proclaimed at Cork, 
Flight of Einueini. 
Ormonde besieges Dublin. 
Battle of Eathmines. 
Arrival of Cromwell. 
Capture of Drogheda. 


Capture of Wexford. 

Death of Owen Eoe. 

Campaign in the South. 

Kevolt of the southern garrisons to Parliament. 

1650. Capture of Kilkenny and Clonmel, 
Cromwell returns to England. 

*Battle of Dunbar. 
Surrender of Waterford. 
Flight of Ormonde and Inchiquin. 

1651. Capture of Athlone. 
Capture of Limerick. 

*Battle of Worcester. 
Death of Ireton. 

1652. Surrender of Galway. 

*Act for the Settlement of Ireland. 

Survey of Ireland. 

Banishment of the Irish soldiery. 
*Conflict between the army and the Eump. 

1653. Transplantation of the Irish beyond the Shannon. 

* Cromwell expels the Rump. 

The Protectorate, 1653-1660. 

1653. *The "Barebones Parliament." 

1654. The plantation of Ireland continues. 

*The first Protectorate Parliament. Thirty members sit repre- 
senting Ireland. 

1655. *Cromwell divides England into eleven military districts. 

1656. *The second Protectorate Parliament. 

Henry Cromwell lord lieutenant. 

1658. *The third Protectorate Parliament. 

*Death of Cromwell. He is succeeded by Eichard Cromwell. 

1659. *The Eump restored by the army. 
*Lambert ejects the Eump. 
*Monk marches from Scotland. 

1660. *He declares for a "free Parliament." 

Coote and Broghill seize the commissioners in Dublin Castle. 

* Charles issues the Declaration of Breda. 

Charles II., 1660-1685. 

1660. Ee-establishment of the Church. 

The king 's declaration for the settlement of Ireland. 

1661. *Corporation Act. 

1662. *Act of Uniformity. 

Act of Settlement. 

1663. Court of Claims opens in Dublin. 
Blood 's plot. 

*Ireland excluded from the Navigation Act. 

1664. *The Conventicle Act. 

1665. Act of Explanation. 
*The Five Mile Act. 

1666. *The Fire of London. 


*Prohibition of export to England of Irish cattle and pro- 
1667. *The Cabal Ministry. 

1670. Toleration of Eoman Catholics. 
*Secret Treaty of Dover. 

1671. Petition to review the Act of Settlement. 

1672. *Declaration of Indulgence. 

1673. *The English Parliament contemns the Irish petition. 

1678. The Popish plot. 

Arrest of Archbishop Talbot. 

1679. Arrest of Archbishop Plunket. 
1681. *Execution of Plunket. 

1685. Eichard Talbot made lieutenant-general. 

James II., 1685-1691. 
1685. Reconstruction of the army. 
*Insurrection of Monmouth. 

1687. Eeconstruction of the corporations. 
Tyrconnel lord lieutenant. 
Persecution of Trinity College, Dublin. 

1688. *Acquittal of the seven bishops. 

Flight of Protestants to England. 
*\Villiam lands at Torbay. 
*FIight of James. 

Closing of the gates of Derry and Enniskillen. 

1689. Tyrconnel raises regiments for James. 
*War is declared against France, 

William proclaimed at Derry. 

Siege of Derry and Enniskillen. 

James lands at Cork. 

Holds a Parliament at Dublin. 

Siege of Derry raised. 

Battle of Newtovrn Butler. 

Arrival of Schomberg, 

He is besieged at Dundalk. 

1690. Charlemont captured. 
William lands at Carriekfergus. 

*Battle of Beachy Head. 
Battle of the Boyne. 
Flight of James. 
Abortive siege of Limerick. 
William returns to England. 
Capture of Cork and Kinsale by Marlborough. 

1691. Capture of Athlone. 
Battle of Aughrim. 
Surrender of Galway. 
Second siege of Limerick, 
Articles of Limerick. 

William III., 1691-1702. 

1692. Emigration of Irish Eoman Catholics. 
Exclusion of Eoman Catholics from Parliament. 


The House of Commons resists the initiation of Money 
Bills by the Privy Council. 
*Battle of Steinkirk. 
1693. *Battle of Landen. 

1696. Act for disarming the Eoman Catholics. 
Penal act against foreign education. 
*English act amending the Navigation Act unfavorably to Ire- 

1698. Molyneux's book on the independence of the Irish Parlia- 

Penal act against mixed marriages. 

1699. *William's grants of Irish forfeitures attacked in the English 

House of Commons. 
*English act prohibiting the export of Irish wool. 
Irish act laying prohibitive tariff on the export of wool. 

1700. *The Resumption Act. 

1701. Act disqualifying Eoman Catholic solicitors. 

Anne, 1702-1714. 
1704. Penal act against the Eoman Catholics. 
1706. Increase of Jacobitism. Domination of the High Church 

1708, *Battle of Almanza. 

Further act against Eoman Catholic solicitors. 

1710. Penal act against the Eoman Catholics. 

*Eall of the Whig ministry. Tory administrations of Harley 
and St. John. 

1711. Agrarian disturbances. Ever Joyce. The Houghers. 
Persecution of the Presbyterians. 

Sir Constantine Phipps leader of the Jacobites. 
*Duke of Ormonde made commander-in-chief. 

1713. *Treaty of Utrecht. 

1714. *Fall of the Tory ministry. 

George I., 1714-1727. 

1715. *Flight of the Duke of Ormonde and Bolingbroke. They are 

*Eebellion in Scotland. 

1716. *The Septennial Act. 

1719. Conflict between the English and Irish Houses of Lords. 
*Aet subjecting the Irish to the English legislature. 
Toleration Act. 

1723. Wood's patent granted. 

1724. The Drapier's letters. 
Prosecution of Swift's printer. 

1725. The patent cancelled. 
Potato famine. 

1726. Archbishop Boulter lord justice. 

George II., 1727-1760. 

1727. Act disfranchising the Eoman Catholics. 
Tillage Act. 

1734. Further stringent act against Eoman Catholic solicitors. 


1740. The Kellymount gang outrages. 
1742. Death of Archbishop Boulter. 

1744. Lord Chesterfield lord lieutenant. 

1745. ^Battle of Fontenoy. 

*The young Pretender in Scotland. 

1746. *The battle of Culloden. 

1747. Death of Archbishop Hoadly. 

1748. *Peaee of Aix-la-Chapelle. 

1749. Lucas stands for Dublin. 

Threatened with prosecution, he flies to England. 
Eivalry between Primate Stone and Speaker Boyle. 
Contest in Parliament about the appropriation of surpluses 
1753. Prosecution of Nevill. 

Petition of the Earl of Kildare. 

Death of Morty Oge 'Sullivan, the smuggler. 

1755. Fall of Primate Stone. 

1756. *Comraencement of the Seven Years ' "War. 

Henry Boyle created Earl Shannon. 

1757. Formation of the Eoman Catholic Committee. 

1759. Eiots in Dublin on the rumor of a contemplated union. 

1760. Thurot's descent on Carrickfergus. His defeat and death. 

George III., 1760-1820. 

1761. Insurrection of the Whiteboys. 

1762. Insurrection of the Oakboys. 

1763. Attacks on the pension list. 
*Peace of Paris. 

1764. Eoman CathoUc Eelief Bill thrown out. 

1765. Act to Eegulate the Law of Highways. 
*The Stamp Act for the American colonies. 

1766. Execution of Father Sheehy for Whiteboyism. 
*Eepeal of the Stamp Act. 

1767. Lord Townshend lord lieutenant. 
*Charles Townshend taxes American imports. 

Octennial Act. 

1768. Eising of the Steelboys. 

1769. Contest about the Money Bills. 
Augmentation Bill passed. 

1771. Extensive emigration to America from Ulster. 
Contest about the Money Bills. 

1772. Eesignation of Townshend. 

1773. *The people of Boston throw overboard the imported tea. 

The Irish national debt amounts to £1,000,000. 

1774. *The Constitution of Massachusetts is annulled 

1775. Continuation of the Whiteboy outrages. 
Irish troops are sent to America. 

*Eatt]e of Lexington. 
Increase of the debt and of the pension list. 
Flood is made a vice-treasurer. 

1776. The embargo. 

*Declaration of American Independence. 


1777. *The English occupy PhiladelpLia. 
*The surrender at Saratoga. 

1778. *Franee recognizes the independence of the American colonies. 

First Eoman Catholic Belief Bill passed. 

1779. Agitation in favor of freedom of trade. 

*Efforts in the English Parliament to open Irish trade. 

Formation of the volunteers. 
*Spain declares war against England. 

1780. *Freedom of trade granted to Ireland. 
*War declared against Holland. 

1781. Agitation for legislative independence. 
The Perpetual Mutiny Bill passed. 

*Surrender of Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown. 

1782. Further Eoman Catholic Eelief Act. 
Meeting of the volunteers at Dungannon. 

*Eesignation of Lord North. 
*Eepeal of 6 Geo. I, 

Amendment of Poyning's Act. 

Habeas Corpus Act. 
*Death of Lord Eockingham. 

1783. *Declaratory Act. 
*Peace of Versailles. 

*Coalition Ministry formed between Fox and Lord North. 

Agitation for parliamentary reform. 

The Volunteer National Convention. 

Eejection of Flood's Eeform Bill. 
*Fall of the Coalition Ministry. 

Pitt becomes prime minister. 

1784. Eise of the Peep-o'-day Boys and Defenders. 

1785. Orde's commercial resolutions. 

*Jealous opposition of the English manufacturers. 
Orde's Bill abandoned. 
Agitation for reform. 

1786. Eightboy disturbances. 
Dublin Police Act passed. 

1787. Growth of the Eightboy disturbances. 
Debates on the tithe question. 

1788. Increase of Defenderism. 

*The king's illness becomes serious. 

*The Eegency question in the English Parliament. 

1789. The Eegency question in the Irish Parliament. 
*The king recovers. 

*Meeting of the Estates-General at Versailles. 
*Storming of the Bastille. 

1790. *Fox sympathizes with the French Eevolution. which produces 

a break between him and Burke. 

1791. Agitation for Eoman Catholic emancipation. 

* Louis XVI. escapes and is captured at Varennes. 
Formation of the Society of the United Irishmen. 


1792. Eoman Catholic Belief Act. 

Accidental burning of the House of Commons. 
*Austria and Prussia invade France. 
*They are forced to retire from Valmy. 
*Battle of Jemappes. 

Meeting of the Eoman Catholic Convention. 

1793. Petition of the Eoman Catholics presented to the king. 
Increase of Defenderism. 

*Execution of Louis XVI. 

*War declared by France against England. 

Further Eoman Catholic Belief Act. 

Convention Act. 

Gunpowder Act. 

Ponsonby's motion on reform rejected. 

Activity of the United Irishmen. 

Secret committee of the House of Lords to inquire into the 
disturbed state of the country. 

Flight of Napper Tandy. 

1794. Prosecution of Hamilton Eowan and imprisonment of Simon 

Butler and Oliver Bond. 
*The Duke of Portland and some of the old Whigs join the 
Arrest of Jackson. 
Suppression of the United Irishmen. 
The society is reconstructed as a secret association. 

1795. Arrival of Lord Fitzwilliam as Viceroy. 

Grattan's bill for complete emancipation of the Eoman Cath- 

Eeeall of Lord Fitzwilliam. 

Trial and death of Jackson. 

Eejection of Grattan's Bill. 

Tone goes to America. 

Battle of the Diamond. 

Formation of Orange lodges. 
*Spain declares war against England. 
*Establishment of the French Directory. 

1796. The Insurrection Act. 
*Tone at Paris. 

*Fitzgerald and O'Connor at Basle. 
Extension of the United Irishmen to Leinster. 
French expedition to Bantry. 

1797. Arthur O'Connor is arrested, and released on bail. 

*Lord Moira attacks the government in the English House of 

Martial law in Ulster. 

Grattan's Eeform Bill rejected. 

Secession of the opposition. 

Increase of the United Irishmen. 
*Mutiny at the Nore and Spithead. 
*Battle of Camperdown. 







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Execution of Orr. 
*Lord Moira again attacks the government in the English House 

of Lords. 
Grattan retires from public life. 

1798. Sir Kalph Abercrombie succeeds Lord Carhampton as com- 

mander-in-chief in Ireland. 
He resigns his command. 
Martial law in Leinster. 
*0 'Connor is arrested at Margate. 
Mar. 11. Arrest of the executive committee of the United Irishmen 
at Oliver Bond's. 

Arrest of Lord Edward Fitzgerald. 
Eisings round Dublin and in Kildare and Carlow. 
Eisings in Wicklow. 
Eisings in Wexford. 
Battle of New Boss. 
Eisings in Down and Antrim. ♦ 

Battle of Arklow. 
Capture of Vinegar Hill. 
The French at Killala. 
Battle of Castlebar. 
Battle of Ballinamuck. 

French expedition to Lough Swilly. Capture of Tone. 
Proposal of the Union. 

1799. Opposition to thd Union. 
Defeat of the government. 

*The English Parliament agrees to Pitt's resolutions on the 

1800. Last session of the Irish Parliament was opened on the loth 

of January and olosed on the 2nd of April; August 14 
the royal assent was given to the Act of Union. 

1801. January 1st, the Act of Union between England and Ireland 

came into operation. 

1802. January 10, Father O'Leary died. January 28, Lord Clare 


1803. February 21, Colonel Despard executed. July 23rd, Em- 

met's insurrection. September 20th, Eobert Emmet 
hanged. William Smith O'Brien born, October 17th. 
December 10th, Gerald Griffin born. 

1806. James Barry, the painter, died. November 28th, Bedford 
Asylum for poor children founded by the Duke of Bed- 
ford, in Brunswick Street, Dublin. 

1808. Irish bishops resolve against the veto. 

1811. February 12th, proclamation to put down Catholic Commit- 

tee. Daniel Maclise, the artist, born, in Cork, January 

1812. "August 19th, the British frigate Guerriere surrenders to 

the United States frigate Constitution. October 25th, 
the British frigate Macedonian surrenders to Commodore 



Decatur. December 26th, capture of the British frigate 
Java by the United States frigate Constitution. 
1813. In February, Grattan's motion in the House of Commons 
to take into consideration the laws affecting Catholics. 

1816. July 17th, Eichard Brinsley Sheridan died. September 

13th, steam packets first sailed from Dublin. 

1817. January 5th, English and Irish exchequers consolidated. 

1819. March 9th, Grattan, in the English House of Commons, 

moved for a committee of the whole house on the Catho- 
lic question. July 13th, first steam vessels arrived at 
Cork from America. 

1820. February 5th, Dr. Drennan, poet of the United Irishmen, 

author of ' ' The Wake of William Orr, ' ' etc., died. May 
14th, Henry Grattan died. 

1821. George IV. visited Ireland in August. 

1822. Orange riot in the Theatre Koyal, Dublin. Attack on the 

1825. Dublin lighted with gas. 

1827. *Thomas Addis Emmet died in New York City. 

1828. O'Connell declared elected for Clare. 

1829. J. J. Callanan, the poet, died. February 4th, bill for the 

suppression of the Catholic Association received royal 
assent. March 5th, act for the suppression of the Catho- 
lic Association passed both houses. March 10th, Emanci- 
pation bill read first time in House of Commons. In 
April the Emancipation bill received royal assent. May 
15th, O'Connell entered the House of Commons, and 
refused to take the oaths. First stone of the Jesuit 
Church laid in Dublin. 

1830. December 29th, Volunteer Society and Anti-Union Society 

suppressed by proclamation. 

1831. True bills under the Algerine act found against O'Connell 

for alleged illegal meetings in Dublin. Dr. Whately, sup- 
porter of Irish National School System, becomes Anglican 
Archbishop of Dublin. 

1832. Irish Eeform bill passed. 

1834. Eepeal question introduced into the House of Commons by 
O'Connell. December 17th, Dublin and Kingstown rail- 
way, the first in Ireland, opened for trafiic. 

1836. August 18th, Eeynolds, the '98 informer, died. 

1837. On January 2nd, an explosion of gunpowder killed many 

people in Limerick. 

1838. Poor laws introduced. 

1839. January 7th, a destructive tempest visited Limerick, when 

the river Shannon overflowed and burst its banks, and 
laid all the lowlands under about 15 feet of water in 
Pallaskenry, and on both sides of the river Maigue. 

1840. Gerald Griffin died June 12th. Eepeal Association founded. 

1841. September 25th, first election of reformed municipal coun- 

cil of Dublin. Daniel O'Connell elected lord mayor. 


1842. First number of the Dublin Nation published. 

1843. Monster meeting at Mullaghmast. Eepeal banquet to 

O'Connell and other leading Eepealers at Newcastle, 
County Limerick. Monster meeting at the Curragh; 
70,000 people present. Monster Repeal meeting at Trim; 
20,000 people present. Monster Eepeal meeting at 
Clones; 50,000 people present. Eepeal meeting at Charle- 
ville; 300,000 people present. Eepeal meeting at Cork; 
500,000 people present. Great monster meeting near 
Thurles, County Tipperary. June 4th, monster meeting 
at Drogheda. June 8th, monster meeting at Kilkenny. 
June 15th, monster meeting at Clare. Monster meeting 
at Mallow. June 25th, monster meeting at Galway. 
October 7th, monster Eepeal meeting at Clontarf sup- 
pressed. Conciliation Hall opened, and the adhesion of 
William Smith O 'Brien announced. October 8th, great 
display of military force at Clontarf to effect the mas- 
sacre plotted by the government. The people saved by 
the exertions of the Eepeal leaders in preventing their 
arrival on the ground. October 14th, informations sworn 
against O'Connell, Duffy, and others. November, the 
Eepeal trials begun. 

1844. Formation of Cork City Eepeal Club. January 15th, trial 

of O'Connell and other Repealers in Dublin. They are 
found guilty. September 4th, sentence against Eepeal 
state prisoners reversed in the House of Lords. Septem- 
ber 5th, O'Connell and Eepeal prisoners liberated. 
O 'Connell presented a petition against the Union in the 
House of Commons. December 18th, appointment of new 
commissioners of charitable bequests. Eank of the Catho- 
lic bishops recognized. 

1845. Thomas Davis died September 16th. September 23rd, Irish 

National Educational Society incorporated. Failure of 
the potato crop and beginning of the Great Famine 

1846. April 30th, committal of William Smith O'Brien to the 

custody of the sergeant-at-arms for contempt in not obey- 
ing an order of the House of Commons to attend a com- 
mittee. July 29th, William Smith O 'Brien and the Young 
Ireland party secede from the Repeal Association. Au- 
gust 6th, the population of Ireland at this time was over 

1847. January 13th, opening of the Irish Confederation, composed 

of secessionists from the Repeal Association. February 
8th, O 'Council's last speech in the House of Commons. 
Failure of the potato crop throughout Ireland (1847-48). 
March 28th, the American ship-of-war Jamestown sailed 
from Boston with provisions for the starving Irish. May 
15th, Daniel O'Connell died at Genoa on his way to 


Eome. August 5th, his remains were entombed at Glas- 
nevin. Fearful famine in Ireland. 

1848. Numerous deaths from starvation in Ireland reported an 

everyday occurrence. Treason Felony bill introduced. 
April 3rd, deputation from the Irish people — Smith 
O'Brien, Meagher, O 'Gorman, and others — to Lamartine 
and other members of the provincial government at Paris. 
April 4th, great meeting of Young Irelanders at Dub- 
lin. May 13th, arrest of Mitchel, editor of the United 
Irishman. May 26th, Mitchel found guilty and sen- 
tenced to transportation for 14 years. July 8th, arrest 
of Charles Gavan Duffy, Martin, Meagher, Doheney, and 
others, for felonious writings and speeches. July 26th, 
confederate clubs prohibited. The Habeas Corpus act 
suspended. July 29th, revolt of Smith O'Brien sup- 
pressed. August 5th, arrest of Smith O'Brien at 
Thurles. He is conveyed to Kilmainham jail, Dublin. 
August 12th, arrest of Meagher, O'Donoghue, and others. 
August 14th, Martin sentenced to transportation. Oc- 
tober 9th, Smith O'Brien, Meagher, and the other con- 
federates tried and sentenced to death. Encumbered 
Estates act passed in November. 

1849. January 16th, the Irish court of Queen's Bench gives judg- 

ment on writs of error sued out by the prisoners con- 
victed of high treason, and confirms the judgment of 
the court below. July 9th, O 'Brien, Meagher, MacManus, 
and O'Donoghue transported. Bishop Maginn died in 
January. February 7th, Charles Gavan Duffy tried for 
high treason. April 14th, Duffy released on bail. July 
12th, Orange and Catholic affray at Dolly's Brae. Au- 
gust 5th, Queen Victoria visits Ireland and holds her 
court at Dublin Castle. October 24th, first court under 
the Encumbered Estates act held in Dublin. 

1850. May 5th, great Tenant Eight meeting at Millstreet. August 

15th, Queen's University in Ireland established. August 
22nd, a synod of the archbishops and bishops of Ireland 
presided over by Archbishop Cullen was held at Thurles. 
It condemned the Queen's College and resolved on found- 
ing a Catholic university. 

1851. May 5th, Catholic University originated and large sums 

subscribed. May 26th, Richard Lalor Shiel died. Eccle- 
siastical Titles bill passed in July. August 1st, Midland 
Great Western railway opened. August 19th, great meet- 
ing in the Eotunda, Dublin, to protest against the Eccle- 
siastical Titles bill. The Irish Tenant League Association 

1852. April 28th, great meeting of Catholics in Dublin to protest 

against the Ecclesiastical Titles bill. May 24th, Meagher 
escapes from Van Diemen's Land and arrives at New 
York. June 1st, electric telegraph laid between Holyhead 


and Dublin. June 10th, Cork National Exhibition. June 
24th, Irish Industrial Exhibition set on foot. Darfau, a 
railway contractor, contributes £26,000 towards it. June 
29th, Dr. Cullen became Catholic Archbishop of Dublin. 
July 3rd, Tenant-Eight demonstrations dispersed by the 
magistrates. February 5th, Charles Gavan Duffy elected 
member for New Eoss. July 14th, fierce religious riots 
in Belfast. July 22nd, fatal election riots at the Six 
Mile bridge. September 2nd, Cork Industrial Exhibition 
closed. September 10th, Irish members of parliament 
founded a religious equality association. September 16th, 
Thomas Moore died. December 27th, great storm in 
Dublin, which levelled several houses, tore up trees, and 
did considerable damage to house property in the city 
and suburbs. 

1853. Income tax extended to Ireland in May. May 12th, Dublin 

Exhibition opens. October 5th, dreadful railway acci- 
dent near Dublin. August 29th, Queen Victoria, Prince 
Albert, and the Prince of Wales, arrive to see the Dublin 
Exhibition. October 4th, Tenant-Eight League confer- 
ence. October 31st, Dublin Exhibition closed. 

1854. January 5th, Lord Plunket, the famous lawyer and opponent 

of the Legislative Union, died. September 15th, trains 
wilfully upset after an Orange demonstration at London- 
derry; one person killed and many hurt. 

1855. February 11th, Tenant-Eight meeting in Clare. June 15th, 

Dr. Doyle died. Donnybrook Fair abolished. 

1856. February 16th, John Sadlier, the destroyer of the Irish 

Parliamentary party, poisoned himself on Hampstead 
Heath, London. 

1857. February 18th, new writ ordered for Tipperary, in the room 

of James Sadlier, expelled the House of Commons. Ee- 
ligious riots at Belfast in September. 

1858. March 27th, John Hogan, the sculptor, died. Proclamation 

against secret societies issued by the Earl of Eglinton, 
Viceroy of Ireland. Father Mathew, the Apostle of 
Temperance, died. Tenant League meeting and banquet 
at Mallow. August 6th, first Atlantic cable laid between 
Ireland and Newfoundland. August 17th, Dr. Crane, of 
Kilkenny, died. August 25th, consecration of new church 
at Ballinasloe by the Catholic Archbishop of Tuam; ser- 
mon by Cardinal Wiseman. September 5th, Cardinal 
Wiseman preached in the Metropolitan Church, Dublin. 
Progress of Cardinal Wiseman in Ireland. In September, 
a packet from Galway reaches North America in six 
days. In December, 16 persons were arrested in Belfast, 
charged with being members of the Phoenix Society, a 
secret revolutionary organization. 

1859. April 14th, Lady Morgan died. Agitation against the Irish 

National School system in September. Eeligious revival 


movement in the North, particularly at Belfast, in 

1860. June 29th, visit of the Prince of Wales. Great emigration 

to America. Many Irishmen enlist in the service of the 
Pope, with Miles O'Reilly as their colonel. In November 
the Irish pontifical brigade, after distinguished service in 
defence of the Papal territories, arrive at Queenstown. 
The remainder, taken prisoners by the Sardinians, are 
released, and return to Dublin, where they receive an 
ovation. October 23rd, agrarian outrages. Alderman 
Sheehy murdered. In December, attempted revival of 
Eepeal agitation. 

1861. April 8th, census of Ireland taken; population, 5,764,543. 

May 23rd, suspension of packet service between Galway 
and America through the company's breach of contract. 
Visit of the queen and prince consort to Ireland in 
August. MacManus' funeral in Dublin, November 10th. 
John O 'Donovan, the celebrated Gaelic scholar and trans- 
lator, died. December 13th, Irish law court commission 

1862. Miles Byrne, the Irish patriot, died in Paris, January 24th. 

July 30th, Professor Eugene O 'Curry, the Irish scholar, 
died. September 17th, an Orange demonstration at Bel- 
fast leads to destructive riots. James Sheridan Knowles 
died December 1st. 

1863. Great emigration of able-bodied laborers from Ireland to 

the United States. Galway packet service restored in 
August by a subsidy of £70,000. Great agricultural dis- 
tress, many murders and outrages. October 18th, death 
of Archbishop Whately, of the Established church. 

1864. The Fenians active at home and in America. June 17th, 

William Smith O 'Brien, the Irish patriot, died, at Bangor, 
Wales. June 23rd, his funeral procession in Dublin. 
August 8th, first stone of the O'Connell monument laid 
in Dublin; great public procession. 

1865. May 9th, opening of the International Exhibition at Dublin 

by the Prince of Wales. June 27th, banquet in Dublin 
to welcome Charles Gavan Duffy. Seizure of the office 
of the Irish People newspaper, and arrest of Fenian 
leaders. O'Connell 's statue erected in Ennis, County 
Clare. General election favorable to the government 
and liberal party in July. August 25th, importation of 
cattle prohibited on account of the plague. Seizure of 
the Irish People newspaper and 30 Fenians. November 
9th, International Exhibition closed. Capture of James 
Stephens, Charles J. Kickham. H. Brophy and Edward 
Duffy at Fairfield House, near Dublin. November 27th, 
opening of the Special Commission in Dublin for trial of 
Fenian prisoners. Escape of James Stephens, Fenian 
"Head-Center," from Eichmond prison, Dublin. Decern- 


ber 1st, Thomas C. Luby, convicted of treason felony, 
and sentenced to 20 years' penal servitude. December 
6th, John O'Leary, editor of the Irish People newspaper, 
sentenced to penal servitude for 20 years. December 
13th, O 'Donovan Eossa sentenced to imprisonment for 

1866. January 11th, discovery of an arms manufactory at Dublin; 

the city and county proclaimed and put under the pro- 
visions of the Peace Preservation act. January 16th, 
county and city of Dublin proclaimed. January 28th, 
reward of £1,000 offered for the arrest of James Stephens, 
Fenian Head-Center. February 2nd, Special Commission 
for trial of Fenian prisoners closed, after conviction of 
36 prisoners and acquittal of three. February 17th, 
Habeas Corpus act suspended. General Denis F. Burke, 
Michael Kerwin, Charles Halpin, and about 150 other 
American officers of various grades, who were in Ireland 
awaiting the rising, arrested under the Habeas Corpus 
Suspension act and thrown into prison. Habeas Corpus 
suspended for Ireland by forced readings in the English 
Parliament. Arrests wholesale, in anticipation in Ire- 
land 16 hours before bill passed. More Fenians arrested 
and convicted at Cork and Dublin. Agitation respect- 
ing Irish Church debates in parliament. May 20th, Kev, 
Francis Mahony (Father Prout) died. The American 
Fenians invaded Canada. June 2nd, battle of Kidgway; 
rout of the ''Queen's Own" Canadian Volunteers by the 
Irish under O 'Neill. Capture of a British flag. President 
Johnson's proclamation against the Fenian invasion of 
Canada. Eeturn of the Irish expedition from Canada. 
Lord Abercorn made lord-lieutenant in July. August 3rd, 
renewal of the Habeas Corpus Suspension act. Septem- 
ber 1st, about 320 suspected Fenians remain in prison. 
October 20th, public demonstration in honor of Cardinal 
Cullen in Dublin. Death of John B. Dillon. December 
16th, great seizure of firearms. Clare and other counties 
proclaimed under Peace Preservation act. Fenian rising 
threatened in Ireland. December 18th, riots in Dun- 
gannon. Capt. Bart Kelly killed. A large number of 
Irish officers, who had served in the American war, in 
Ireland awaiting the rising, most of whom were arrested 
under the Habeas Corpus act. Extensive seizure of 
Fenian arms in Belfast. 

1867. In February William Dargan, the great railroad contractor, 

died. Suspension of Habeas Corpus act. March 12th, 
Fenian rising in Kerry, Tipperary, Limerick, Dublin, and 
elsewhere. March 31st, Peter O'Neill Crowley shot in 
Kilclooney wood. The Fenian rising suppressed and 
arrest of numerous prisoners. April 8th, commission to 
try Fenian prisoners opened in Dublin. Several found 


guilty and sentenced to various terms of imprisonment, 
and a few to death, but their sentence was commuted to 
imprisonment. September 18th, rescue of Kelly and 
Deasy at Manchester. Officer Brett shot. November 
23rd, execution of William P. Allen, Michael O 'Brien, and 
Michael Larkin, for the death of Officer Brett while 
rescuing Deasy and Kelly. December 8th, monster 
Fenian procession in Dublin, in honor of the patriots 
Allen, Larkin, and O'Brien. 

1868. February 6th, great Protestant defense meeting in Dublin. 

March 1st, Habeas Corpus act suspended. Sullivan and 
Pigot convicted for libelous articles in the Nation news- 
paper. March 19th, Irish Eeform bill introduced into 
the House of Commons. Visit of the Prince and Princess 
of Wales to Ireland. May 26th, Michael Barrett hanged 
in London for being concerned in the Clerkenwell 

1869. January 30th, William Carleton, the Irish novelist, died. 

May 15th, O'Connell's remains deposited under the 
Eound Tower in Glasnevin. May 31st, the Irish Church 
Disestablishment bill passed the House by a vote of 361 
to 247. July 26th, the Irish Church bill receives the 
royal assent. November 9th, proclamation issued against 
an amnesty meeting at Cabra. November 25th, O 'Dono- 
van Eossa, though in prison, elected a member for 

1870. May 19th, great Home Eule convention held in Dublin, at 

which the Home Eule League was organized. The meet- 
ing was attended by persons of all religious denomina- 
tions. May 26th, several Fenian raids in Canada. Gen- 
eral O 'Neill arrested by the United States authorities. 
Father McMahon arrested by the English and sentenced 
to death, which sentence was commuted. July 18th, 
Michael Davitt convicted of being a Fenian agent, and 
of supplying arms to the men at home and sentenced to 
15 years' penal servitude. 

1871. January 5th, O 'Donovan Eossa and the other Fenian pris- 

oners released. January 19th, their arrival and reception 
in New York. 

1S75. John Mitchel elected member for Tipperary. His election 
opposed by the government. March 20th, John Mitchel 
died at Newry. March 29th, John Martin died at Newry. 
Charles Kickham, the Irish patriot, poet, and novelist, 
ran for Tipperary, and was beaten by the government 
tactics only by a majority of four. 

1877. Charles Stewart Pamell, a member of the Home Eule 
party, elected for Meath, a vacancy having been caused 
by the death of John Martin. Pamell makes his first 
mark in Parliament in opposition to the Irish Prison 
bill and the Mutiny bill. Wholesale evictions in Ireland. 


General failure of the crops. December 19th, Michael 
Davitt and Charles McCarthy released on ticket-of-leave 
from Dartmoor prison. December 22nd, death of Mc- 
Carthy in Dublin. 

1878. Ireland threatened with another famine. A wet season, 

and a general failure of crops again. The peasantry in 
several parts of Ireland suffering from want. Lord 
Leitrim assassinated April 2nd. Michael Davitt in Amer- 
ica. In a lecture in Boston, he outlined the programme 
of the Land League organization. 

1879. October 21st, great convention in Dublin and formation of 

the Irish Land League, with Charles Stewart Parnell 
president. Famine reported from the west and southwest 
of Ireland. Davitt advises the tenants not to pay 
their rents, if it were necessary to keep them from 
starvation. In December of this year Parnell and Dillon 
sailed for America. 

1880. February 2nd, Parnell received by the American Congress; 

he addresses the Houses. Some £70,000 were forwarded 
to the Land League from America through the influence 
of Parnell and Dillon. Land League branches estab- 
lished throughout America. The system of Boycotting, 
which was called after its first victim, Captain Boycott, 
adopted in Ireland. The famine widespread in Ireland. 
The Mansion House Committee, the Duchess of Marl- 
borough's Committee, the Land League Association and 
their committees come to the aid of the starving people. 
A dissolution of parliament occurs in the spring of this 
year. Several members of the Land League party, in- 
cluding Parnell, elected. The new parliament assembled 
in April, with Gladstone prime minister. Land League 
meetings held throughout Ireland. The tenants continue 
in their opposition to the landlords. Prosecution of 
Parnell, Dillon, Sexton, and other members of Dublin. 
Disagreement of the jury and discharge of the patriots. 

1881. January 6th, Parliament opens. Gladstone foreshadows a 

Land bill and a Coercion bill for Ireland. Obstruction 
in the House of Commons by the Irish members. Febru- 
ary 2nd, the speaker declared that obstruction should be 
stopped. February 3rd, Michael Davitt arrested again. 
February 4th, 36 Irish members expelled from the House 
of Commons. The Coercion bill introduced and rushed 
through. Arrest of John Dillon followed by that of 
Parnell, Sexton, and about 600 prominent Land Leaguers 
in Ireland, who were imprisoned as suspects. November 
7th, Dr. MacHale, Catholic archbishop, died at Tuam. 

1882. January 1st, meeting of the central body of the Ladies' 

Land League in Dublin (Miss Anna Parnell presiding), 
in defiance of the orders of the government. January 
2nd, Charles Dawson, M. P., inaugurated lord mayor of 


Dublin; and the freedom of the city voted to Parnell 
and John Dillon. January 11th, Michael Davitt visited 
in Portland prison by Mrs. A. M. Sullivan, the first 
visitor he had been allowed to see in six months. Janu- 
ary 12th the members of the Drumcollogher Ladies ' Land 
League (arrested on January 2nd) sentenced to one 
month's imprisonment at the Newcastle West petty ses- 
sions. January 13th, King's County proclaimed under the 
Coercion act. T. P. O'Connor visits America in Febru- 
ary, also Father Sheehy and T. M. Healy. January 25th, 
meeting held in Dublin, at which it was resolved to hold 
an Irish National industrial exhibition. February 3rd, 
the police seize 20,000 copies of the Land League organ — 
United Ireland — in Liverpool, England. February 25th, 
Michael Davitt (in prison) elected member for Meath, 
A. M. Sullivan having resigned the seat. February 28th, 
the Meath election, at which Davitt was chosen, declared 
void. March 8th, Archbishop McCabe, of Dublin, nomi- 
nated a cardinal by the Pope. March 14th, the publi- 
cation of United Ireland, the Land League organ, tem- 
porarily suspended on account of police persecution. 
March 20th, the Most Eev, Thomas Nulty, D.D., Bishop 
of Meath, refused to attend the committee of the House 
of Lords to inquire into the workings of the Land act. 
April 9th, Parnell released from Kilmainham jail on 
parole, to enable him to attend the funeral of his nephew 
in Paris. April 10th, conditional release was offered to 
American suspects, which was not accepted. The Ameri- 
can minister was instructed to demand their trial or 
release. April 15th, an official report declared the num- 
ber of evictions for the first quarter of the year to be 
734. April 18th, up to this date 918 suspects were 
arrested under the operations of the Coercion act. April 
24th, Parnell surrendered his parole and returned to 
Kilmainham jail. April 28th, Earl Cowper resigned the 
office of lord-lieutenant of Ireland, and Earl Spencer 
succeeded him. The number of persons evicted in Con- 
naught, 807; in Munster, 740; in Ulster, 612. May 2nd, 
"Buckshot" Forster, chief secretary for Ireland, re- 
signed. Parnell, Dillon, and O'Kelley released from 
Kilmainham. May 4th, Lork Frederick Cavendish ac- 
cepted the post of chief secretary, in place of Forster. 
Michael Davitt was unconditionally released from Port- 
land prison. May 6th, Lord Frederick Cavendish, the 
new chief secretary, and Thomas H. Burke, the under 
secretary, were assassinated in Phoenix Park, Dublin. 
May 11th, Gladstone 's infamous Eepression bill was 
introduced in the House of Commons. May 17th, the 
Irish judges strenuously protested against the abolition 
of trial by jury under the proposed Crimes act. May 


25th, Lord Cloncurry evicted 215 families on his estates 
in County Limerick. June 4th, F. FitzGerald, baron of 
the exchequer in Ireland, resigned, as he was unwilling 
to administer the provisions of the Repression act. June 
6th, the monument to the Manchester martyrs, Allen, 
Larkin and O 'Brien unveiled at Ennis, County Clare. 
Michael Davitt delivered his famous "Nationalization 
of Land ' ' speech at a meeting in his honor at Liverpool. 
June 9th, the Irish bishops issued an address promising 
the support of the clergy to the people for peaceful 
agitation for their rights. July 1st, all the Irish National 
members suspended in the House of Commons for opposi 
tion to the Repression bill. July 13th, the Repression 
bill passed the House of Lords and became a law. July 
19th, the Arrears of Rent bill passed the House of Com- 
mons. August 15th, the Irish National exhibition was 
opened by Lord Mayor Dawson, and the statue of O 'Con- 
nell was unveiled in Dublin, in the presence of 100,000 
people. August 22nd, Charles J. Kickham, the patriot, 
poet and writer, died in Dublin. September 30th, Glad- 
stone's Coercion law expired by limitation in Ireland, 
only to be succeeded by the enaction of the equally bar- 
baric Repression bill. October 17th, the National Con- 
ference was held in Dublin and was attended by over 
1,000 delegates. The Land League funds were all 
accounted for, and the National League was established. 
October 27th, 300 people on Tory Island were declared 
to be without food, and that other portions of the popu- 
lation on the western coast of Ireland were threatened 
with starvation. November 14th, M. J. Kenny was 
elected by the Nationalists of Ennis to the seat in Par- 
liament vacant through the resignation of J. L. Finigan. 
November 28th, the city of Dublin was proclaimed and 
placed under the operation of the "curfew" section of 
the Repression act, which authorized the police "to 
arrest all suspicious persons found out of doors between 
an hour after sunset and an hour before sunrise." De- 
cember 1st, Charles Dawson, M. P., was reelected lord 
mayor of Dublin. Up to this date, 60,000 applications 
were received from Irish tenants wishing to take the 
benefit of the Arrears of Rent act. 
1883. January 1st, great distress prevailing in portions of Galway, 
Mayo, and Donegal. The publication of United Ireland, 
which had been seized, resumed. A National League 
meeting at Ballinahown dispersed by the police. Mr. 
Trevelyan, chief secretary for Ireland, visited the famine 
districts in Donegal, and recommends as a remedy the 
poor house and emigration. Earl Spencer wages bitter 
war against the National League. O'Brien, editor of 
United Ireland, elected member for Mallow over the 


government candidate. February 3rd, James Carey, a 
member of the corporation, Joseph Brady, Edward 
O'Brien, Edward McCaffery, Peter Carey, Peter Doyle 
and Timothy Kelly were arraigned, charged with the 
murder of Cavendish and Burke in Phoenix Park, Dublin. 
February 8th, Davitt, Healy and Quinn having refused 
to give bail, were arrested and conveyed to Kilmainham 
jail. February 10th, James Carey, the town councillor, 
turned informer. February 19th, 21 prisoners committed 
for trial to answer the charge of murdering Lord Fred- 
erick Cavendish and Thomas H. Burke. Carey identified 
the prisoners, and also implicated a man named Frank 
Byrne, who had fled to France, and P. J. Sheridan, who 
had gone to America. Their extradition refused. March 
12th, Patrick Egan, treasurer of the Irish Land League, 
arrived in New York. March 15th, James Mooney, 
president of the Irish Land League, issued a call for 
a convention, to be held in Philadelphia in April, at 
which Parnell signified his intention of being present. 
March 16th, great scare caused in London by the blowing 
up of government offices by dynamite. 

1885. Gladstone, the Liberal leader, fell from power and Lord Salis- 

bury and the Conservatives returned to office. The first 
Land Purchase Act passed, a measure to enable Irish ten- 
ant farmers to buy their farms from the landowners. The 
government placed £5,000,000 at the disposal of the Irish 
farmers, so they could borrow as much as necessary to pur- 
chase their farms immediately. They were to repay the 
government by installments spread over forty-nine years, 
when they would be absolute owners of the soil. The 
measure worked well, producing thrift, industry, etc. 

1886. Gladstone again came into power. When Parliament re-as- 

sembled C. S. Parnell held the balance of power with his 
well-disciplined party of over eighty Irish Nationalists. 
Gladstone and the Liberal party now joined forces with the 
Irish leader and brought in a Home Eule Bill. This alli- 
ance brought about the famous split in the Liberal ranks 
and the formation of the "Liberal Unionists," who opposed 
Gladstone's new policy of Home Eule and voted to main- 
tain the Legislative Union between England and Ireland. 
In June a division was taken, but the measure was lost by 
thirty votes, and Lord Salisbury and the Conservatives again 
came into power. 

1887. A. J. Balfour became chief secretary for Ireland. 

1888. The second Land Purchase Bill passed, by which a second 

£5,000,000 was placed at the disposal of Irish tenant farm- 
ers who desired to buy their farms. Balfour aimed to ex- 
tend a system of railways through the congested districts 
in the West of Ireland, and accordingly obtained a grant 
of £1,400,000 from Parliament for this purpose. 


1890. Split in the Irish Nationalist ranks on account of Gladstone's 

opposition to C. S. Parnell as leader of the Irish National- 

1891. Balfour obtained another advance from Parliament of £34,- 

000,000 to be used for the purchase of farms by the tenant 
farmers. This constructive legislation now gradually re- 
placing the work of confiscation which the government had 
carried on in Ireland for centuries. Death of C. S. Par- 
nell, the famous Nationalist leader. 

1893. Introduction of the second Home Eule BiU by Gladstone; it 
passed in the House of Commons but was rejected by the 
House of Lords. Gladstone retired from public life, and 
the Conservatives returned to power. 

1898. Gerald Balfour (brother of A. J. Balfour), chief secretary 
for Ireland. A supplementary Land Purchase Act passed, 
also the Local Government Act, which established a kind 
of local parliament in every one of the thirty-two counties 
of Ireland, called County Councils. 

1900. Reunion of the Irish parliamentary party after ten years of 

1902. A. J. Balfour became prime minister of England, and George 

Wyndham (a descendant of the "gallant and seditious" 
Lord Edward Fitzgerald) as chief secretary for Ireland, 
introduced a Land Purchase Act, "as far as possible, to 
sweep the Irish landlords out of existence." 

1903. Wyndham 's Land Purchase Bill passed and became law. This 

has done away with the middle men and brought on the era 
of improving the farms, naturally neglected under the old, 
insecure order of things. This radical bill provides a sum 
of money large enough to permit every peasant farmer to 
buy his farm, so that the soil of Ireland is once more 
rapidly passing into the hands of the Irish people. 

TO A. D. 1882 


1173. Hugh de Lacy, Earl of Meath, Lord Justice. 

Eichard de Clare, Earl of Pembroke, Lord Justice. 
1177. Eaymond le Gros, Lord Deputy. 

John, Earl of Morton, Lord of Ireland. 

Willam Fitzaldelm, Lord Justice. 
1179. Hubert de Burgh, Earl of Meath, Lord Deputy. 
1181. John de Lacy. 

Eichard de Peche, ''^'^'^^ J^^^ices. 


William Fitzaldelm, Lord Deputy. 

1184. Philip de Braosa, Lord Deputy. 

1185. John, Earl of Morton, Lord of Ireland. 
John de Courcy, Earl of Ulster, Lord Deputy. 

EICHAED I., 1189. 

1189. Hugh de Lacy, the younger. Lord of Meath, Lord Justice. 
1191. William Le Petit, Lord Justice. 

William, Earl of Pembroke, Earl Marshal, Lord Justice. 

Peter Pipard, Lord Justice. 
1194. Hamo de Valois, Lord Justice. 

JOHN, 1199. 

1199. Meiler FitzHenry, Lord Justice. 

1203. Hugh de Lacy, the younger. Lord Deputy. 

1205. Meiler FitzHenry, Lord Justice. 

1208. Hugh de Lacy, Earl of Ulster, Lord Deputy. 

1210. King John in person, Lord of Ireland. 

William, Earl of Pembroke, Lord Deputy. 

John de Grey (Bishop of Norwich), Lord Justice. 
1213. Henry de Londres, Archbishop of Dublin, Lord Justice. 
1215. Geoffrey de Marisco (Mountmorres), Lord Justice. 

HENEY III., 1216. 

1219. Henry de Londres, Lord Justice. 

1224. William, Earl of Pembroke, the younger. Lord Justice. 

1226. Geoffrey de Marisco, Lord Justice. 

1227. Hubert de Burgh, Earl of Kent, Lord Justice. 
Eichard de Burgh, Lord of Connaught, Lord Deputy. 




1229, Maurice Fitzgerald, Lord Justice. 

1230. Geoffrey de Marisco, Lord Deputy. 
1232. Maurice Fitzgerald, Lord Justice. 
1245. Sir John de Marisco, Lord Deputy. 

1247. Theobald Walter, Lord of Carrick,! 

John de Cogan, /^^^''^s Justices. 

1248. Sir John de Marisco, Lord Justice. 

1252. Prince Edward Plantagenet, Lord Justice. 

1255. Alan de la Zouche, Lord .Justice. 

1259. Stephen Longespee, Lord Justice. 

1260. William Dene, Lord Justice. 

1261. Sir Eichard de Eupella (Eoche), Lord Justice. 

1266. Sir John de Marisco, Lord Justice. 

1267. Sir David de Barry, Lord Justice. 

1268. Sir Eobert de Ufford, Lord Justice. 

1269. Eichard de Exeter, Lord Justice. 

1270. Sir James Audley, Lord Justice. 

1272. Maurice Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald, Lord Justice. 

EDWAED, 1272. 

1273, Sir Geoffrey de Geneville, Lord Justice. 

1276. Sir Eobert de Ufford, Lord Justice. 

1277. Stephen de Fulburn, Bishop of Waterford, Lord Deputy. 
1280, Sir Eobert de Ufford, Lord Justice. 

1282. Stephen de Fulburn, Lord Justice. 

1287. John de Saunf ord, Archbishop of Dublin, Lord Justice. 

1290. William de Vesci, Lord .Justice. 

1293, William de la Haye, Lord Justice. 

1294, William de Odinsele, Lord Justice. 

1295, Thomas Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald, Lord Justice. 
Sir John Wogan, Lord Justice. 

1302. Sir Maurice Eochfort, Lord Deputy. 
Sir John Wogan, Lord Justice. 

EDWAED IL, 1307. 

1308. Sir Piers Gaveston, Earl of Cornwall, Lord Deputy. 
Sir William Bourke, Lord Deputy. 

1309. Sir John Wogan, Lord Justice. 
1312, Sir Edmund Butler, Lord Deputy. 

1314. Sir Theobald de Vardon, Lord Deputy. 

1315. Sir Edmund Butler, Lord Deputy. 

1317. Sir Eoger Mortimer, Earl of March, Lord Justice. 

1318. William Fitzjohn, Archbishop of Cashel, Lord Deputy. 
Alexander Bicknor, Archbishop of Dublin, Lord Deputy. 

1319. Sir Eoger Mortimer, Lord Justice. 

1320. Thomas Fitzjohn Fitzgerald, Earl of Kildare, Lord Deputy, 

1321. Sir John de Bermingham, Earl of Louth, Lord Justice. 

1322. Ealph de Gorges, Lord Deputy. 
Sir John Darcy, Lord Deputy. 



1323. Sir Thomas Burke, Lord Deputy. 

1324. Sir John Darcy, Lord Justice. 

1326. Thomas, Earl of Kildare, Lord Justice. 

EDWARD III., 1327. 

1328. Eoger Outlawe, Lord Chancellor, Lord Justice. 
Sir John Darcy, Lord Justice. 

1329. James Butler, Earl of Ormonde, Lord Lieutenant. 

1330. Eoger Outlawe, Lord Deputy. 

1331. Sir Anthony Lucy, Lord Lieutenant. 

1332. Sir John Darcy, Lord Justice. 

1333. Sir Thomas de Burgh, Lord Deputy. 

1334. Sir John Darcy, Lord Justice. 

1337. Sir John Charlton, Lord Justice. 

1338. Thomas Charlton, Archbishop of Hereford, Lord Deputy. 

1340. Roger Outlawe, Lord Justice. 
Sir John Darcy, Lord Justice. 

1341. Sir John Morice, Lord Deputy. 
1344. Sir Ralph Ufford, Lord Deputy. 

1346. Sir Roger Darcy, Lord Justice. 

Sir Walter Bermingham, Lord Justice. 

1347. John le Archer, Prior of Kilmainham, Lord Deputy. 

1348. Sir Walter Bermingham, Lord Justice. 

1349. Sir John de Carew, ^ _ 

Sir Thomas Rokeby, J^o^^^ Justices. 
1351. Maurice de Rochfort, Bishop of Limerick, Lord Deputy. 

1353. Sir Thomas Rokeby, Lord Justice. 

1354. Maurice FitzThomas Fitzgerald, Earl of Desmond, Lord 


1356. Sir Thomas Rokeby, Lord Justice. 

1357. Sir Almeric de St. Amand, Lord Justice. 

1359. James Butler, Earl of Ormonde, Lord Justice. 

1360. Maurice FitzThomas Fitzgerald, Earl of Kildare, Lord 

James, Earl of Ormonde, Lord Justice. 

1361. Lionel, Duke of Clarence, Earl of Ulster Lord of Con- 

naught, Lord Lieutenant (till 1369). 

1364. James, Earl of Ormonde, Lord Deputy. 

1365. Sir Thomas Dale, Lord Deputy. 

1367. Gerald Fitzmaurice, Earl of Desmond, Lord Justice. 
1369. Sir William de Windsor, Lord Lieutenant. 

1371. Maurice, Earl of Kildare, Lord Deputy. 

1372. Sir Robert Assheton, Lord Justice. 
Ralph Cheney, Lord Deputy. 

William Tany, Prior of Kilmainham, Lord Justice. 

1374. Sir William de Windsor, Lord Lieutenant. 

1375. Maurice, Earl of Kildare, Lord Deputy. 

1376. James, Earl of Ormonde, Lord Justice. 


A.D. EICHARD II., 1377. 

1378. Alexander Balscot, Bishop of Ossory, Lord Justice. 

1379. John de Bromwich, Lord Justice. 

1380. Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March and Ulster, Lord Lieu- 

tenant (till 1383). 

1381. John Colton, Dean of St. Patrick's, Lord Justice. 

1383. Philip de Courtenay, Lord Lieutenant (till 1385). 

1384. James, Earl of Ormonde, Lord Deputy. 

1385. Eobert de Vere, Earl of Oxford, Marquis of Dublin, and 

Duke of Ireland, Lord Lieutenant. (Never came over; 
attainted 1388.) 
Sir John Stanley, Lord Deputy. 

1386. Sir Philip de Courtenay, Lord Lieutenant (till 1389). 

1387. Alexander Balscot, Bishop of Meath, Lord Justice, 
1389. Sir John Stanley, Lord Lieutenant. 

Eiehard White, Prior of Kilmainham, Lord Deputy. 

1391. Alexander Balscot, Bishop of Meath, Lord Justice. 

1392. James, Earl of Ormonde, Lord Justice. 

1393. Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester, Lord Lieuten- 

ant. (Never came over.) 
The King in person, Lord of Ireland. 

1394. Sir Thomas le Scrope, Lord Deputy. 

1395. Eoger Mortimer, Earl of March and Ulster, Lord Lieuten- 


1398. Eoger Gray, Lord Justice. 

Thomas de Holland, Earl of Kent, Lord Lieutenant. 

1399. The King in person. Lord of Ireland. 

HENEY IV., 1399. 

1399. Alexander Balscot, Lord Justice. 

Sir John Stanley, Lord Lieutenant. 
1401. Thomas de Lancaster, Lord Lieutenant (till 1413). 

Sir Stephen Scrope, Lord Deputy. 

1405. James, Earl of Ormonde, Lord Justice. 
Earl of Kildare, Lord Justice. 

1406. Sir Stephen Scrope, Lord Deputy. 

1407. James, Earl of Ormonde, Lord Deputy. 

1409. William de Botiller, Prior of Kilmainham Lord Deputy. 

HENEY v., 1413. 

1413. Sir John Stanley, Lord Lieutenant. 

1414. Thomas Cranley, Archbishop of Dublin, Lord Justice. 
Sir John Talbot, Lord Lieutenant. 

1419. Eiehard Talbot, Archbishop of Dublin, Lord Deputy. 

1420. James, Earl of Ormonde, Lord Lieutenant. 

HENEY VI., 1422. 

U23. Edmond Mortimer, Earl of March and Ulster, Lord Lieuten- 



Ed. Dantsey, Bishop of Meath, Lord Deputy. 

Lord Talbot, Lord Lieutenant. 
1424. James, Earl of Ormonde, Lord Lieutenant. 

1426. James, Earl of Ormonde, Lord Justice. 

1427. Sir John de Grey, Lord Lieutenant. 

1428. Sir John Sutton, Lord Dudley, Lord Lieutenant. 

1429. Sir Thomas Scrope, Lord Deputy. 

1430. Eichard Talbot, Archbishop of Dublin, Lord Deputy. 

1431. Sir Thomas Stanley, Lord Lieutenant. 

1432. Sir Christopher Plunket, Lord Deputy. 

1435. Sir Thomas Stanley, Lord Lieutenant. 

1436. Richard Talbot, Lord Deputy. 

1438. Lord Welles, Lord Lieutenant. (Never came over.) 

1440. James, Earl of Ormonde, Lord Deputy. 

1442. William Welles, Lord Deputy. 

1443. James, Earl of Ormonde, Lord Lieutenant. 

1445. Richard Talbot, Lord Deputy (till 1449). 

1446. John Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, Lord Lieutenant. 

1449. Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York, Earl of March and 

Ulster, Lord Lieutenant. 
Richard Nugent, Lord Delvin, Lord Deputy. 

1450. James, Earl of Ormonde, Lord Deputy. 

1452. Sir Edward Fitz-Eustace, Lord Deputy. 

1453. James, Earl of Ormonde, Lord Lieutenant. 
John Mey, Archbishop of Armagh, Lord Deputy. 

1454. Sir Edward Fitz-Eustace, Lord Deputy. 

1459. Richard Plantagenet, Lord Lieutenant.